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lo Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RESEARCH I. SURVEYS A. SURVEYS OF THE INCIDENCE AND TYPES OF AUDITORY DEFICIENCY IN THE POPULATION I. An experimental survey for the purpose of refining and stand- ardizing the methods of conducting such surveys and developing competent personnel, after all possible preliminary standardi- zations of instruments and methods of examination have been made. (See Note ~ appended to these recommendations.3 The Conference recommends that an experimental surrey be made of a population within an interior, medium sized city with diversified industries, surrounded by a rural area characterized by diversified farming: the nativity groups within the popu- lation surveyed to be limited in number. In order to provide for adequate statistical analysis of re- sults, this population group should consist of not less than 5,ooo persons, and should preferably include ~o,ooo, of all ages. It should be studied by house-to-house visits. The purpose of such a survey would be to explore the possi- bilities of the survey method, by covering the various phases of the method as set forth below. It should yield data sugges- tive of more refined inquiries on certain phases of the problem of auditory deficiencies, and would permit the use of sub- group~ings of the population surveyed to this end. For example, more intensive studies on the association of specific disease his- tories with hearing impairment could be made by comparing selected sub-groups. Genetic studies on a limited number of families could be made with due regard to other factors such as disease histories, environmental conditions, and so forth. For this experimental survey, a definite organization of a competent technician and field assistants under the supervision of a properly qualified director would seem to be essential. It is estimated that the survey should need financial support for at least two years to make the survey and to prepare a series of reports. It should, of course, have the advice of a group of consultants on matters of technique and method. a. Further population surreys. Following this experimental sur- vey, and profiting by its results, there should be surveys of various population groups, such as: a. Negroes, and other racial groups, in communities typical of the race to be studied.
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Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ii b. Definitely rural groups. c. Groups living under different climatic conditions. B. SURVEYS OF THE COMMON SCHOOLS The Conference recognizes the importance of the surveys which have been made of children in the public schools, for the detec- tion of auditory deficiency and the determining of the degrees of deficiency. The Conference urges the extension of such surveys, and unremitting effort to increase their efficiency. Accurate deter- mination of average degree of deficiency, and of its type, are neces- sary for the welfare of the child. Such work should benefit enor- mously from the improvements) in methods and techniques, ap- paratus, and research personnel which may confidently be expected to result from the experimental population survey already recom- mended. C. A SURVEY OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE PERSONNEL :ENGAGED IN TEACHING THE DEAF AND HYPACOUSIC It is recommended that a comprehensive survey be made as soon as possible of the persons at present engaged in teaching adults and children auditorily deficient in different degrees, covering the points as outlined below. It is believed that the results of such a survey will be of great value in approaching the problem of im- proving the personnel for the future, and for the improvement of their training. This information should be obtained regarding teachers in: (~) special schools for " deaf " children; (2) public schools where special teachers of speech, speech correction and lip reading are employed; (3) schools of lip reading for the adult " deafened." I. Information to be obtained from teachers directly- a. Educational, personal, family and economic background. b. Special personal and professional training. (~) Course of training: subjects. (2 ~ Observation: practice teaching. (3) Teaching certificate, if any: title, by whom issued, how long valid, etc. c. d. e. i. Subjects taught, including manual and trade subjects. Methods of teaching subjects. Kinds of students: grades, mentality. Showing of individual's experience with regard to Lacks in his own training. (2) Special advantages he feels he has had in his training, special contributions to his efficiency as a teacher. ;, _ _ ~.
