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8 GALIFORNId COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH II. ACTIVITIES OF SPECIAL CiOMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL INVE STIGArTIONS A. O. Leuschner, Chairman, Dean of the Graduate Division and Professor of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley. W. S. Adams, Assistant Director, Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena. W. W. Campbell, Director, Lick Observatory, University of California, Mount Hamilton. W. M. Haskell, Professor of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley. L. M. Hoskins, Professor of Applied Mathematics, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. B. M. Woods, Professor of Aerodynamics, University of California, Berkeley. This Committee has examined and reported on several inventions? involving astronomy and mathematics, relating to navigation on water and in the air and to anti-aircraft warfare. Individual mem- bers of the Committee also have from time to time been engaged on confidential problems. The Committee has aided in the organization of five navigation schools located et 'San Diego, San Pedro, San Francisco, Portland, and Astoria, under the direction of the United States Shipping Board, giving a six weeks' course of training for officers of the merchant marine upon the theory of navigation and use of instruments. In addition to these five navigation schools, similar courses were organized under the University of California Extension Division. The scope of the instruction offered by the Extension Division, under the supervision of Professor Leuschner, was later enlarged to include instruction in naval regulations, seamanship, naval gunnery, etc., so as to prepare enlisted men for the ensign's examination. Special sections in various courses were organized which were open only to selected men detailed for instruction by their commanding officers. COMMITTEE ON BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS D. H. Campbell, Chairman, Professor of Botany, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. L. L. Burlingame, Associate Professor of Botany, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. H. M. Hall, Associate Professor of Botany, University of California, Berkeley. W. A. Setchell, Professor of Botany, University of California, Berkeley. T. El. Goodspeed, Assistant Professor of Botany, University of California, Berkeley. At the first meeting of this Committee in May, 1917, among the several lines of botanical investigation considered as to their impor-

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ORGY NIZATION AND ~ CTIVITIES: GOODSPEED 9 tance in connection with the war, the search for an emergency supply of rubber in native blest American plants, the utilization of acorns as a supply of food, particularly for stock, and the utilization of the California buckeye for stockfeeding were selected for investigation. An estimate of the acorn crops yielded by the various species of oaks was prepared for the use of the Committee by Professor Willis L. Jepson, of the University of California. A preliminary survey of the distribution of the buckeye was made in certain districts by Mr. H. H. Haworth, of the University of California. Professor M. E. JafEa, of the California Agricultural Experiment Station, had in the meantime developed a method for the removal of the bitter principle in buckeyes, which it is hoped will lead ultimately to the utilization of this source of food. The major project, which has to do with the location of a native supply of rubber, was still in progress in 1919. As a result of these investigations, it can now be said with certainty that a considerable amount of rubber is obtainable in the United States in case it becomes necessary to go to the extra expense of harvesting it. The plants in which it is found carry but a comparatively small percentage of rubber, so that its extraction would be more expensive than present importation. The quality, however, is good, as has been attested by rubber experts, and the American people can, therefore, feel assured that this reserve supply could, to some extent, replace imported rub- ber in an emergency. Samples have been vulcanized and the result- ing product was found very satisfactory. The plants from which the rubber is obtained belong to various species of (:!hrysothomnus' a genus of plants often known as "rabbit- brush." There are perhaps two hundred different- kinds of these plants which carry rubber and the classification of them is now being worked out by the members of the Committee. Some occur in large quantities, carry five per cent of rubber in the stems and, since the plants weigh from one to twenty pounds and occasionally as much as sixty pounds, the total amount of rubber obtainable would run into millions of pounds. While the plants are found for the most part in the Great Basin country of Eastern California and Nevada, this rubber producing shrub has been located as far north as Washington and Idaho, as far east as Colorado, and south to our southern boundary. One aspect of the rubber investigation, which now appears to be of some promise, concerns itself with the possibility of bringing the plants under cultivation. It is even possible that through improved methods of handling, and especially through selection and breeding, a type of shrub may be found which could be profitably grown on

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10 0ALIPORNId COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH land now considered worthless. A particular advantage of the shrub is that it withstands alkali and is exceedingly resistant to cold. Whether or not the plants will ever be brought under cultivation is a question which can be answered only after many years of study and experimentation; but if their cultivation can be brought about and a rubber-producing industry established in this country it would not only add to the nation's resources through the utilization of waste lands, but also afford the best possible protection against shortage in this important commodity at any time in the future. Summarizing the work of the Committee, it may be said that its prime object, namely, an attempt to locate an emergency supply of rubber within the boundaries of the continental United States, hats been attained. The total amount available would probably care for the nation's war-time needs for several years, and for a longer period if~used as supplementary to supplies from other sources. While happily not needed in connection with the war just closed, because of the removal of the submarine menace, yet the knowledge of the existence of this native rubber in large amount should remove any fear among American people as to a possible future shortage. Crude rubber is the only important commodity essentia.! to modern warfare that this country has not been able to produce; therefore, its discovery in these wild plants renders the nation practically inde- pendent of all foreign countries if the expense of harvesting can be met. COMMITTEE ON CHEMICAL RESEARCH L. H. Duschak, Chairman, U. S. Bureau of Mines Experiment Station, Berkeley. Bryant S. Drake, Secretary, California Section, American Chemical Society, Oakland. E. a. Franklin, Professor of Organic Chemistry, Leland Stanford Junior Uni- versity, Stanford University. J. H. Hildebrand, Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. G. N. Lewis, Professor of Physical Chemistry and Dean of the College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. The (committee on Chemical Research was an outgrowth of a Committee on Preparedness of the California Section of the Ameri- can Chemical Society, which began its activities in February, 1917. The principal activity of this (committee was the beginning of a census of chemists and chemical laboratories of the Pacific Coast region. In May, 1917, the Committee of the Chemical Society was reorganized as the Committee on Chemical Research of the State Committee on Scientific Research with the membership given above. This Committee submitted a general report OI1 April 14, 1917,

