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CONTRIBUTIONS FUROR THE FIELD OF MARKET RESEARCH * JUNE 27, I94I Wesley Hardenbergh (American Meat Institute): Institute comprises 375 meat processing companies. Began investigation and campaign because of downward trend of meat consumption. Important to Institute, to farmers (25~ cash income from selling meat animals). Hoped to discover consumer attitude. Elmo Roper (Consultant to American Meat Institute): Survey of meat consuming habits; motives for eating; motives for not eating. First stem rocking chair conversations with consumers, home economists, doctors. Second step, questionnaire pre-tested in 30 communities. Third step: 5200 interviews using questionnaire on Forturte cross-section, interviews with dieticians, home economists, domestic science teachers, and observers in butcher shops. Find- ings: 98.870 of all interviewed ate meat at some time, 36% said it tasted best (of long list of foods), 8070 labelled meat as food that stayed with you longest; 60% of all evening meals contained meat, cow noon meals, 33% morning meals. Differences: Men ate more than women, manual laborers more than white collar people. Meal at which meat eaten: South and South- west fairly heavy at breakfast; South and Northwest, heavy at lunch; all except Southwest heaviest at night; rural heaviest at breakfast and noon; urban, heaviest at evening. Meat preferences: lamb consumption largest in Northeast, smallest in Southwest (though area where lamb grown); 9570 ate beef at some time; more pork than beef meals, though more people actu- ally avoided pork than avoided beef. Drawbacks to meat consumption: 2I7O thought meat hard to digest; 75~c (men and women equally) thought pork most difficult of the meats to digest; ~oj5 believed some or all meat fatten- ing. Although 30~0 did something consistently to get vitamins in diet and To women considered vitamins most important in meal planning (9% con- sidered proteins most important; smaller To minerals), meat does not rank as important source of vitamins in public mind said meat best source, ~67o said meat contained sonic vitamins. Doctors and dieticians better in- formed but disagreed among themselves. Considered meat an important source of proteins, but these not generally regarded as so important in meal planning. Some 207to felt they ate too much meat. Comparisons of records kept by one-fifth of respondents with statements made showed they actually ate meat ~.4 times daily; thought they should eat meat ~ ;4 times daily; thought they did eat meat ~.7 times daily. Doctors and dieticians thought rich eat too much, poor too little. Actually, despite differences of quantity and quality, each group eats neat same number of times. Majority said meat "most ex- pensive food" for what you get out of it; easily understandable since it is * See minutes of the conference of Committee on Food Habits, June 27, ~94:, under same title. 14r

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I42 The Problem of Changing Food Habits not regarded important source of vitamins and is considered by so many as indigestible. Thought by ~370 that beef, if eaten Norm than once or twice a week, would cause high blood pressure. ~ 1 hose eating meat infrequently, when asked why, said they did not feel need of it. Reasons given by Hobo who felt too much meat eaten: keeps one from eating vegetables and other things "good for one ;" hard to digest; bad for blood pressure; bad for kidneys; fattening. Main factors affecting food-eating habits: economic status and geography (far more than sex). Cereals, breads, meats showed practi- cally no variation in amounts consumed in different economic levels; con- sumption of fruits and juices (fruit and vegetable) declined sharply with decline in economic level. Tabulations of records of food eaten made only of meat consumption. Mr. Andrew Duncan (Leo Burnett Company): Worked out advertising campaign for American Meat Institute. Carried research further to find what housewife means by "well-balanced" meal; what people mean by "hard to digest." Decided groups which must be reached: ~ ~ thought leaders in field of nutrition (doctors, dentists, nurses, nutritionists)-special campaign couched in their own language necessary for these; ~) home economics teach- ers; 3) retailers and salesmen contacting retailers (about ~,ooo,ooo people behind counters of some 500,000 retail outlets); 4) ~30,ooo,ooo consumers in 35,ooo,ooo families. Media used to reach construers: well-rounded list of national magazines can cover up to 75~o of population (lower third-True Story, Liberty; middle third and upwards and downwards Saturday Evening Post, Life, Colliers, Good Housekeeping, Ladies Home Journal, Woman's Home Companion, McCall's); newspapers (reach lower in economic scale); radio; outdoor end transportation advertising. Approach to appeals: must bring appeals down to family level; deal with