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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Appendix Arctic Social Science: An Agenda for Action Committee on Arctic Social Sciences Polar Research Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national neeeds, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, the State of Alaska, and the Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior. Copies available in limited quantity from POLAR RESEARCH BOARD 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy COMMITTEE ON ARCTIC SOCIAL SCIENCES Mim Dixon, Chief Andrew Isaac Health Center, Fairbanks, Alaska, Cochair Oran R. Young, Dartmouth College; Center for Northern Studies, Wolcott, Vermont; Cochair Ernest S. Burch, Jr., Smithsonian Institution Constance Hunt, University of Calgary; Canadian Institute of Resources Law Robert F. Kraus, University of Kentucky Medical Center John Kruse, Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage Edna Ahgeak MacLean, State of Alaska Department of Education; University of Alaska Fairbanks Claus-M. Naske, University of Alaska Fairbanks George W. Rogers, University of Alaska Southeast Arlon R. Tussing, Arlon Tussing and Associates, Seattle, Washington Peter J. Usher, P.J. Usher Consulting Services, Ottawa, Ontario Resource Individual Douglas Anderson, Brown University Staff Andrea L. Smith, Staff Officer
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy POLAR RESEARCH BOARD Gunter E. Weller, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Chairman Knut Aagaard, University of Washington Roger G. Barry, University of Colorado Rita R. Colwell, University of Maryland Ian W.D. Dalziel, University of Texas at Austin Paul K. Dayton, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mim Dixon, Chief Andrew Isaac Health Center, Fairbanks, Alaska David H. Elliot, The Ohio State University Dennis E. Hayes, Columbia University John E. Hobbie, Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory Louis J. Lanzerotti, Bell Telephone Laboratories John P. Middaugh, State Epidemiologist, State of Alaska Ian G. Stirling, Canadian Wildlife Service Kevin E. Trenberth, National Center for Atmospheric Research Patrick J. Webber, University of Colorado Ray F. Weiss, University of California, San Diego Ex-Officio Charles R. Bentley, University of Wisconsin, Madison Charles F. Raymond, University of Washington Robert H. Rutford, University of Texas at Dallas Ted S. Vinson, Oregon State University Staff W. Timothy Hushen, Staff Director Andrea L. Smith, Staff Officer Mariann S. Platt, Administrative Secretary
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Norman Hackerman, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Chairman George F. Carrier, Harvard University Herbert D. Doan, The Dow Chemical Company (retired) Peter S. Eagleson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dean E. Eastman, IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas Gerhart Friedlander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Lawrence W. Funkhouser, Chevron Corporation (retired) Phillip A. Griffiths, Duke University Christopher F. McKee, University of California at Berkeley Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University Jeremiah P. Ostricker, Princeton University Observatory Frank L. Parker, Vanderbilt University Denis J. Prager, MacArthur Foundation David M. Raup, University of Chicago Richard J. Reed, University of Washington Roy F. Schwitters, Harvard University Robert E. Sievers, University of Colorado Leon T. Silver, California Institute of Technology Larry L. Smarr, National Center for Supercomputing Applications Edward C. Stone, Jr., California Institute of Technology Karl K. Turekian, Yale University Raphael G. Kasper, Executive Director Myron F. Uman, Associate Executive Director
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Foreword The Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 calls for the formulation of a coherent Arctic research policy by the federal government and mandates the development of an Arctic Research Plan, to be updated at two year intervals. In preparation of the first Arctic Research Plan, the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) asked the Polar Research Board (PRB) to prepare a document assessing national needs and problems regarding the Arctic; in 1985 PRB published the document National Issues and Research Priorities in the Arctic. When preparing the Social and Cultural Research chapter of the National Issues report, the Board realized that a separate, longer-range study was needed for the Arctic social sciences. In addition, when reviewing drafts of the Arctic Research Plan, the Board again recognized the lack of a widereaching study to provide further direction for social science research on Arctic topics. The Committee on Arctic Social Sciences was established by the PRB to undertake such a study as part of the Board's ongoing “Polar Research— A Strategy” series. The committee was charged with reviewing existing research, identifying research needs, and recommending future directions for the social sciences in the North. In addition, the final report was to be available for examination by the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee prior to the 1989 revision of the U.S. Arctic Research Plan. The committee held two public sessions in Washington, DC, and a workshop at the AAAS Arctic Science Conference in Fairbanks, Alaska, in
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy October 1988. In addition, numerous federal and state agency, private organization, and university scientists were contacted. By involving a range of social scientists in their study, the committee hopes to have encouraged their participation in the further development of Arctic social science research and policy. This study was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the State of Alaska, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior. The Polar Research Board appreciates the time and efforts of Mim Dixon and Oran Young, co-chairs for the Committee on Arctic Social Sciences, and of the members of the committee in the conduct of the study and preparation of this report. Gunter Weller, Chairman Polar Research Board