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ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPBED i1 covering various chemical matters which appeared important from the standpoint of national defense. These included plans for the formation of a`State Bureau of Chemistry and for the experimental development of such resources as wood by-products, mineral re- sources, including chromium, manganese, tungsten and mercury; fats and oils from animal and vegetable waste products, from fruit wastes such as sugar, alcohol and acetic acid; the conservation of platinum, the development of saline deposits, and the synthesis of cyanides. The Chairman of the Committee on Chemical Research also pry _ , ~ pared a general report on the iron situation on the Pacific Coast with particular reference to the possibilities for developing electric smelt- ing for the production of pig iron for steel and foundry purposes. This Committee continued the census of chemists originally under- taken by the. California Section of the American ()hemical Society and sent out in all about nine hundred questionnaires. All cases in which no response was received were followed up. In most of these cases it was found that the individual was no longer actively engaged in chemistry or had moved from the region. The indi- vidual questionnaires returned were indexed according to the various branches of chemistry in which the individuals appeared to be proficient. In addition to the census of chemists, a survey of chemical laboratories was undertaken and eighty-five complete laboratory questionnaires were returned. This census of chemists is probably the most complete ever carried out in the Pacific Coast region and the file proved to be of value in locating individuals who could give expert information. For a period the file was frequently referred to in connection with inquiries from the Federal Secret Service with reference to chemists entering the army and navy or employed at munition plants. The principal activity of the (chemical Committee may be de- scribed as that of a "clearing house" for chemical matters. Much of this work was carried on by informal conferences between the Chairman, the various members of the Committee, and chemists of the district. !Severa1 newly devised chemical processes were investigated and reports on them transmitted to the National Research Council, to various branches of the Government, and to private individuals and companies which might be interested. Among these may be men- tioned the process for the recovery of potash and other salts from Searles Lake brine, which was devised by Mr. George B. Burnham of Berkeley. Partly as a result of the recommendation of the Chemical

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i2 CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEAROU Committee, NIr. Burnham was given an opportunity to develop his process at the plant of the Solvay Process Company, at Borosolvay, California, and according to recent information, his process promises to be of value. A process for the manufacture of acetic anhydride from vinegar was also investigated and after consultation smith the Supply Division of the Signal Corps, U. S. Army, was brought to the attention of the Atlas Powder Company, which undertook the fur- ther development of the process. Acetic anhydride is required in large quantities in aeroplane construction. Information was also gathered in regard to the utilization of tin scrap, leather scrap, and other waste materials from local sources. The Chairman of the (committee on (chemical Research served as an advisor to the Committee on Occupa.tionakSelection of the State Committee on Scientific Research with respect to requests by chemists for deferred classification under the Selective Service Act. The Committee on Chemical Research also furnished information upon a great variety of inquiries conn:ecte`1 with war preparations. In the spring of 1918 the Chairman of the Committee directed a survey of sea water bittern in storage at the pi ant of the E. A. Oliver Salt Works, Aft. Eden, California. The object of the survey svas to determine the amount of bromine in the stored bittern, as large quantities of this substance were needed in connection with gas warfare work. Edith the assistance of Professor F. S;. Foote, Pro- fessor of Railroad Engineering, University of California, a survey of the salt ponds was made and a map drawn. Members of the Staff of the Berkeley Experiment Station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, assisted by two members of the Department of Chemistry of the University, made soundings of all ponds and secured a large number of samples which were analyzed in the laboratory of the Bureau of Shines. The results of this survey, indicating that fully 200~ tons of bromine, and probably much more, were in storage, were reported to the National Research Council and to the Chemical Section of the War Industries Board. In May, 19IX, active consideration was given to the utilization of this source of bromine, but it was subse- quentl~r found that developments in the East and changes in the chemical program of the government rendered local development unnecessary. Then it became apparent that funds for chemical research would be provided through the State Committee on Scientific Research, it was decided that allotments for chemical investigations, which were conducted by the Department of Chemistry of the University of CaTi- fornia, would be arranged for directly between the head of the De- partment of Chemistry and the State Committee. The Committee