problems of misinforma- tion about meat; tell correct nutritional story of meat; teach women cuts of meat (in an earlier study found women generally knew only ~-~5 cuts out of possible ~60) in terms of expense and thrift. Mr. J. H. Moninger (American Meat Institute): Described presentation of data to public to correct misinformation and give new information. Posi- tive points uncovered in Roper survey: people eat and like meat; public recognizes meat has a satiety value. Negative points: public does not know about vitamins in neat; think meat difficult to digest, fattening, expen- sive, too much is harmful causes variety of ills. Checked presentation with nutrition authorities before sending it out to public. Showed numerous poster and chart exhibits to illustrate points. In messages to physicians answer four negative criticisms: vitamins, fattening, indigestibility, eat too much. In mes- sages to home economics teachers add other points economy and prepara- tion. In messages to general public stress: vitamins, digestibility, waistline (im- portance of meat in modern reducing diet), satiety value, economy (show this without pointing directly to fact that meat is not expensive or that it is economical), leftovers (must take into consideration men's instinctive dis- like of), appetite stimulation by advertising appeal, reply to "eat too much" by showing meat in well-balanced meal. In addition to direct advertising also send material through publicity channels; these may coincide with ad trend

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Contributions from Market Research i43 or be more general in nature. As campaign goes on, fits more and more into broad program of nutrition. Mr. R. C. Pollock (National Live Stock and Meat Board): Board estab- lished ~8 years ago. Is independent of but cooperates with American Meat Institute. Uses research facilities of Bureau of Home Economics and state experiment stations; research projects largely in hands of the National Research Council. Board has own Department of Home Economics under ~ ~ T , ~ it, . ~ ,, ~' ~ r vl1ss lnez w1llson. make regular surveys on cost ot meat. Cast survey in Chicago showed ~5 retail cuts at 25 a pound or less. Gradually enlarged research program; Miss Anna Boller in charge of nutrition division. Miss Anna Boller (National Live Stock and Meat Board): Board carries on two types of research: fundamental research and clinical research. In- cludes such studies as: value of protein foods in reproduction and lactation; blood regeneration; iron content of animal tissues; fat metabolism; unsatu- rated fatty acids; effect of different percentages of proteins in diet; effect of meat on biological value of proteins; effect on kidneys of diets high in protein; vitamin B complex; meat and disease; high protein diet in hyper- tension; lunches high in iron effect on hemoglobin of under-privileged chil- dren; high protein diet in weight reducing and gaining-complete metabolism work; lard and eczema; anemia in infants and in college women. Open to suggestions for studies to be included in program for next year. Mr. Follock: Board has approved a study of loss of vitamins in meat as a result of cooking. Board ready to cooperate with national health defense pro- gram. Are working with retail meat dealers to help them sell housewife less expensive cuts of meat. Merchandising Department now working with Army on meat problems. Mr. Max Called (National Live Stock and Meat Board): Merchandising Department uses demonstration as chief method of instruction. Work of department divided into 5 sections : meat lectures (with demonstrations); meat exhibits at livestock exhibits and fairs; merchandising service (tech- nical information for authors, editors, publishers); motion pictures; training program for Army, Navy, and Conservation Corps. Try to help housewife select meat to better advantage. In demonstrations find relative importance of appeals to senses as follows: eye, 87570; ear, 7%c; nose, 3.5%o; hand, i.57o; tongue, Who. After demonstration give booklets describing subject (Cashing in on Pork, Cashing in on Lamb, Cashing in on Beef, etch; include little read- ing matter, many pictures. least year installed i38 exhibits across country; found people spent anywhere from 3-20 minutes observing exhibits and taking notes on cuts, etc. Mr. Pollock: Should consider possibility of tying defense program to media used by Board exhibits, for example. Home Economics Department dis- tributes information regularly to 240 out of the 800 radio stations in United States on meat selection, preparation, and utilization of food. Supply con- sumer literature for distribution. Maintain "clip-sheet" service on meat for ~02 metropolitan newspapers. Sell bloc a copy) textbook Ten Lessons on Meat to high schools. Monthly bulletin, The Food and Nutrition News, sent out to home economists with samples of other new literature. Home