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 27 1 INTRODUCTION 31 2 PROGRAM INITIATIVES FOR ARCTIC SOCIAL SCIENCE 37 Human/Environment Relationships, 38 Community Viability, 45 Rapid Social Change, 54 3 ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES 62 Limitations of Current Research, 62 Recommendations for Action, 65 1. Designated Lead Federal Agency, 65 2. Interagency Coordination, 67 3. Education and Training, 68 4. Involvement of Arctic Residents, 71 5. Cooperative Studies Units, 72 6. Research Ethics, 73 7. Data and Information, 74 8. International Cooperation, 76 4 CONCLUSION 78 REFERENCES 79 APPENDIX: Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 81
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Executive Summary Both Congress and the federal agencies have found that there is a national need for a broad-gauged program of social science research on Arctic topics. The Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 explicitly includes the social and behavioral sciences. The U.S. Arctic Research Plan, developed by the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee to fulfill the requirements of the Arctic Research and Policy Act, devotes one of its three substantive chapters entirely to recommendations for research on people. But the plan provides little direction in establishing research priorities and formulating a focused program for Arctic social science. To solve this problem, the Polar Research Board formed an ad hoc committee on Arctic social sciences and charged this committee with the task of developing a strategy to meet the national need for social science research on Arctic topics; this report presents such a strategy. Through its deliberations, the committee has identified three substantive themes that merit priority attention for a U.S. Arctic social science research plan. These themes are as follows: Human/environment relationships. Top priority is given to studies of the complex relationships between human communities and the biological and physical systems that make up the natural environment of the Arctic. Such studies will advance our understanding of global change processes, identify creative ways to address resource management problems, and provide a stimulus to the development of productive linkages between social and natural scientists.
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Community viability. Arctic communities tend to be small and to have little conventional industrial basis for local taxation. Still, these communities require services like education, transportation, and law enforcement that most parts of the United States take for granted. There are cultural, social, economic, political, and technical challenges in providing necessary services to these communities. Studies are needed on a host of complex issues relating to labor, expenditures of public funds, the balance between self-sufficiency and dependence, and the importance of villages to cultural survival. Rapid social change. Rapid and often disruptive social change has become a pervasive phenomenon throughout the world. The Arctic is unusual because social change that took centuries elsewhere was compressed into just a few generations in the Arctic. Research areas recommended include traditional patterns of social interaction; the role of changing expectations and aspirations in labor force participation, subsistence activities, and commercial consumption; and factors contributing to physical and mental health. Each of these themes lends itself to studies of the past, present, and future. The committee has identified research needed by mission-oriented agencies as well as corresponding topics for basic research. Topics for international collaboration are highlighted for coordination with this multidisciplinary, multiagency research plan. Key elements of the recommended action plan are summarized in the table on the following page. The Arctic today presents a unique and promising opportunity for an integrated program of applied and basic social science research. But the realization of this promise is severely limited by constant pressure to allocate limited resources, both financial and human, to applied research, and the absence of adequate mechanisms to link such applied research to the broader basic research issues. The time has come for Arctic social science research to be better integrated into the mainstream of the relevant scientific disciplines. In addition to case studies and descriptions of social phenomena that are uniquely related to the extreme Arctic environment, social science on Arctic topics must contribute to broader scientific issues. To address these limitations and to provide proper support for the program initiatives set forth in the report, the committee recommends several changes in existing federal arrangements for social science research in the Arctic. The highest priority is to designate the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the lead federal agency for Arctic basic social science research and to charge it with responsibility for integrating basic research with applied research in other agencies. Other top priority infrastructure needs identified by the committee concern education and training, the involve-