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I2 Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing g. Inducements to teacher to take up and remain in this pro- fession. Congeniality. (2) Pay. (3) Living conditions. (4) Opportunities for study. 5 ~ Pensions. (6) Family connection with work, etc. h. Auditory level of teacher; auditory deficiency in his family. i. Amount of supervision of teaching. i. Amount of opportunity for improvement of teacher. k. Teaching experience: previous positions, etc. (~) Types of schools where past and present experience has been had. (~) Specific positions and salaries. (3) Length of time in each specific position. 1. Extra-class activities: what teacher reads, his intellectual productivity, articles published, books written, etc. m. Contact with education of normal children. a. The efficiency of teachers (information from sources other than the teachers themselves) a. Teaching aptitude, etc., as determined by tests. b. The extent to which teachers are well informed as to good modern methods in education of hearing children. c. The extent to which the teacher is keeping in mind the com- parison of hypacousic students with hearing children of the same age and grade (what tests does she use, etc.~. d. Special study of classes and teachers in most efficient and least efficient schools; comparison of results and methods (one person would have to do this). e. The qualifications needed by the good teacher. 3. Turnover. The survey of the teacher situation should include the gathering of data with regard to number of teachers needed each year; number available; factors related to turnover, its causes, etc.; number of new situations each year; number of new teachers beginning each year; number of teachers in new positions each year who have taught the deaf or hypacousic in other schools previously, or who have taught the hearing. D. A SURVEY OF THE CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS It is recommended that there should be a survey of the present situation in regard to the certification of teachers of the auditorily deficient, both as regards the laws governing certification, where
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Problems of the Deaf arid Hard of Hearing ~3 such obtain, and also the practices. Due attention should be paid to certification of general qualifications, and to certification for specific lines of work. A SURVEY OF TEACHER TRAINING CENTERS It is recorded that there should be a survey of the institu- tions or other centers at which teachers are now trained. This survey should reveal the geographic distribution of such centers, the requirements for entrance to training institutions or training courses, the courses of study which are offered, and the require- ments for graduation. Based on the data obtained by this survey, and also upon the data obtained by surveys B and C, there should be a critical com- parison of the training schools and courses for teachers of the auditorily deficient with those for teachers of hearing children. F. A SURVEY OF SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL It is recommended that a survey be made of persons engaged as supervisors, house-mothers, etc.; i. e., those directly in charge of children outside of class periods, to determine their qualifications in respect to: (~) educational training; (2) social abilities; (3) character; (4) fitness for their important function of character formation and habit building. G. A SURVEY OF THE CURRICULA ACTUALITY EMPLOYED IN THE VARI- OUS INSTITUTIONS FOR THE DEAF AT TEE PRESENT TIME It is recommended that the curricula actually in use in the various institutions should be collected and analyzed as a basis for further studies of the various problems involved in improvement and stand- ardization of the curriculum. This survey should be made by a committee or group including (~) a person familiar with the working of institutions for the deaf, and (~) a person thoroughly acquainted with the building and criticism of curricula in primary and secondary schools for normal children. The curricula should be obtained by visiting and studying the institutions not by questionnaire and there should be obtained an estimate of the changes and revisions of curricula made by the various institutions during the last ten years. The survey should include a study of industrial education, aca- demic instruction, language instruction, social training, and play activities. Both materials and methods of instruction should be included. It is recommended that there be a study of the content of school subjects, with regard to the simplification of courses at various
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Problems of the Deaf and EIard of Hearing stages of the curricula in such ways as to emphasize the primary needs of the pupil, omitting details which will not be used by pupils not going beyond the stages in question. H. A SURVEY OF CURRICULUM LITERATURE It is recow~ended that there be undertaken a systematic study of the existing literature bearing on the curriculum for the deaf, by (~) collecting all scientific investigations and discussions which have been published in this field; (2) abstracting and evaluating this material in adequate form and by approved criteria; (3) col- lecting the useful material about basal curriculum problems. The results of this labor should be published for the benefit of re- search students and other investigators in this field. The adva~n- tages derived from similar studies in the literature of the curricu- lum for the normal child point clearly to the usefulness of this survey. I. A SURVEY OF TEE RESULTS OF SCHOOL INSTRUCTION It is recor~nended that there should be an investigation of re- sults obtained by schools for the deaf, covering the following points: (a) the number of pupils failing to complete the course, and dropping out at different periods, together with the reasons for dropping out; (b) the social, intellectual and commercial status of those who have completed the course, as well as of those who drop out at venous periods, in the attempt to determine the extent to which they have profited by instruction and training. T. SURVEYS OF LEGISLATIVE AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS It is recommended that there should be a survey of the existing laws requiring, the aural examination of the deaf and potentially deafening in the school population as a basis for identification at such an early age that remedial treatment would be possible. It is recommended that there should be a survey of laws apply- ing to the auditorily deficient, including both those intended for the protection and benefit of such individuals and those discrimi- nating against them and limiting their employment, privileges, or rights. With this survey should go an investigation of the practices of insurance companies in regard to auditory deficiency as a dis- oualification for life or accident insurance; and the practices of ~ . 1 ~ ~ · 1 ' 1 · 1 · ~ 1 ~ SUCh companies in regard tO 10SS O! nearing as a alsaolllly acservlng compensation. There should be further a survey of the practices of compensation insurance carriers, corporations and other employers, and labor unions in discriminating against the deaf and the hypacousic.
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