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I44 The Problems of Changing Food Habits Service Department conducts cooking schools ~ emphasizing well-balanced meals ) across country. Give supporting copy to newspapers. Women in charge also speak over radio. Syndicate service sends out copy weekly to about ~2 papers-emphasis on less demanded and low cost cuts of meat. Second syndicate service at present going to another ~6 papers are fur- nished with glossy prints of material on request. Since first of year have been cooperating with Army. Merchandising men visited Army camps to observe problems involved. Assist Army with cutting, cooking, and on nutrition; not too much on cooking; nutrition material taken from Government bulletins; cutting methods entirely new. Mr. Cullen: Observation showed necessity for developing entirely new methods of meat cutting for Army to get uniform sized boneless roasts. Took information to mess sergeants and cooks. Made complete round of all large Army posts in the ~ Corps Areas. Conducting 5 day meat training schools with key man from each regiment in attendance at the post school. Each returns to regiment as meat specialist. By August I5th, 800 such men will have been trained. Prepared supplementary booklet, Meat Reference Manual f or Mess Sergeants and Cooks. Prepared large lecture charts: ~) three functions of food and food classifications (made with cooperation of Col. Howe); 2) nutritional requirements of properly balanced meals; 3) meat cookery; 4) meat cutting series; 5) location and names of wholesale cuts in various kinds of meat; 6) meat camring; 7) refrigeration, sanitation, safety, care of meat blocks and tools. These are for use in Army Bakers an Cooks Schools. In addition, give men handbook with necessary references to put into practice information obtained at lecture demonstration. Mr. Pollock: Board has prepared booklet on lard for Army use how to use and make different products with lard. Lots of pictures with very simple directions. Board has had prepared a motion picture on cuts of meat, methods of cooking, methods of carving, and what there is in meat and what it will do for you. Since distribution began (Dec. I, ~940) picture shown ,893 times to 2,422,256 persons, approximately 6070 high school and college students, 40~ adults. Mr. Hardenbergh: Offered cooperation of Meat Institute with program. Discussion following formal reports: Mr. Roper (in reply to question of Dr. M. Seay on breakdown of figures in economic levels of survey): Breakdown in terms of size of place, geographi- cal area, section, age, economic level, but do not have tabulation of a particular economic level in terms of size of place, etc. Have an over-all picture of rural area as compared to other size groups. Do not have, but could get, rural areas by geographical areas, or economic levels, etc. Can give diet all the way through for an average day. Dr. Hazel K. Steeling: Farm family food consumption report gives by family size and income for different sections quantities of food consumed dur- ing a period of a week. Mr. Roper: In speaking of rural families in report, farm and non-farm are lumped together but could be separated. Percentage of relief families in

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Contributions frozen Market; Research ~45 eluded in survey. Don't know eRect of food stamp plan, but would throw figures off only for a small percentage of over-all. The survey was an accu- rate cross-section of the entire population geographical area, size of place, sex, occupation, age, and economic level. Have several methods of checking. Booklets not returned in proper proportion (more rich and old replied) but threw out enough to get accurate sample of loom Not likely to do another survey soon because habits change slowly, but the war situation with its rapid changes may make it necessary to check up. Mr. Pollock: Rapid changes illustrated by Army. In past little lamb used. Mess sergeants claimed soldiers did not like lamb. But survey made when lamb was served at two Army camps (~3,ooo men) showed men loom in favor. Dr. M. G. Reid: Posters shown here presumably dealt with attitudes re- vealed in survey. What was response to digestibility ~ Question whether people mean feeling of discomfort or whether they mean absorption of food when they speak of digestibility. Mr. Roper, Mr. Burnett: Don't know exactly what people do mean; advertisement tries to deal with both factors. Miss Willson: When people say a food is indigestible there is the ques- tion-how many speak from experience of actual digestive disturbance due , . ~, , ~ ~ to a food ? Probably a very small proportion. Dr. W. H. Sebrell: An important point in advertising. May do harm if miss point. Attitude probably partly due to recommendations of physicians for feeding of invalids or babies. Miss Boller: Publications of National Live Stock and Meat Board stress fact that some meat (those