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Scientific Problems of Hannah Migration: Wissler ~5 sample recent crossings of European types, and old American stock, but also negroes and their white crosses. As everyone recognizes, the Negro~White crosses offer a field for the study of intermixture from many points of view, and since a comprehensive estimate of migration as a population producer depends even more upon matters of mentality and temperament, a study of intermixture by psychological methods is urgent. Such studies were under way in Nashville, Tennessee, and it, therefore, seemed advisable to assist in their further development and also to provide in this way for try-outs with test techniques to be de- veloped by the psychological projects outlined in the preceding pages. Finally, it was considered that in the study of physical inheritance, as a check upon the results from vital statistics and mental measurements, an intensive study of qualitative characters was needed, especially ex- perimentation within a number of race stocks and such mixed strains as were readily accessible. A beginning had been made in Hawaii which it seemed best to carry through, supplemented by new studies in the United States. All studies projected along these lines were to be pre- liminary, but promised to point to more specific attacks upon human in- heritance through the study of family strains. In accordance with these opinions, the Committee approved projects numbers 5, 6, and ~2, and minor projects, b, c, and d. In conclusion, note should be taken of one practical contribution to the technique of research, namely, the perfecting of an automatic cor- reIation computing machine by Professor Clark L. Hull. A grant to this end was considered justifiable because the use of the correlation coeffi- cient is now regarded as essential not only in the validating and the use of mental measurement technique, but in all the other types of biological investigation recommended by the Committee. The amount of time consumed and the expense of clerical services involved in the making of correlations in the usual way is so great that any successful mechan- ical device by which this burden may be lightened would, by the very nature of things, be an important contribution to research. A successful machine was built and its ownership acquired by the Committee and transferred to the National Research Council, which organization has made arrangements by which data can be worked up at low cost. Hence, so long as this machine endures, it should stand as one of the achieve- ments of the work supported by the Committee. SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATIONS As previously stated twelve major projects were supported by the Committee, upon which annual reports of progress were made by the several investigators, each of whom has submitted to the Chairman a
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~6 Scientific Pro bleats of Human Migration. Wissler summarized statement of progress and results. To summarize these statements adequately, one must needs be equally familiar with the sev- eral project backgrounds, a requirement the Chairman can in no way meet. However, a mere enumeration of end results may serve to give some synthetic perspective. Thus there have been added, in the way of research experience! and equipment, a series of tests to minimize language handicaps in mental-measurement; a special group of tests for rating and analyzing mechanical aptitude; some fundamental pioneer- ing in the analysis of personality, the most baffling aspect of the human problem, but one that must be faced squarely when dealing with migrat- ing peoples; an attempt to reach the fundamental psycho-neural re- sponses, upon the basis of which to project tests of social effectiveness; an effort to develop an approach to organic differences in peoples through data as to pathology; and an attempt to test out qualitative anthropometric characters as a method in the analysis of mixed races. The methodological character of the program is thus clear, the emphasis being upon the more strictly psychological side. It was not anticipated that the three years allowed for the work would more than launch these investigations, all being more or less of a pioneer char- acter, but it was expected that a start should be made with develop- ments that are essential to progress with the psychological and the genetical side of migration studies. The present status of the subject seems fully to justify this expecta- tion, for the social science and historical sides of migration research have been taken up by the Social Science Research Council in much the same way, and we can now report, that through coordinate activities tines two Councils are maturing two major research programs, one for the intensive analysis of populations and the other for an exhaustive study of areas of settlement, or " Pioneer Belts." In either case, the experi- ence and technique resulting from the initial investigations of this Com- mittee will constitute a distinct asset, and the community of interests initially enlisted promises to become more and more productive under new auspices.