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Summary of Key Elements for Multidisciplinary, Multiagency Plan for Arctic Social Science Research Theme Research Problems Federal Agencies HUMAN/ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS Applied Allocation methods for scarce natural resources Conflict avoidance and resolution in the use of natural resources NPS, USFWS, BLM, USFS, NOAA Basic Control of human activities that threaten to disrupt natural systems Human response to habitat change Models of impacts of global warming on humans NSF COMMUNITY VIABILITY Applied Economic diversification and viability of coastal and riverine communities Motivation and psychosocial adjustments of the Northern work force Obstacles to community survival MMS, NOAA, BIA, DOT, DOE Basic Relationship between community survival and cultural survival NSF, NIMH, ADAMHA RAPID SOCIAL CHANGE Applied Patterns of social interaction Trends in expectations and aspirations Relationship between social change and physical and mental health MMS, USFS, NPS, NOAA, NIH, NIMH, ADAMHA, CDC Basic Consequences of social specialization and increased interdependence Education for participation in a rapidly changing, multicultural world Cognitive and emotional limits of peoples' ability to cope with rapid change NIH, NIMH, ADAMHA, CDC, NSF, DOD
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy 4 Conclusion The formulation of a research agenda and the solution of the organizational problems currently affecting research are the most urgent needs in Arctic social science. In order to fulfill the mandate of the Arctic Research and Policy Act, they must be addressed simultaneously and promptly. Progress cannot occur in the absence of a clear statement of program initiatives that can provide the intellectual justification for social science research in and on the Arctic while, at the same time, establishing meaningful priorities that are consonant with national needs. But progress also requires an effective effort to solve some of the organizational problems the committee has identified. Most of the concerns outlined in this report will require continuing action over the foreseeable future. However, if certain steps are taken first, it will increase the chances for the success of the program as a whole. These steps are as follows: (1) designation of the National Science Foundation (NSF) as lead federal agency with a mandate to establish a broadgauged program with a program manager and budget to promote the research agenda set forth in this report; and (2) the establishment of a task force composed of social scientists from all federal agencies with Arctic responsibilities or interests to act as a vehicle for the interagency coordination of Arctic social science research. Once the NSF has taken these steps, it will be possible to proceed vigorously to initiate effective response to the other recommendations made in this report.
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy References American Public Health Association Task Force. 1984. The National Arctic Health Science Policy. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies (ACUNS) . 1982. Ethical Principles for Northern Research. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa. Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC). July 1987. U.S. Arctic Research Plan. No. NSF87-55. National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU). August 1988. The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme: A Study of Global Change. A Plan for Action. Special Committee for the IGBP. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Jenness, Diamond. 1962-1968. Eskimo Administration. Volumes I-IV. Arctic Institute of North America, Montreal. May, P.A. 1988. Suicide and Suicide Attempts Among American and Alaskan Natives, an Annotated Bibliography. Indian Health Service, Office of Mental Health, Programs Branch. Special Initiatives Team, Albuquerque. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). March 1988. Report of the Arctic Environmental Data Workshop. NOAA, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1982. Polar Biomedical Research: An Assessment. Prepared by the Committee on Polar Biomedical Research, Polar Research Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1988a. The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Achievements and Opportunities . Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences . National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 1988b. Toward an Understanding of Global Change. Committee on Global Change. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Resources Committee. 1938. Alaska, Its Resources and Development. Washington, D.C.: National Resources Committee.
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy National Science Board (NSB). 1987. The Role of the National Science Foundation in Polar Regions. Committee on the NSF Role in Polar Regions, National Science Board. National Science Board. No. 87-128, Washington, D.C. National Science Foundation. February 1988. Draft Implementation Plan for the NSB Report, The Role of the National Science Foundation in Polar Regions. No. NSF 87-55. National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Roots, E.F., W.P. Adams, P.F. Burnet, and M.R. Gordon. 1987. Canada and Polar Science. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. March 1988. International Cooperation in Arctic Science. Stockholm. U.S. Arctic Research Commission. May 30, 1986. National Needs and Arctic Research: A Framework for Action. U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Los Angeles. U.S. Congress. July 31, 1984. Arctic Research and Policy Act. Public Law 98-373. 98 Stat. 1248. U.S. Congress. 1986. Report of the United States Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources to accompany S. 1965, the Higher Education Amendments of 1986. U.S. Congress. 1988. Report on Department of Housing and Urban Development—Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill, 1989. 100th Congress, 2nd Session. Report No. 100-401.