higher in fats) are more slowly digested rather than a difference in actual digestibility. Must begin with education of doctors on this. Dr. Reid: But is there in fact any difference in digestibility? Advertis- ing of business groups shows some unwillingness to face up to something that is a disadvantage to an actual product. Reaction to a single advertise- ment conditioned partly by other advertisements, etc. Evasion reduces educa- tionai value of posters. Recognition of limitations necessary if educational contribution not to be wasted. Mr. Moninger: Statements are first submitted to Council of Foods and Nutrition of the American Medical Association for their approval. Dr. Reid: Nevertheless attitude of public may be sceptical. Dr. W. L. Warner: Important thing for Committee to know is where do yolk succeed and where have you failed. What kind of things do you do that really get people to follow what you want them to do? .... What sort of things have you done that don't get the follow-up you would like? Mr. Roper: Must start with analysis of whether emotional reasons for doing something are for you or against you (in making up advertising or propaganda). In meat situation have two strong emotional reasons for you (keeps you from getting hungry, tastes good) and a number of rational reasons against you. Must provide rational reasons which will dispel fears must understate rather than exaggerate. If a strong emotional urge to do some

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46 The Problem of Changing Food Habits filling is missing, then must combine thing with something else to provide the emotional support. (Defense Bonds no strong emotional urge to save money-so must combine with do something for Uncle Sam). In general there is a tendency to overestimate amount of information common man has, underestimate his common sense. Successful appeals are those which are sound statements, understatements rather than exaggerations, directed toward person's actual self-interests. These statements backed up by eight years of research on subject. Mr. Leo Burnett (Leo Burnett Advertising Co.~: Emotional urge plus rationalization the basis of all successful advertising. Must appeal to self- interest of reader. In nutrition program have problem of articulating the standards and yardsticks. Must boil down points and put them where every- one can see them. Changes probably greatly accelerated in present situation. Must find necessary emotional appeals "everybody is doing it" and patri- otism probably would be successful. Two major divisions of problem crafts- ~nanship (words, pictures, technique) and media. Should not depend solely on manufacturers, etc.; must find ways to adequately place, focus material. MY. Pollock: Must interpret scientific data in such a way that the layman or instructor can understand it. Story must be sound and reasonable. For instance, research on liver as source of vitamins eventually resulted in tre- mendous increase in sales of all kinds of liver. When lecture on liver is given in cooking school, all liver in town is bought up next day. And so on. In material on reducing or gaining diets, urge person to consult physician first. Experimented with diets for reducing including lean meat. Checked effect of high protein diet on dogs and rats. Issue of Harp eras Bazaar containing data on "Reducing with Meat" sold out; had to repeat article. In building up a campaign must put emphasis on sound facts; against kind of advertising that says "eat galore," "drink more"- never urge people to eat more meat. A program in Kansas City, Omaha, and St. Louis stressing forequarters completely changed sales in two months. Education on cooking temperatures of meat went slowly but now average woman knows low temperatures should be used. Got cooperation of Taylor instrument people when they made a meat thermometer. Must make information simple if it is to be used. Con- centration necessary on defense program. Commercial interests and educa- tional institutions should go ahead hand in hand in interest of civilian and national defense. Put available material in shape the layman can understand. People are eager for new information. Research on lard and eczema not complete-but people already asking for help. Dr R. Wilder: Does acceptance by the Council on Foods of the American Medical Association add to the value of an advertisement? Helps with Food and Drug Administration when American Medical Association standards are accepted. Must make one or two points of criticism. Meat eating may not cause hypertension, but most physicians would hestitate to allow a person with high blood pressure or nephritis, etc., to eat a lot of meat. Might be kickback on this advertising point. Another thing, approximately same num- ber of calories needed in summer as in winter, but in summer don't want foods with a high specific dynamic action, and meat is high. .. .. .. . ~. . , .. ~.. .