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ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED 13 on Chemical Research, therefore, maintained only an advisory rela- tionship with respect to the investigations conducted by the Depart- ment of Chemistry of the University of California. These investiga- tions may be described under three heads: I. Work as ~ Co-operative Laboratory of the Arr~er?car~ University Exper~mer~t Station. During the war the research work concerned with gas warfare was centered at the American University Experi- ment~Station at Washington. In the Department of Chemistry of the University of California, in co-operation with this Station, several problems relating both to offensive and defensive gas warfare, were investigated and intensive work was done on two of the defense prob- lems. The most important result obtained was the discovery of an absorbent for carbon monoxide. This work and the investigators were transferred to Washington; the absorbent was then rapidly per- fected and manufactured on a large scale. It was found to absorb other war gases satisfactorily and might have found extensive use had the war lasted longer. The material is expected to be of value in connection with a number of problems not related to the war. Had nothing additional been accomplished, this result alone justi- fies the total expenditure made for chemical investigations by the State of California. 2. Investigations Undertakers at the Request of the National Re- search CIo?~r~cit. The principal investigations undertaken at the re- quest of the National Research Council are listed below. The results obtained were transmitted in each case to the proper government authorities. (~) Hydrogen detector for use on submarines. (2) Absorption of hydrogen in submarines. (3) Detection of hydrogen leaks in balloons. (4) Methods of manufacturing hydrogen for balloons in a field generator. (~) Fire extinguisher for use in confined space on board ship. 3. Other Work ore Urgent War Needs. A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether CiaTifornia petroleum GOUi] be used as a source for toluol manufacture. ToluoT is of the utmost importance for military purposes, as it is the material used in mak- ing trinitrotoluol, the most used high explosive. It was shown that toluol can be made from various California oils and condensates, but it would probably be more expensive than if prepared from other raw materials. Numerous other experiments on matters connected with toluol manufacture were carried out with a view to determin- ing new methods for its preparation. Another series of experiments was conducted on California red-

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14 CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH wood, with a view to making use of the waste from lumber mills. Some promising results were obtained, particularly from destructive distillation of redwood waste. Several products were isolated: acetic acid, acetones, phenol, and various cresols. All these materials are valuable both in war arid peace time. Some experiments were also made on redwood as a source of tannin. Another set of experiments was instituted upon the utilization of peat; and ammonia, chloride of ammonium, hydrochloric acid, to- gether with a large number of organic bodies, were obtained. Several methods of making cyanide were tested, but with nega- tive results, except for a few experiments based on the Bucher pro- cess. This process was studied intensively elsewhere. The problem upon which the largest amount of effort pended had to do with the separation of certain important constitu- ents of sea water bittern, the residue after separation of common salt. On the theoretical side the investigation has been extended to a systematic study of the solubilities of various salts in the presence of other salts. The results of this work, which is being continued, will be of importance in connection with the treatment of bitterns from other sources than sea water. COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS H. R. Hatfield, Chairman, Professor of Accounting on the Flood Foundation, and Dean of the College of Commerce, University of California, Berkeley. Stuart Daggett, Professor of Railroad Economics on the Flood Foundation, University of California, Berkeley. Lincoln Hutchinson, Professor of Commerce on the Flood Foundation, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley. M. W. Wildman, Professor of Economics, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. Soon after its organization the Committee on Economics, at the request of the State Committee on Scientific Research, began an inquiry into the question of whether an emergency existed in respect to the supply of iron and steel in California, interviewing a large number of persons. ~ detailed report was submitted to the State Committee on Scientific Research in which it was shown that the situation at that time was threatening, although not yet critical. An emergency was believed to exist in that the future supply of iron and steel on the Pacific Coast gave every indication of becom- ing quite inadequate for local needs. The Committee on Economies believed it desirable also to con- sider banking conditions in the State of California. In a time of crisis proper control of gold reserves is a matter of tremendous im-

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ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED ~5 portance. The Federal Government held that such control was being interfered with by the disinclination of many state banks to enter the Federal Reserve System. After detailed investigation, the Committee prepared a report dealing with the relation of state banks in California to the Federal Reserve System. This discussion was published and given wide circulation among those concerned. COMMITTEE ON ENGINEERING AND INVENTION John D. Galloway, Chairman, Civil Engineer, San Francisco. Thomas Addison, Consulting Engineer, Berkeley. J. A. Anderson, Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena. Guy Bailey, Electrical Engineer, Peoples' Gas and Light Co., Oakland. C. L. Cory, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Dean of the College of Mechanics, University of California, Berkeley. G. A. Damon, Consulting Engineer, Los Angeles. George W. Dickie, Consulting Engineer, San Francisco. E. a. Franldin, Professor of Organic Chemistry, Leland Stanford Junior Uni versity, Stanford University. J. H. Hildebrand, Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. E. P. Lesley, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford Uni- versity. E. P. Lewis, Professor of Physics, University of California, Berkeley. Prank Rieber, Physicist, Rieber Laboratories, San Francisco. E. J. Ryan, Professor of Electrical Engineering, Leland Stanford Junior Uni- versity, Stanford University. a. R. Weymouth, Consulting Engineer, a" c. Moore and Co., San Francisco. J. T. Whittlesey, Consulting Engineer, San Francisco. J. lI. Hopps, Consulting Engineer, San Prancisco. Edmund O'Neill, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. T. B. Hunter, Civil Engineer, San ]?rancisco. The Committee on Engineering and Inventions performed an ex- ceedingly important service in passing upon new devices or sub- ~ances- proposed as aids to the Government in its war program. These proposals came to the (committee from inventors and others on the Pacific Coast through the State Committee on Scientific Re- search. Over one hundred and twenty-five inventions were con- sidered by the Committee and a number were brought to the atten- tion of the proper authorities at Washington. Among the inventions which were thought of sufficient importance to be referred to Wash- ington were the following: Wire cutting projectile Magnetic speed reducer Method for moving heavy artillery.