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Appendix Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy PUBLIC LAW 98–373—JULY 31, 1984 98 STAT. 1242 Public Law 98–373 98th Congress An Act July 31. 1984 [S. 373] To provide for a comprehensive national policy dealing with national research needs and objectives in the Arctic, for a National Critical Materials Council, for development of a continuing and comprehensive national materials policy, for programs necessary to carry out that policy, including Federal programs of advanced materials research and technology, and for innovation in basic materials industries, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, TITLE I—ARCTIC RESEARCH AND POLICY Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984. SHORT TITLE 15 USC 4101 note. SEC. 101. This title may be cited as the “Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984”. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES 15 USC 4101. SEC. 102. (a) The Congress finds and declares that— the Arctic, onshore and offshore, contains vital energy resources that can reduce the Nation's dependence on foreign oil and improve the national balance of payments; as the Nation's only common border with the Soviet Union, the Arctic is critical to national defense; the renewable resources of the Arctic, specifically fish and other seafood, represent one of the Nation's greatest commercial assets; Arctic conditions directly affect global weather patterns and must be understood in order to promote better agricultural management throughout the United States; industrial pollution not originating in the Arctic region collects in the polar air mass, has the potential to disrupt global weather patterns, and must be controlled through international cooperation and consultation; the Arctic is a natural laboratory for research into human health and adaptation, physical and psychological, to climates of extreme cold and isolation and may provide information crucial for future defense needs; atmospheric conditions peculiar to the Arctic make the Arctic a unique testing ground for research into high latitude communications, which is likely to be crucial for future defense needs; Arctic marine technology is critical to cost-effective recovery and transportation of energy resources and to the national defense; the United States has important security, economic, and environmental interests in developing and maintaining a fleet of icebreaking vessels capable of operating effectively in the heavy ice regions of the Arctic;
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy most Arctic-rim countries, particularly the Soviet Union, possess Arctic technologies far more advanced than those currently available in the United States; Federal Arctic research is fragmented and uncoordinated at the present time, leading to the neglect of certain areas of research and to unnecessary duplication of effort in other areas of research; improved logistical coordination and support for Arctic research and better dissemination of research data and information is necessary to increase the efficiency and utility of national Arctic research efforts; a comprehensive national policy and program plan to organize and fund currently neglected scientific research with respect to the Arctic is necessary to fulfill national objectives in Arctic research; the Federal Government, in cooperation with State and local governments, should focus its efforts on the collection and characterization of basic data related to biological, materials, geophysical, social, and behavioral phenomena in the Arctic; research into the long-range health, environmental, and social effects of development in the Arctic is necessary to mitigate the adverse consequences of that development to the land and its residents; Arctic research expands knowledge of the Arctic, which can enhance the lives of Arctic residents, increase opportunities for international cooperation among Arctic-rim countries, and facilitate the formulation of national policy for the Arctic; and the Alaskan Arctic provides an essential habitat for marine mammals, migratory waterfowl, and other forms of wildlife which are important to the Nation and which are essential to Arctic residents. 98 STAT. 1243 The purposes of this title are— to establish national policy, priorities, and goals and to provide a Federal program plan for basic and applied scientific research with respect to the Arctic, including natural resources and materials, physical, biological and health sciences, and social and behavioral sciences; to establish an Arctic Research Commission to promote Arctic research and to recommend Arctic research policy; to designate the National Science Foundation as the lead agency responsible for implementing Arctic research policy; and to establish an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee to develop a national Arctic research policy and a five year plan to implement that policy. ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION Establishment.15 USC 4102. SEC. 103.(a) The President shall establish an Arctic Research Commission (hereafter referred to as the “Commission”). (b)(1) The Commission shall be composed of five members appointed by the President, with the Director of the National Science Foundation serving as a nonvoting, ex officio member. The members appointed by the President shall include— three members appointed from among individuals from academic or other research institutions with expertise in areas of research relating to the Arctic, including the physical, biological, health, environmental, social, and behavioral sciences;