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Contributions frolic Market Research ~47 Mr. Pollock: People don't write in on such points. But need advice and counsel of people like you. Miss Boller: Statements based on editorial in Journal of the American Medical Association. Meat does not cause elevation of blood pressure in un- complicated cases of hypertension. But have laid little stress on point. JIr. Burnett: American Medical Association steal strong point in advertis- ing; appeals to retailers especially. Dr. Seay: Are we giving enough recognition to importance of elementary schools ~o,ooo,ooo people in elementary schools not yet reached. Dr. C. E. Gnthe: Discussed problem at previous meetings relative level of reading ability and vocabulary of group for whom material intended. Dr. R. Tolman: What is relation between correct information and correct action ? Err. Roper: Information not tabulated-complicated by economic factors. Must get cross-rufT between amount of 'education and purchasing power. Mr. L. D. H. TEeld (McCann-Erickson Advertising Agency): Handle Pillsbury Flour advertising. No new surveys made. So far largely newspaper advertising on vitamin reinforced flour. Too early to' tell results. National Biscuit-new bran. Testing appeals. California Walnut Growers account- advertising magazine, newspaper, outdoor, recipe books increased consump- tion and length of season. Pineapple Association account well rounded cam- paign almost doubled sales of crushed pineapple. Shows habits not too hard to change. Media used ' for educational work depend on product, group to be reached. Magazines do not reach lowest income groups; reach these by radio and newspaper; some outdoor advertising. But no general answer. Importance of research work in planning campaign-various forms: broad consumers surveys, home tests needed to determine appeals and consumer attitude toward product. Developing special techniques. No check when advertising has begun except possible later sales survey. Miss Marietta Eichelberger (Director of Nutrition Service of the Evapo- rated Milk Assn.~: Evaporated Milk Association organized in ~9~3 for re- search and education. All research carried on' through fellowships. Method of interpretation of research depends on group to be reached; tools for home . economists, science, or grade room teachers, teachers of adults, public health or welfare administrators, doctors, dentists, nutritionists, nurses, etc. Need for simplified interpretation. Evaporated milk~ow's milk illustrated bv poster. Evaporated milk a product, not a brand. Educate teachers to teach clients, etc. Publications carry seal of American Medical Association, some- times important, sometimes not. Non-technical language essential. Developed series of welfare leaflets education material followed by recipes-simple everyday ingredients- How to Feed Children in Nursery Schools; How to Feed Young Children ire the House simplified into Solve Foods for Your Child simplified into Feeding Your Child. Feeding a Family at Low Cost simplified into Using Evaporated Milk in Good Food for the Fancily. Educational material must be attractive-color, if possible two colors, pic- tures, white space, no crowding. Also plan teaching aids for use in school room posters, stories, comic strips, plays, recipes, suggestions for activities. IO

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148 The Problems of Changing Food Habits Several units of study on problem basis all showing evaporated milk as an economical, safe milk supply. Foreign language leaflets (Italian, Spanish, Yiddish) developed but not worth effort and cost. Consumption increased front 7 pounds per person to ~8 pounds per person over 20 years. Try to overcome prejudice against food in cans; taste prejudice children's preju- clice due to adult influence. Use evaporated milk in nursery schools, school lunch programs-convenient as well as safe. Good acceptance. Leaflet on school lunches for WPA program. Always stress economy, safety. Infant feeding program result of early work of late Dr. Marriott approximately lo% of all babies in United States consume evaporated milk; do not need to be educated to like it. Evaporated milk more easily and completely digested; calcium, other minerals, and vitamin values not impaired. Have no way of knowing exact distribution of evaporated milk or who gets it in hone; would like to know. Approximately 60% now produced is reinforced with Vita- min D-approximately solo by means of irradiation, IONS by adding fish oil concentrate. No data on sales appeal of each type.