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^~C[S IN 1H[ ~ODUL^RI1Y OF Vl~ON Seas Flume Symposium on Frontiers of Visual Science mmillee on Lion mmi~ion on Beh~ral and Socks Pierces and Eduolion Nalional Research Lunch Nalional Idea Press shunt D.C. 1~

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. File Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respective~, of the National Research Council. Additional copies of this report are available from: Committee on Vision 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. ZO418 Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON VISION SUZANNE MCKEE (Chair), Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation, San Francisco LYNN COOPER, Department of Psychology, Columbia University RUSSELL LEE DEVALOIS (NAS), Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley MERTON CLYDE FLOM, College of Optometry, University of Houston DAVID L. GUYTON, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University DONALD HOOD, Department of Psychology, Columbia University JAMES LACKNER, Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory, Brandeis University GORDON E. LEGGE, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota PETER LENNIE, Center for Visual Sciences, University of Rochester LOUIS SILVERSTEIN, Honeywell, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz. KENT ~ STEVENS, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon ANDREW B. WATSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. PAMELA EBERT FLATCAR, Study Director JOANNE ALBANES, Research Assistant CAROL METCALF, Administrative Secretary ROSE WHITE, Secretary . . . 111

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SYMPOSIUM PARTICIPANTS ANTHONY J. ADAMS, University of California, Berkeley JOHN ALLMAN, California Institute of Technology, Berkeley DANA BALLARD, University of Rochester RANDOLPH BLAKE, Vanderbilt University DAVID C. VAN ESSEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena JON KAAS, Vanderbilt University MORTIMER MISHKIN, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda ANNE TREISMAN, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT SHAPLEY, New York University ROBERT WURTZ, National Eye Institute, Bethesda 1V

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Preface The Committee on Vision is a standing committee of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The committee provides analysis and advice on scientific issues and applied problems involving vision. It also attempts to stimulate the development of visual science and to provide a forum in which basic and applied scientists, engineers, and clinicians can interact. Working groups of the committee study questions that may involve engineering and equip- ment, physiological and physical optics, neurophysiology, psychophysics, perception, environmental effects on vision, and visual disorders. From time to time, the committee sponsors public meetings that feature papers on advances in vision research. The meetings are designed to aid the newcomer in reaching a preliminary understanding of the utility of the latest approaches to vision research and to challenge more experienced scientists, engineers, and clinicians alike to consider the appropriate role for these new models and methods in the advancements of vision research and its application to practical problems. In March 1987 the committee sponsored a Symposium on Frontiers of Visual Science at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The committee brought together seven leading investigators in vision research whose work embodies the integration of some of these newer mod- els and methods. Participants discussed how converging lines of evidence indicate that the brain contains multiple neural representations (i.e., maps) of visual space, different maps being devoted to the analysis of different aspects of the visual scene. This volume provides a selection of papers from that meeting. Funds for the symposium were provided from the general budget of the committee, which receives support from the departments of the Army, v

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the Navy, and the Air Force; the National Eye Institute; the National Institute on Aging; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the National Science Foundation; the Department of Veterans Affairs; the American Academy of Ophthalmology; the American Academy of Optometry; the American Optometric Association; and the Society for Information Display. The committee gratefully acknowledges the efforts of the vision scien- tists who took time from their demanding schedules to participate in the symposium. The committee also thanks its staff officer, Pamela Ebert Flat- tau, for organizing the meeting and preparing the final report. Production of the report was effectively assisted by Carol Metcalf of the committee staff. To all these, we express our gratitude. Suzanne McKee, Chair Committee on Vision V1