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i6 CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEAROU COMMITTEE ON ENTOMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS R. W. Doane, Chairman, Associate Professor of Entomology, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. W. B. Herms, Associate Professor of Parasitology, University of California, Berkeley. E. O. Essig, Assistant Professor of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley. G. P. Weldon, Chief Deputy Commissioner, State Commission of Horticulture, Sacramento. At its first meeting, on April 14, 1917, the Committee on Ento- mological Investigations recommended that the following questions be given immediate attention in co-operation with all the existing entomological agencies within the state, and that a sum of $10,750 be set aside by the State Council of Defense for conducting these investigations: Insects pests of grain Insect pests of potatoes and other truck and garden crops Control of insect pests of stored grains, seed, and dried fruits (wheat and rice weevils, Mediterranean flour moth, Indian meal moth, etc. ~ Distribution of mosquitoes and relation to malaria A study of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever tick, fleas lice, etc. Compilation of a directory of professional entomologists Maintenance of adequate supplies of insecticides, especially potassium bisulfide and sodium cyanide (pure), lead arse- nate, crude oils and distillates, and suIphur, in co-operation with the Committee on Chemical Research. The State Committee on Scientific Research decided, since work was already being done in these directions by other state agencies, that it was not advisable to appropriate additional state money for the use of the Committee on Entomological Investigations. How- ever, facilities were secured in other ways for carrying on certain of the investigations recommended. The State Board of Health furnished certain funds for the inves- tigations in regard to the mosquitoes that carry malaria. Professors H. B. Herns (until called into active military service) and IS. B. Freeborn, of the University of California, continued the mosquito survey of the state upon which they had been engaged, and made inspections in several of the military camps. Professor R. W. Doane, of Leland Stanford Junior University, also made similar studies in the vicinity of ()amp Fremont and other places and worked with the army officers in an effort to control mosquitoes around the camps.

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ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED i7 During the early part of the summer of 1917 Professor O. E. Essig, of the University of California, was placed ir1 charge of a state-wide grasshopper survey, the expenses.of which were borne by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Later in the summer Pro- fessor Essig and Professor H. H. Severin, of the University of C'ali- fornia, made a study of truck crop insects in various parts. of the state. In November, 1917, Professor Essig and Professor Doane made investigations in some of the warehouses in San Francisco and found that various insects were injuring or destroying much food material. The, importance of making more thorough inspections of the ware- houses and mills throughout the state was called to the attention of the Federal Food Commissioner for California, and the matter was referred by him to the State Committee on Scientific Research. Upon further representations being made to the Federal Food Com- missioner for California, $230 was set aside from his budget to cover the expenses of this work and Professor Essig and Professor Doane were appointed consulting entomologists to the Food Commission. Professor Essig was soon called to take up other work but Professor E. R'. de Ong, of the University of California, made inspections throughout the interior valleys of the state and Professor 13oane inspected the mills and warehouses in San Francisco; Los Angeles, San Diego, and etcher onn.st cities. devoting Donut half of his time to this work. In order to carry this work further, Professor Doane secured am pointment as collaborator for the U. IS. Bureau of Entomology with authority and a travel allowance which made it possible for him to inspect practically all of the important mills and warehouses in the state at least once and some of them two or three times. In some instances thousands of sacks of flour were found that were being destroyed by the larvae of the Me~lite.rranean flour moth. Special emphasis was placed on the necessity of preventing the spread of these pests from the infested material to other material which might be stored in the same warehouse. There is no doubt that immense quantities of flour arid other cereal products have been kept free from insect infestation because of these inspections. One of the most serious problems which came before this Com- mittee was brought about by the importation of infested Australian wheat into several of the California ports. This wheat, much of which had been in storage in Australia for nanny months, some of it for two or three years, was found to be badly infested with grain weevils, certain Tots so badly that weevils were swarming over the sacks when they were taken from the steamers and stored on the

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i~ CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH wharves. As there was danger of these insects spreading into the wheat fields of the state, if the infested grain was sent into the country districts, the Grain Corporation was urged to ship this whea^t only to the mills in the large cities on the coast. Steps were also taken at the mills to prevent the screenings from this infested wheat from being sent into the country districts. In spite of all efforts, however, some of the wheat found its way to sections where it should not have gone. It is to be hoped that serious results may not follow. During the summer of 191S, Professor Doane made two trips into Oregon and Washington for grain inspection. Conditions there were found to be similar to the conditions in many parts of Ca.li- fornia, although not as much damage was being done in warehouses because less food was stored in these places. In :1919, the Bureau of Entomology made another appropriation for the continuation of parts of this work of grain inspection during the year following the cessation of the activities of the State Council of Defense and of the Food Administration of California. COMMITTEE ON GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES G. D. Louderback, Chairman, Professor of Geology and Dean of the College of Letters and Science, University of California, Berkeley. F. W. Bradley, Mining Engineer, San Francisco. J. C. Branner, President Emeritus, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stan- ford University. L. E1. Duschak, U. S. Bureau of Mines Experiment Station, Berkeley. D. M. Folsom, Professor of Mining, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stan- tord University. Iletcher Hamilton, State Mineralogist of California, San Francisco. T. A. Rickard, Editor, Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco. Bailey Willis, Professor of Geology, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stan- ford University. i977 FJeld Work. This Committee at first consisted of J. C. Branner, G. D. Louderback, and F. W. Bradley. In April, 191S, it was enlarged to the membership given above. From an early canvass of the field, it appeared to the Committee that the subject which promised the most important returns from the war minerals standpoint was the investigation of the manganese resources of Cali- fornia. The~State Committee on Scientific Research made an ap- propriation for the necessary field expenses of this work, and several volunteer assistants undertook the field investigations under the direction of the Chairman of the Committee. These were originally Messrs. E. F. Davis and F. S. Hudson, later joined by Mr. N. Is. Taliaferro. The main purpose of this work was to learn, for the information of the UnitedlStates Government, the extent of avail-