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy one member appointed from among indigenous residents of the Arctic who are representative of the needs and interests of Arctic residents and who live in areas directly affected by Arctic resource development; and one member appointed from among individuals familiar with the Arctic and representative of the needs and interests of private industry undertaking resource development in the Arctic. 98 STAT. 1244 The President shall designate one of the appointed members of the Commission to be chairperson of the Commission. (c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the term of office of each member of the Commission appointed under subsection (b)(1) shall be four years. Of the members of the Commission originally appointed under subsection (b)(1)— one shall be appointed for a term of two years; two shall be appointed for a term of three years; and two shall be appointed for a term of four years. Any vacancy occurring in the membership of the Commission shall be filled, after notice of the vacancy is published in the Federal Register, in the manner provided by the preceding provisions of this section, for the remainder of the unexpired term. A member may serve after the expiration of the member's term of office until the President appoints a successor. A member may serve consecutive terms beyond the member's original appointment. 5 USC 8101 et seq. 28 USC 2671 et seq. (d)(1) Members of the Commission may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code. A member of the Commission not presently employed for compensation shall be compensated at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the rate for GS–16 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code, for each day the member is engaged in the actual performance of his duties as a member of the Commission, not to exceed 90 days of service each year. Except for the purposes of chapter 81 of title 5 (relating to compensation for work injuries) and chapter 171 of title 28 (relating to tort claims), a member of the Commission shall not be considered an employee of the United States for any purpose. The Commission shall meet at the call of its Chairman or a majority of its members. Each Federal agency referred to in section 107(b) may designate a representative to participate as an observer with the Commission. These representatives shall report to and advise the Commission on the activities relating to Arctic research of their agencies. The Commission shall conduct at least one public meeting in the State of Alaska annually. Public meeting. DUTIES OF COMMISSION 15 USC 4103. SEC. 104. (a) The Commission shall— develop and recommend an integrated national Arctic research policy; in cooperation with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee established under section 107, assist in establishing a national Arctic research program plan to implement the Arctic research policy;
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government and State and local governments with respect to Arctic research; review Federal research programs in the Arctic and suggest improvements in coordination among programs; recommend methods to improve logistical planning and support for Arctic research as may be appropriate and in accordance with the findings and purposes of this title; suggest methods for improving efficient sharing and dissemination of data and information on the Arctic among interested public and private institutions; offer other recommendations and advice to the Interagency Committee established under section 107 as it may find appropriate; and cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska and with agencies and organizations of that State which the Governor may designate with respect to the formulation of Arctic research policy. 98 STAT. 1245 (b) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Commission shall— publish a statement of goals and objectives with respect to Arctic research to guide the Interagency Committee established under section 107 in the performance of its duties; and submit to the President and to the Congress a report describing the activities and accomplishments of the Commission during the immediately preceding fiscal year. Report. COOPERATION WITH THE COMMISSION 15 USC 4104. SEC. 105. (a)(1)The Commission may acquire from the head of any Federal agency unclassified data, reports, and other nonproprietary information with respect to Arctic research in the possession of the agency which the Commission considers useful in the discharge of its duties. Each agency shall cooperate with the Commission and furnish all data, reports, and other information requested by the Commission to the extent permitted by law; except that no agency need furnish any information which it is permitted to withhold under section 552 of title 5, United States Code. Confidentiality. With the consent of the appropriate agency head, the Commission may utilize the facilities and services of any Federal agency to the extent that the facilities and services are needed for the establishment and development of an Arctic research policy, upon reimbursement to be agreed upon by the Commission and the agency head and taking every feasible step to avoid duplication of effort. All Federal agencies shall consult with the Commission before undertaking major Federal actions relating to Arctic research. ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMISSION SEC. 106. The Commission may— 15 USC 4105. 5 USC 5331. in accordance with the civil service laws and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, appoint and fix the compensation of an Executive Director and necessary additional staff personnel, but not to exceed a total of seven compensated personnel;
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy procure temporary and intermittent services as authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code; enter into contracts and procure supplies, services, and personal property; and enter into agreements with the General Services Administration for the procurement of necessary financial and administrative services, for which payment shall be made by reimbursement from funds of the Commission in amounts to be agreed upon by the Commission and the Administrator of the General Services Administration. 98 STAT. 1246 LEAD AGENCY AND INTERAGENCY ARCTIC RESEARCH POLICY COMMITTEE 15 USC 4106. SEC. 107. (a) The National Science Foundation is designated as the lead agency responsible for implementing Arctic research policy, and the Director of the National Science Foundation shall insure that the requirements of section 108 are fulfilled. Establishment. (b)(1) The President shall establish an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (hereinafter referred to as the “Interagency Committee ”). The Interagency Committee shall be composed of representatives of the following Federal agencies or offices: the National Science Foundation; the Department of Commerce; the Department of Defense; the Department of Energy; the Department of the Interior; the Department of State; the Department of Transportation; the Department of Health and Human Services; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the Environmental Protection Agency; and any other agency or office deemed appropriate. The representative of the National Science Foundation shall serve as the Chairperson of the Interagency Committee. DUTIES OF THE INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE 15 USC 4107. SEC. 108.(a) The Interagency Committee shall— survey Arctic research conducted by Federal, State, and local agencies, universities, and other public and private institutions to help determine priorities for future Arctic research, including natural resources and materials, physical and biological sciences, and social and behavioral sciences; work with the Commission to develop and establish an integrated national Arctic research policy that will guide Federal agencies in developing and implementing their research programs in the Arctic; consult with the Commission on— the development of the national Arctic research policy and the 5-year plan implementing the policy; Arctic research programs of Federal agencies; recommendations of the Commission on future Arctic research; and guidelines for Federal agencies for awarding and administering Arctic research grants;
