ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy

Committee on Arctic Social Sciences

Polar Research Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1993



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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Committee on Arctic Social Sciences Polar Research Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1993

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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through targeted core support. Cover: Eskimo elders Kate and Tom Brower (now deceased), Barrow, Alaska. This photo appeared in the Winter 1992 issue of UIÑIQ magazine. (Courtesy of Bill Hess, Running Dog Publications, Wassilla, Alaska.) Available in limited supply from the Polar Research Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy COMMITTEE ON ARCTIC SOCIAL SCIENCES MIM DIXON (Cochair), Chief Andrew Isaac Health Center, Fairbanks, Alaska ORAN R. YOUNG (Cochair), Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire DOUGLAS D. ANDERSON, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island GARRY D. BREWER, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ERNEST S. BURCH, JR., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. CONSTANCE D. HUNT, Court of Queen's Branch of Alberta, Alberta, Canada ROBERT F. KRAUS, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington JOHN A. KRUSE, University of Alaska, Anchorage EDNA A. MacLEAN, Stanford University, Stanford, California CLAUS-M. NASKE, Fairbanks, Alaska GEORGE W. ROGERS, Juneau, Alaska ARLON R. TUSSING, Arlon R. Tussing and Associates, Seattle, Washington PETER J. USHER, P. J. Usher Consulting Services, Ottawa, Canada NRC Staff SHERBURNE B. ABBOTT, Director, Committee on International Organizations and Programs (Staff Director, Polar Research Board through 7/31/92) DAVID A. SHAKESPEARE, Research Associate MARIANN S. PLATT, Senior Project Assistant

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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy POLAR RESEARCH BOARD ROBERT H. RUTFORD (Chair), University of Texas at Dallas RITA R. COLWELL (Vice-Chair), Maryland Biotechnology Institute, University of Maryland, College Park NORBERT UNTERSTEINER (Vice-Chair), University of Washington, Seattle EDDY C. CARMACK, Department of Fisheries & Oceans, Sidney, Canada F. STUART CHAPIN III, University of California, Berkeley INEZ Y. FUNG, Goddard Institute of Space Studies, New York, New York JOHN L. LaBRECQUE, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York MARK F. MEIER, INSTAAR, University of Colorado, Boulder JOHN P. MIDDAUGH, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Anchorage THEODORE J. ROSENBERG, University of Maryland, College Park DONALD B. SINIFF, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis SUSAN SOLOMON, NOAA ERL Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado WILFORD F. WEEKS, University of Alaska, Fairbanks ORAN R. YOUNG, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire Ex-Officio Members CHARLES R. BENTLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison ELLEN S. MOSLEY-THOMPSON, Ohio State University, Columbus NRC Staff LOREN W. SETLOW, Director, Polar Research Board DAVID A. SHAKESPEARE, Research Associate MARIANN S. PLATT, Senior Project Assistant KELLY NORSINGLE, Senior Project Assistant

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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California HELEN M. INGRAM, University of Arizona, Tucson W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena GENE E. LIKENS, The New York Botanical Garden, Millbrook SYUKURO MANABE, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt/Clemson University, Nashville, Tennessee DUNCAN T. PATTEN, Arizona State University, Tempe RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Garrett Ceramic Components, Torrance, California LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WARREN WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. IRVIN L. WHITE, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Washington, D.C. NRC Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director LORRAINE W. WOLF, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer BARBARA SINGLETARY, Administrative Associate ROBIN LEWIS ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant

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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy Preface The Committee on Arctic Social Sciences was established in 1987 to undertake a study to provide direction for social science research on arctic topics. The committee was charged with reviewing existing research, identifying research needs, and recommending future directions for the social sciences in the Arctic. The committee held two public meetings in Washington, D.C. in November 1987 and July 1988, and a workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Arctic Science Conference in Fairbanks, Alaska, in October 1988. In addition, numerous scientists from federal and state of Alaska agencies, private organizations, and universities were contacted. By involving a range of social scientists in its study, the committee hoped to encourage broad participation in the further development of arctic social science research and policy. These individuals also provided information on relevant topics and literature in the arctic social sciences that helped in the production of this volume. In 1989 the committee produced its study report, Arctic Social Science: An Agenda for Action. That report discusses priority research needs for arctic social science and the infrastructure requirements to meet those needs. The report was intended to serve as a major document for the 1989 revision of the U.S. Arctic Research Plan, mandated by the Arctic Research and Policy Act (ARPA) of 1984. In addition, the agencies represented on the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (established under ARPA)

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ARCTIC Contributions to, Social Science and Public Policy provided intraagency reviews and analyses of how to implement the report's recommendations. At its November 1989 meeting, the committee determined that a multidisciplinary summary of significant findings of arctic social science research was needed. In response to a request from the Polar Research Board, the committee began an assessment in late 1989 of potential contributions from the arctic social sciences to the social science disciplines, building on the literature review undertaken to prepare the 1989 study report. The present report expands on the 1989 report and devotes particular attention to the potential contributions of arctic social sciences to the theoretical and practical concerns of mainstream social sciences. This study was supported by grants to the Polar Research Board from the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In the course of preparing this report, the intended audience has changed. The report was originally prepared as a journal article, but it was later decided that it would be released as a committee document. Because of the difficulty in providing the breadth of the supporting arguments that would normally accompany chapters in a committee report, as well as the need to draw parallels between each topic presented in the present report and the recommendations in the committee's 1989 study report, Arctic Social Science: An Agenda for Action is included here as an appendix. The Polar Research Board appreciates the dedication and patience of Mim Dixon and Oran Young, cochairs of the Committee on Arctic Social Sciences, and the efforts of the committee members in the conduct of the study and the preparation of this report. Robert H. Rutford, Chair Polar Research Board