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30 CALIFORNIA GOMMIT17EE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH and Australia and to the Western coast of Central and South America. Indeed, California produced in 1917 between one-fourth and one- fifth of the worId's supply of petroleum and one-third of the entire supply of the United States is produced in California. The Commission called attention to the fact that although so much petroleum was being produced in California, consumption was an- nually exceeding production. In 1916 the.consumption of Califor- nia petroleum was 104,930,000 barrels, being more than 13,100,00~0 barrels in excess of production. The excess was taken from storage. The seriousness of this situation was further emphasized by a dis- cussion of the relatively limited quantities of petroleum in storage at the time. In the discussion of the conservation of the products of California oil fields a variety of methods were noted by which great reductions, locally, in the consumption of petroleum had in recent years been ejected, including the elimination of field losses, the introduction of Mexican petroleum heretofore shipped to Chile, improved methods of refining, and the increased use of hydroelectric power and pow- dered coal as substitutes for California fuel oil in industrial and agricultural uses. The remedy suggested for the serious situation in the California oil fields resulting from the entrance of the United States into the war was the prompt and substantial increase in production of petro- leum. Such increased production was looked upon as dependent upon the co-operation of four separate factorsma.teria.Is, labor, land, and transportation. The following recommendations were submitted for the considera- tion of the Governor of the State of California: Increased Prod~ct~or~.- That every reasonable effort be made to increase the production of California petroleum promptly and that to this end additional drilling be undertaken, as quickly as material and labor are available, on the lands on which the largest additional production can be developed in the least time and with the smallest expenditure of material and labor. Decreased Consurnyt~on~. That every reasonable effort be made, consistent with the maintenance of the efficiency of our transporta- tion systems and industries, to conserve the supply of California petroleum by the diminution of field Tosses, the higher use of petro- leum and its products, and the substitution of other forms of fuel or power. Prese'~tatiorr of Facts to the Federal Go?;ernrrtent. That the facts with reference to the California petroleum situation, including spe- cifically the imperative necessity for additional production and the

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ORGANIZA TION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED 31 relative productivity of undrilled but proved lands, be presented to the President of the United States and to the appropriate depart- ments of the federal government and that the federal government be respectfully urged to render every assistance which the govern- ment can render consistent with the highest public interest. Oil Well Mcrter?cct.That the attention of the federal government be respectfully drawn to the advisability of directing the manufac.- turers of oil well supplies to set aside a sufficient capacity of their plants for the production of oil well casing, drill stems, wire cables, and other material to supply the reasonable requirements of Ciali- fornia and other sections of the United States and of directing the railroads to transport such supplies as expeditiously as is consistent with other urgent requirements. Labor.That the attention of the federal government be respect- fully drawn to the advisability of exempting from service in the armed forces of the nation all skilled workmen employed in the petroleum industry and of indicating to such workmen that their highest present duty is to assist in the maintenance and development of the petroleum industry. La~nds ire l~gat~or~ with No Receiver.That the federal govern- ment be respectfully requested, in those inst.anc es in which CaTi- fornia petroleum lands now in litigation with the federal government are not in the lands of the federal receiver, to consent, through the Department of Justice, to stipulations under which the claimants will be permitted to drill such lands intensively under an arrangement by which the federal government, if it ultimately wins the suits, will be protected with reference to the petroleum thus produced, and the- operators will be protected, if they lose the suits, out of the proceeds of the petroleum thus produced to the extent of at least their expendi- tures reasonably and fairly made under the stipulation. Whether any additional drilling shall be done on lands in Naval Reserve No. 2, is a matter which must be left to the wisdom and fair- ness of the federal government, when the government has before it all the facts, including the needs of the government, present and future, the extent and effect of the past and present production in this reserve, the urgent necessity for increased production of Cali- fornia petroleum, the relative productivity and availability of un- driTIed proved lands, and the fact that on any reasonable assumption an adclitional production of more than 35,000 barrels per day cannot be secured unless some additional drilling is done in Naval Reserve No. 2. [aquas irt Littgatiort irt Possession of Receiver.That the federal government be respectfully requested, in those instances in which