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy develop a 5-year plan to implement the national policy, as provided for in section 109; provide the necessary coordination, data, and assistance for the preparation of a single integrated, coherent, and multiagency budget request for Arctic research as provided for in section 110; facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government and State and local governments in Arctic research, and recommend the undertaking of neglected areas of research in accordance with the findings and purposes of this title; coordinate and promote cooperative Arctic scientific research programs with other nations, subject to the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State; cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska in fulfilling its responsibilities under this title; promote Federal interagency coordination of all Arctic research activities, including— logistical planning and coordination; and the sharing of data and information associated with Arctic research, subject to section 552 of title 5, United States Code; and provide public notice of its meetings and an opportunity for the public to participate in the development and implementation of national Arctic research policy. 98 STAT. 1247 Public information. Not later than January 31, 1986, and biennially thereafter, the Interagency Committee shall submit to the Congress through the President, a brief, concise report containing— a statement of the activities and accomplishments of the Interagency Committee since its last report; and a description of the activities of the Commission, detailing with particularity the recommendations of the Commission with respect to Federal activities in Arctic research. Report. 5-YEAR ARCTIC RESEARCH PLAN 15 USC 4108. SEC. 109. (a) The Interagency Committee, in consultation with the Commission, the Governor of the State of Alaska, the residents of the Arctic, the private sector, and public interest groups, shall prepare a comprehensive 5-year program plan (hereinafter referred to as the “Plan”) for the overall Federal effort in Arctic research. The Plan shall be prepared and submitted to the President for transmittal to the Congress within one year after the enactment of this Act and shall be revised biennially thereafter. The Plan shall contain but need not be limited to the following elements: an assessment of national needs and problems regarding the Arctic and the research necessary to address those needs or problems; a statement of the goals and objectives of the Interagency Committee for national Arctic research: a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs relating to Arctic research, including the existing goals, funding levels for each of the 5 following fiscal years, and the funds currently being expended to conduct the programs; recommendations for necessary program changes and other proposals to meet the requirements of the policy and goals
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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy 98 STAT. 1248 PUBLIC LAW 98-373—JULY 31, 1984 as set forth by the Commission and in the Plan as currently in effect; and a description of the actions taken by the Interagency Committee to coordinate the budget review process in order to ensure interagency coordination and cooperation in (A) carrying out Federal Arctic research programs, and (B) eliminating unnecessary duplication of effort among these programs. COORDINATION AND REVIEW OF BUDGET REQUESTS 15 USC 4109. SEC. 110.(a) The Office of Science and Technology Policy shall— Report. review all agency and department budget requests related to the Arctic transmitted pursuant to section 108(a)(5), in accordance with the national Arctic research policy and the 5-year program under section 108(a)(2) and section 109, respectively; and consult closely with the Interagency Committee and the Commission to guide the Office of Science and Technology Policy's efforts. (b)(1) The Office of Management and Budget shall consider all Federal agency requests for research related to the Arctic as one integrated, coherent, and multiagency request which shall be reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget prior to submission of the President 's annual budget request for its adherence to the Plan. The Commission shall, after submission of the President's annual budget request, review the request and report to Congress on adherence to the Plan. The Office of Management and Budget shall seek to facilitate planning for the design, procurement, maintenance, deployment, and operations of icebreakers needed to provide a platform for Arctic research by allocating all funds necessary to support ice-breaking operations, except for recurring incremental costs associated with specific projects, to the Coast Guard. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS; NEW SPENDING AUTHORITY 15 USC 4110. 2 USC 651. SEC. 111.(a) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for carrying out this title. Any new spending authority (within the meaning of section 401 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974) which is provided under this title shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as may be provided in appropriation Acts. DEFINITION 15 USC 4111. SEC. 112. As used in this title, the term “Arctic” means all United States and foreign territory north of the Arctic Circle and all United States territory north and west of the boundary formed by the Porcupine, Yukon, and Kuskokwim Rivers; all contiguous seas, including the Arctic Ocean and the Beaufort, Bering, and Chukchi Seas; and the Aleutian chain.
Representative terms from entire chapter: