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Problems of the Deaf arid FIard of Hearing IS Means and measures for the correction and improvement of such inadequate conditions as may be revealed by these legal and eco- nomic surveys should be earnestly sought. In particular, there should be an analysis of the trades and occupations with a view to the discovery of those for which auditory deficiencies of different grades are not handicaps, and even those for which such deficiencies may be a positive asset; and there should be an investigation into the justification and practicality of state agency in the rehabilitation of needy adults who have suffered loss of hearing, through teaching them new and suitable trades. There should be a survey of existing laws governing school attendance of children who' are deaf; and of the employment of field agents to assist in the enforcement of school attendance laws, and in the placement of deaf or deafened in remunerative employment. II. PROBLEMS OF SENSORY STIMULATION The Conference finds cleat there are unsoldered problems concerning the sensory stimulation of the auditorily deficient, for purposes of com- munication, instruction and emotional development, lying outside the field of stimulation by printed and written words, pictures and objects, which is common to the auditorily deficient and to normal persons, and aside from the problems of lip reading and of the sign and manual languages. These special sense problems fall into three classes: (~) the utilization of the remnants of hearing; (~) the utilization of vibrational and kinesthetic stimulations, and of the visual presentation of sound wave forms; and (3) the measurement of the degree and type of impair- ment of hearing. The utilization of the remnants of hearing in the auditorily deficient entails procedures of three types from the practical points of view: ~ ~ ~ the use of the voice and musical instruments; (~) the use of portable microphone sets, sometimes called head sets, of which there are a number of types on the market under various trade names; (3) the use of amplifying sets, either with loud speakers or multiple ear phone attachments for group listening. A. THE RATING OF PORTABLE MICROPHONE SETS --I The Conference recommends that steps be taken to perfect a . method and technique of rating the various portable sets, with reference to their efficiency and usefulness for the various types of auditory deficiency. None of these sets is entirely satisfactory, but it is believed that some are more adequate for certain types of auditory deficiency, some for others. Users of such devices are

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~6 Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing entitled to information as to their actual performance, that they may be enabled to select the sets most suitable to their particular needs. Methods and apparatus for the objective rating of such sets are capable of development by properly trained scientists, and this development should be forwarded. It is further recommended that such methods and apparatus, when developed, should be made accessible in the Bureau of Stand- ards, for the practical rating of sets submitted. B. THE INVESTIGATION OF REQUIREMENTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF AMPLIFYING DEVICES FOR SCHOOLS It is recommended that investigations be conducted on (~) the requirements for amplifying sets for use in schools for the deaf; (2) the most adequate methods of employing these sets in instruc- tional work and for musical and cultural purposes; and <3) prac- tical means of procuring the manufacture of such sets and making them available to schools. Such sets obviously have possibilities for use not merely in general instruction in school subjects, but also in the teaching of speech, and lip reading. Neither the full possibilities of use, the methods of employment, nor the specific characteristics required of the apparatus are known at present. On the other hand, we do not know the possible effects on a pupil's remnant of hearing and his nervous condition of his constant use of an amplifying device. Re- search is urgently needed. The results of surveys elsewhere recom- mended, of the population and of the schools as to the types of audi- tory deficiency which are prevalent, are needed for the facilitation of this research. C. THE USE OF VIBRATIONAL (PALMESTHETIC) STIMULATION The Conference recommends a definitive investigation of the pos- sibility of using amplified vibrations, (as from a single unit " tele- tactor "), as an aid to the acquirement of the proper rhythm (including duration, loudness, and pitch modulation) in speech by the deaf. Investigations during the last thirty years have repeatedly demonstrated the possibility of sound discrimination within sur- prisingly small limits through the application of vibrational stimuli to the fingers and other parts of the body, under certain con- ditions of intensity, duration and pitch. More recently the possi- bilities of intensity discrimination have been demonstrated. The possibilities of discrimination of rhythm patterns are known to most children and adults. The apparent success during the last twenty years of teachers of deaf children in teaching modulation and rhythm of speech through

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Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ~7 application of the child's fingers to his own cranial structures, and to those of the teacher, warrant the attempt to apply in this field the most efficient electric vibrators. Further improvement of the single unit teletactor is recommended for this purpose. The re- search should be carried on only with the fullest cooperation of scientific and educational experts. D. IMPROVEMENTS IN TYPE AND IUSE OF ACOUMETERS The Conference recommends that there be no cessation in the efforts to improve acoumeters, and to refine and standardize the m`~thoAc of lace of there instruments. It is recognized that in spite ~ _ of the great advances in instrumentation made by the Bell Telenhone and other laboratories and by the scientific users of their instru- ments, there is need for further progress. Instruments for field and school use which will diagnose types of auditory deficiency are urgently needed. The experimental survey of a population group as herein recommended will offer the chance for critical work in this direction. Improvement and standardization of methods of acoumetry are necessary. The widely varying results of different surveys made with the same instrument indicate clearly that the psychological factors of the approach to the individual, and the method of elicit- ing his response are of vital importance. The psychological labora- tories with their highly developed methods of threshold determina- tion should make a contribution here. Methods of differentiating the response of the auditorily deficient child from those of the normally hearing but mentally retarded child, are imperatively needed, since the current lack of these results in many misratings. Methods of determining the hearing capacity of infants, as yet unfound, are also needed. This is research for the expert child psychologist, and is more specifically recommended elsewhere. ~ A ~ -~ . ~ ~ E. 1 HE U SE OF V ISIBLE MONOGRAMS AS AN MID ~ ~ A- ~ ~ BALM ~ N (1 OF SPEECH The Conference is of the opinion' that further investigation into the uses of visible speech wave formsj such as are produced by the Osiso, the phoneloscope, the Koenig manometric flame, and similar devices, for the correction and improvement of speech, may be advisable. The Conference would stress the point that the usefulness of such methods, if usefulness appears, is to be evaluated by com- parison with the results obtained by other methods in equivalent time. ~