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32 0ALIFORNI~ COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH California petroleum lands now in litigation with the federal gov- ernment are in possession of the federal receiver, to take appropriate proceedings through the Department of Justice, so that the receiver may be authorized or directed to proceed at once to drill intensively such lands as are presumptively productive and particularly the lands which are likely to suffer from the infiltration of water, unless drilled. If the authority of Congress is necessary, that Congress be respect- fully requested to enact the necessary legislation. Legislation to Opted Petroleum Farads.That the federal govern- ment be respectfully requested to enact promptly legislation by which such lands in the public domain as the federal government may consider wise and consistent with public interest will be opened to petroleum development on terms just and reasonable both to the federal government and to such explorers and operators as have here- tofore proceeder] or may hereafter proceed in good faith to the ex- ploration and development of petroleum lands. That the area of the lands in each instance be sufficiently large to permit efficient operation. It is believed that the establishment of a definite constructive policy in this matter will have a wholesome and stimulating eRect on the petroleum industry of California and other states. Trar~sportation~.That the railroad, steamship, oil pipe line, and of] companies of California be authorized and directed to take steps immediately to so correlate their respective transportation facilities as to make most available and efficient every agency employed in the transportation of California petroleum and its products. U/tim~crte Corbservatio'!. That as soon as reasonably possible, bear- ing in mind the paramount necessity of the most efficient operation of our transportation systems and other industries during the emer- gency created by the war, the further burning of California petro- leum, unless it has first been refined, be prevented, the higher use of California petroleum and its products insured, substitute forms of fuel or power developed, and the supply of (California petroleum by the most efficient use thereof conserved. COMMITTEE ON PHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS E. P. Lewis, Chairman, Professor of Physics, University of California, Berkeley. W. W. Campbell, Director, Lick Observatory, University of California, Mount Hamilton. Fernando Sanford, Professor of Physics, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University.

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ORGANIZATION AND A CIIVITIES: GOODSPE~D 33 The one problem upon which most of the thought of the physicists of the country was focused during the war was that of methods of submarine detection and of submarine signalling. The members of the Committee on Physical Investigations worked with another group, most of whom were associated with the Mount Wilson Observatory, to which problems were directly assigned by the National Research Council. Director W. W. Campbell further enlisted the services of several members of the Lick Observatory staff in this work, in which various members of the Department of Physics at Leland Stanford Junior University and at the University of California were consulted. This original Committee on Physical Investigations was eventually developed into a larger group, of which the members worked in small sub-groups or independently. Distinct progress has been made upon the problem of submarine detection and of submarine signalling by the utilization for this purpose of very short sound waves. These results have, however, great scientific value independent of this immediate application. It should be added that the method of obtaining these short waves is due to the suggestion of a French physicist, and that most of the progress in the work carried on in this State is {lue to the group work- ing at the Mount Wilson Observatory under the direct auspices of the National Research Council. To this work the individual mem- bers of the Committee contributed a number of suggestions. COMMIT'[EE ON PSYGHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS G. M. Stratton, Chairman, Professor of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley. Warner Brown, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of California. Berkeley. Frank Dwell, Professor of Psychology, Leland Stanford Junior University. Stanford IJniversity. During the summer of 1917 an experimental study of aviators was carried on at Rockwell Field, San Diego, California. Various tests were investigated for the purpose of discovering which of them would be of value in increasing the success with which a selection might be made among men offering themselves as candidates for training in e aviation. Professor G. M. Stratton of the University of California, Chair- man of this Committee, under whose direction these experimental tests were carried on, was commissioned a Major in the National Army and was stationed first at San Diego but was later transferred to the Medical Research Laboratory at Mineola, Long Island. After the data obtained from the first experimental tests had been

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34 CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH reported to the Section of Psychology of the National Research Coun- cil, further experiments were instituted by the United States Army at Rockwell Field and at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas. The Experiments then instituted and based upon this preliminary worl; were upon the following topics: (~) Reaction time to sudden visual stimulation (2) Reaction time to sudden auditory stimulation (~) Reaction time to sudden change of position of the body as a whole (4) Sensitiveness to gradual changes of tile body as a whole (5) Steadiness of starching with eyes open and with eyes closed (6) Emotional steadiness and power of attention under shock and surprise (7) Power to complete in imagination fragments of curves presented visually (8j Rapidity of learning certain complicated co-ordinations of hands and feet. The results of these and of the preceding experiments justified the recommendation of certain tests as a practical means to assist in the selection of aviators and this recommendation was adopted bit the Director of Military Aeronautics arid certain units were authorized to put the tests into practice. COMMITTEE ON ZOOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Barton Vet. Evermann, Chairman, Director of the Museum, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. Harold C. Bryant, Game Expert, California Fish and Game Commission, Berkeley. hi. C. Crandall, Scripps Institution for Biological Research, La Jolla. Samuel J. Holmes, Professor of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. C. A. Kofoid, Professor of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. (Re- sigrled, January, 1918.) F. M. McFarland, Professor of Histology, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. (Resigned.) William E. Bitter, Director, Scripps Institution for Biological Research, La Jolla, California. Norman B. Scofield, Scientific Assistant, California Fish and Game Commis- sion, Berkeley. J. Rollin Slonaker, Professor of Physiology, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. John O. Snyder, Professor of Zoology, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University. E. C. Starks, Professor of Zoology, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stan- ford University. This Committee was originally appointed as a Committee of the Western Society of Naturalists, but came to be recognized as the

