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Problems of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing 2i 3. The analysis of requirements for teachers of lip reading, and of curriculum subjects, as differentiated from those for teachers of normal children and of deaf children. The use of mechanical aids in instruction. The advantageous placing and treatment of the slightly hypa- cousic child who may remain in the regular classes. The efficient handling by the teacher of the emotional, rec- reational and social adjustment, and the vocational guidance of the hypacousic child. T. THE TEACHING OF LIP READING There are at present in vogue in the United States several advo- cated methods of teaching speech reading (lip reading). The Con- ference recommends a comparative study of these methods, with a view to the improvement and standardization of instruction. In this study the divergent needs and capacities of children and adults, of the deaf and the hard of hearing, of those auditorily impaired at different ages, and of those of different cultural levels, should be considered. K. THE SPEECH PROBLEMS OF THE HARD OF HEARING Hypacousic individuals, both children and adults, present speech problems which are different from those of the " deaf." Speech defects, even in those of moderately impaired hearing, are often serious handicaps, socially arid industrially. Tonality, modulation and articulation frequently degenerate. The Conf erence reco~q~end~s an investigation of the speech difficulties of hypacousics with reference to: I. Methods of rendering the individual aware of his specific defects. a. Techniques for the assistance of the individual in correcting his defects. 3. Methods of guarding against subsequent deterioration. IV. MEASURES OF CAPACITY AND ACHIEVEMENT Many of the problems included in this report depend upon the use of adequate measures of capacity and achievement of auditorily de- ficient children and adults. It is recorded, therefore, that intensive efforts be made to improve tests now available, and to develop adequate tests in lines where the present lacl: is a serious impediment. A. INTELLIGENCE TESTS On account of the language difficulties of the auditorily deficient, it is clear that non-verbaI measures of intelligence are the more

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Problems of the Deaf andf Hard of Hearing adequate for these individuals, especially in the case of children. It is reco~nmended that there be: I. .~4 tryout of existing tests, individual and group, of which there are in existence a considerable number, including batteries and scales, single tests, and mechanical and motor tests. ~4 selection of tests f ounce usable, and the construction of n~eas~`r- ing scales which should be standardized on both hearing and deaf children. There should result: a. An individual test for ages below eight. b. An individual test for ages eight and above. c. A group test for ages below eight. d. A group test for the elementary school range. e. A group test for the high school range. f. Suitable mechanical aptitude tests. B. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS It is recommended: i. That there be a selection of standard tests which may be suitable for use in schools for the deaf, selection to be made through a systematic try-out of the tests in various schools. a. That the standard tests selected be adapted to better use through necessary changes and the arrangement of new scales. 3. That new tests be derived, based on the actual curricula of the schools, when such curricula shall have been collected and analyzed in the survey already recommended. ~ 7 . ~ . ~ , - . ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ Hat ton the basis ot the above researches' specially scaled tests be made available for the following subjects, at least: Reading, arithmetic, spelling, English usage, composition. history and geography, hand writing, health knowledge and industrial arts. These scales should range from the primary through the high school grades. TESTS OF PROFICIENCY IN COMMUNICATION For the comparison of the effectiveness of methods of com munication, it is essential that measures of proficiency in these methods should be developed. It is therefore reco~zended: i. That there be devised and standardized tests of finger spelling' both as regards interpretation and performance. The feasibility of moving picture film is suggested as worthy of consideration. 2. That there be constructed a scale for proficiency in lip reading. Such construction includes the selection of a standard series of words, sentences, and longer texts as materials; the determina- tion of the proper response of the pupil (written, oral, or by