Click for next page ( 19

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 18
IS Problems of tbre Deaf and Hard of Hearing III. EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS The educational problems pertaining to auditory deficiency in its various degrees form a large and complicated network. The organization of these problems into a coherent system presents in itself a vast problem, soluble only after much work shall have been accomplished on many specific problems. The Conference, therefore, has been obliged to limit itself to the enumeration of those questions to which answers are most urgently needed, and which offer, although in some cases vaguely, hope ful possibilities of scientific attack. B. C. D. A. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SEVERAL METHODS The Conference recommends a comparative study of the several methods currently used in the instruction of the deaf. This study might well start from the results of the surveys recommended on Curriculum, on Teacher Training, and on the Results of School Training, but should extend further into experimental investiga- tio~n. The methods should be investigated in regard to their results as evidenced in, (~) the pupils' mental development; (2) his general educational attainments; and (3) the adaptability of the methods to the environmental and social conditions of the pupils. Due consideration should be given to the different conditions of day and boarding schools, and to the intelligence of the pupils, in respect to the effects of these in conjunction with the methods of instruction. THE INDUS-TRIAL TRAINING OF THE D!EAF It is recommended that, based on the data obtained from the surveys already recommended, there be a further investigation into the methods of training the deaf for trades and commercial occupa- tions. This study should have regard to the differential possibilities of training for the various occupations, and to the possible need of greater flexibility, if it should be found that there is a considerable tendency for the deaf to adopt trades and occupations other than those for which they have received specific school training. OBJECTIVES OF INSTRUCTION As a general problem, involved at many points with the specific recommendations listed, there should be a persistent attempt to analyze and list the objectives of instruction of the deaf in each of the three divisions: primary, intermediate and advanced. The Conf erence so recodes. EXTENSION OF THE SCHOOLS UPWARDS It is recommended that there be a study of the advisability of extending the courses of study to include the equivalent of the Junior High School or full High School.

OCR for page 18
Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ~9 E. COLLEGIATE PROVISION FOR THE DEAF The Conference recommends that there be a study of the higher education of the deaf. This involves a study of Gallaudet College to determine its place in the educational scheme of the deaf. The study should seer; to determine the best ways in which this college can cooperate with state institutions and other schools for the deaf, and with various educational institutions in the training of teachers of the deaf. There should also be a study of the adjustments neces- sary to meet the requirements of deaf students in regular colleges and universities, and of how well those adjustments are made. F. THE RELATION OF THE TRAINING COURSE FOR TEACHERS OF THE DEAF AND THE HARD OF HEARING TO THAT FOR TEACHERS OF NORMAL CHILDREN The Conference recommends an investigation of the question as to whether there is enough difference between the way subjects should be presented to auditorily deficient children, and the way in which they are presented to hearing children, so that the entire normal course of the teacher should be different; or whether the specialized training should be added to the regular normal training. This study might involve: l. AIn activity a;nc~lysis of the duties performed by teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing, who are rated as the " best " teachers by a composite of evidence from the achievement tests of pupils and the ratings by officials. The activities observed can be com- pared with those required of teachers of normally hearing chil- dren, and a list prepared of the special functions of the teachers of the auditorily deficient. comparative study of teachers similar in age, intelligence, schooling and experience, some of whom have been trained in a course designed especially to train teachers for the deaf; the others to have taken normal training first and to have received in approximately a semester the additional material designed to adapt their teaching to the deaf. 2. G. THE TEACHER S CONTRIBUTION TOWARD SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENTS OF PUPILS The Conference recommends an investigation of the technique of selecting and training teachers with a view to the discovery of ade- quate means of obtaining and fostering the best adjustments be- tween teacher and child. This investigation would depend upon the results and analyses of the emotional difficulties of auditorily de- ficient children, elsewhere recommended.

OCR for page 18
no Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing H. THE TYPE AND BALANCE OF TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF THE DEAF The Co'nferer~ce recommends investigation into various aspects of this problem, including: i. The need for training the teacher from the beginning as a specialist in speech reading, speech development processes, primary and grammar grade subjects, arts and crafts, or other departments of instruction. The relative importance of training in extra-class activities and the methods of teaching them. The relative stress to be laid upon training and practical ex- perience in teaching; and the conditions under which practice and observational work should be conducted, especially as regards time-distribution and number of pupils. 4. The advantages or disadvantages of previous: experience with normally hearing children before beginning work with the audi- torily deficient. 5. The length of time of training needed, both in total and in specific departments of work. 6. The practical balance between training in the materials to be taught, and the art and science of instruction. The extent to which training in the anatomy and physiology of hearing, in the general psychology of the child and the psy- chology of special conditions peculiar to! the auditorily deficient child; and in the knowledge of symptoms indicating need of medical and psychological treatment, should be required of the teacher. I. PROBLEMS OF THE HARD OF HEARING CHILD The educational problems so far presented concern largely, al though not exclusively, the so-called " deaf " child and adult, for whom special educational institutions and courses of study dis- tinctly different from those of the common schools are required. \Ve need, therefore, to have special concern for the hypacousic, or " hard of hearing " child, who is largely amenable to the conditions of the public schools, but who requires certain special provisions in order to profit by school attendance. The Conference urges that systematic studies be made looking toward improved methods of handling hypacousic children in the common schools. Such studies should envisage: I. The provision of instruction in lip reading and articulation for affected children. 2. The provision, where necessary, of special classes in the regular curriculum subjects for hypacousic children.