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ORGANIZA TION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED 35 Committee on Zoological Investigations of the State Committee on Scientific Research. It addressed itself to the problems of food supply, and particularly to marine foods and the wild animals as sources of human food. In co-operation with the State Market Director, the State Horti- culturist, the State Fish and Game Commission, the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, and the U. S. Bureau of Chemistry, it was possible to undertake work upon the following problems: I. The Use of Fish Waste as Poultry Feed or Fertilizer. Conducted by Professor F. M. McFarland of Leland Stanford Junior University Professor McFarland went into this question thoroughly and with very interesting and important results. He found that the price of poultry feed had increased so greatly by the summer of 1917 as to cause a large number of poultry producers to abandon the business. The prices which the poultry-man had to pay for the various grains on September 5, 1917 (Palo Alto quotations), were as follows: Wheat ......... Hulled barley . . . Cracked corn . Egyptian corn White oats ........ Bran . . . Shorts .......... Soy bean meal. .. Whole barley ... . $4~00 per 100 lb. sack 2.75 `` 75 `` 64 4.50 `` 100 `` 66 4.25 cat `` 46 66 3.10 66 ~~ 66 ~~ 2. on 6~ ~ (~ 64 2.25 66 90 66 dI 3.75 64 4001 66 64 2.75 6~ (~ 66 46 These prices were almost or quite prohibitive if poultry and eggs were to be put on the market at prices which the consumer could afford to pay. Moreover, all available wheat was needed for human food and its use as chicken feed was curtailed or prohibited. Fish meal and meat scraps are row recognized as satisfactory substitutes for grain as chicken food. Professor McFarland found the poultry men fully alive to this fact. The demand for fish meal was much greater than the supply, with the result that the price became Very high. On September 5, 1917, it was, roughly, about $4.00 per 100 pounds, or $80.00 per ton, a price greater than the cost of production justified. This was the price chiefly because it could be demanded and was paid. Increase production was the solution and fortunately, this was possible and . . . ~ . ~ . . . . , has been brought about to some extent. Heretofore, only an inconsiderable proportion of the fish waste or opal has been utilized; the same has been true of waste fish. Fisher- mex~ and fish dealers were in the habit of throwing the waste away.

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%6 CALIFORNIA CO]IMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH They have now been brought in close touch with manufacturers of fish meal and fertilizer They have learned that fertilizer companies will pay a fair price for all the fish refuse and waste fish they call get. By the end of 19iS the business was on a safe basis, the pro- duction of chicken feed en cl fertilizer had been materially increased, the demand had continued strong, new companies were beginning operation, and it was confidently believed that the poultry industry would again be able to put chickens and eggs upon the mallet at prices not prohibitive. 2. Methods of Preserving Fish arid Other Aquatic Pro~q6cts.- Conducted by Professor John 0. Snyder; subsequently transferred to' the Nutrition Department of the University of California and to the U. S. Bureau of Chemistry. It was believed that if methods of salting, drying, smoking, picl:- ling, mild-curing, or otherwise preserving the rock cods, smelt, sar- dines, and other species not as yet much used as human food could be found, an enormous quantity of nutritious food would be provided on the Pacific Coast, not only for consumption in America but to be sent abroad. In the phenomenal growth of the sardine industr.~r on the California coast at about this time, it was possible to correct imperfect early methods through the development of proper packing; methods and expert inspection and this development was a distinct contribution to our food resources. Methods of preserving various other species of fish previously not much utilized, have been developed, and very considerable quantities of several species have been pacl~e<1 and put upon the market. It believed that these little-used species of fish over one of the most promising fields for investigation. At the request of the Committee, Mr. John N. Cobb, of the Alaska Packers' Association, prepared a very instructive pamphlet on "In- creasing our Pacific Coast Fishery Resources," which was published for the State Committee on Scientific Research as one of the series of California TVar Papers. 3. The Use of Mollusks, Cr?~stacearts, and Other Aquatic Ir~ver- tebrates as Food. Conducted by Professor C. A. Kofoid and con- tinued by Professor S. J. Holmes when Professor Kofoid entered the army. These investigations consisted chiefly of a survey of the mussel beds of the California coast. The field work was carried on for the most part by Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California, assisted by Mr. E. I,. Rankin and Mr. H. I,. Kelley, of the Bureau of Fisheries. Black mussels have long been recognized as an important focal

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ORG4NIZ~ TION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED 37 resource on the Atlantic coast, and they have been used to some extent in California. The survey included determining the location, extent, and character of all the important beds on the coast, and an estimate of the number of tons of mussels each bed might reasonably be expected to produce annually. The survey was quite complete and shows that the state has in its mussel beds a very large and important food resource which is susceptible of great development. The report on this survey was of such general interest that it was recommended for publication by the State Council of Defense as one of the series of California War Papers. 4. The Wild Bared Animals and Water-foqvl of California as Food Resource. Conducted by Dr. H.- C. Bryant. The wild land animals and water fowl that come in this class were considered by Dr. Bryant as falling in one or another of the following groups: , _, ', ~ ~ All of these except deer are now so rare in California that there is no open season in which they may be legally killed. For deer there is an open season, but the number annually killed by the army of 165,000 licensed hunters is as great as the species will stand. While the number of deer killed annually should not be increased, it was Dr. Bryant's opinion that a more complete utilization of the carcasses \~70ul] mate- rially increase the amount of food from this source. b. Rabbits, squirrels, and other rodents. There is, in these ani- mals, a very large and important food resource easily available when- ever the necessity arises. Several species are excessively abundant and all are nutritious, palatable, and attractive as food where properly prepared. Some of them, such as the ground squirrels and jack- rabbits, are pests of the worst sort. It is estimated that they destroy not less than $20,000,000 worth of crops in California annually. While the market for these animals as human food has not been at all developed, except to a limited extent with the rabbit, and the present food condition does not make it imperative that it should be developed, it is of vital importance that these noxious rodents should be reduced in numbers and held in check. Dr. Bryant took this matter up with the State Horticulturist, the U. S. Public Health Service, and the U. S. Biological Survey, with the result that a vigorous campaign for rodent control was inaugurated in the spring: a Deer. elk. antelope. and mountain sheers ~ ~ %_ ~ ~ ~ ~ . i, . ~ . . ~ . .. ~ . ~ ~ . ~ A_ .. .. . Of 191d, under the immediate direction of the State horticultural Commission and with the co-operation of the various agencies men- tioned. It is believed that the system of rodent control in California saved the state many millions of dollars worth of crops that other- wise would be destroyed.

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38 O4LIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH c. Ducks, geese, and other game birds. Dr. Bryant's investiga- tions regarding the availability of these birds as a food resource led him to the conclusion that under the present hunting regulations the number killed annually is as great as the species will stand and that greater killing should not be encouraged. 5. Factors Cor~trollir~g the Appearance' Disiq~bq~t~on, atop Ab?hn- dance of Food-fshes 07t the Southern California Coast.Conducted by Dr. William E. Ritter. The information possessed of the habits of the tuna, albacore, sar- dine, and other food-fishes of the southern California coast, and the methods of those fisheries, caused the Committee concern as to whether the species were not in danger of serious depletion. While an inves- tigation of this matter might not properly be regarded as of im- mediate war importance, it was nevertheless felt that we should look to the future. Methods must not be employed or encouraged which tend to destroy an important fishery. However, as this investigation would undoubtedly require several years for its completion the Committee decided to turn it over to the Scripps Institution for Biological Research. This was done and that Institution is now carrying on the work. 6. Stattsticsof the Commercial Fisheries. Conducted by fir. Nor- man B. Scofield. It was important to know (a) just what species of fish are now the objects of commercial fisheries in California, (b) the annual catch of each, (c) to what extent the catch may be increased, and (cl) the maximum amount which each may reasonably be expected to yield annually. The State Fish and Game Commission had the machinery for gathering fishery statistics and all inquiries of this character were turned over to that Commission. It was found that the total catch in California waters in 1916 was, in round numbers, 100,000,000 pounds. In 1917, this figure was more than doubled, and an additional increase was realized in 1918. 7. Ir~ver~tory of Species of Fishes riot as yet Utilized., but Belt ed to Possess Food or Other Value.Conducted by Professor E. C. Starks -and Dr. Barton W. Evermann. There are on the California coast about 500 species of fish, only about 40 of which are used at all as human food. Preliminary inves- tigations showed that there were more than 100 additional species on this coast-that would make delicious and nutritious food if the public could be made accustomed to using them, and that nearly all of them occur in commercial abundance. Field work on this inquiry was carried on for a brief period by Professor Starke and Mr. W. W.

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ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES: GOODSPEED 39 Curtner on the southern California coast. Steps were taken to come pile all the information that can be obtained regarding each species- its size, distribution, abundance, seasons, habits, food, method of cap- ture, food qualities, methods of cooking, methods of preserving, - and the quantity that could probably be taken annually, so as to make it possible to estimate, with reasonable accuracy, the quantity of sea food that the state could safely depend upon in case of actual necessity. S. "Eat More Fish" Propagancla.Conducted by Professor E. C. Starks. This was one of the most important activities of the Committee. The campaign was waged vigorously with the co-operation of the Federal Food Administration, the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, the State :Fish and Game Commission, the State Market Director, and various civic organizations. An attempt was made through the news- papers to put before the public information and suggestions l~egard- ing various food-fishes. The Bureau of Fisheries was induced to send to the coast an agent to work up an interest in sea food arid another expert to give demonstrations in the cooking of different kinds of fish. Finally, under the direction of Professor Starks, assisted by Dr. H. C. Bryant and others, a booklet on "Sea Food and How lo Cook it" was prepared for publication by the State (council of Defense. In connection with the stimulation of the more extensive use of marine animals as foocl, the use of whale meat was advocated, with such effect that in 1918 and 1919 the supply was not equal to the demand. 9. Fisheries Experirr~eq~t Stations.- In assisting in the perfecting of methods for fish canning this Committee was early impressed with the fact that little was known of methods of preserving the cheaper kinds of fish on this coast. It was felt that with the development of methods of salting, drying, canning, pickling, smoking, or otherwise curing such fish as the rock GOES, smelt, and other common species, it would be quite possible to add many thousand tons of nutritious, palatable food to the products of California, not only for local consumption but for ship- ment to the interior and abroad. Inquiry developed the fact that the fishing companies stood ready to put up the fish if they GOUl] be shown how. The federal government expends more than $54,000,000 annually on experimentation and investigation for the purpose of improving and increasing the products of the soil, while the total expenditure for similar purposes for the fisheries is only about $25,000. While

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40 CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH the government maintains more than 60 agricultural experiment stations, each with a stain of experts engaged in investigations and experimentation in the interest of agriculture and horticulture, it does not maintain a single station engaged in similar work in the interests of the fisheries. There should be federal fisheries experi- ment stations just as there are federal agricultural experiment stations. The Committee took up this matter and passed a resolution favor- ing the establishment of such stations. It secured the endorsement of the resolution by numerous fishery organizations, boards of trade, chambers of commerce, State and Federal Fish Commissioners, the Federal Food Administration, the State Market Director, and many other bodies. The resolution was communicated to Washington with the result that bills providing for the establishment of such stations were intro- duced by Representative William Kettner, of San Diego, and Senator Wesley Jones, of Washington.