Click for next page ( 3


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 2
- ~ 2 - 'impost of -':hose -who blare accepted assi,~ra<~r,ts are ei~ga,,ed ~ wa-r work, and i', is doubtful if inch progress wild ':e Glade du-,qing tile '`iar periods. ECOLOGIC`~ Deity FOR PhL.~OIiTOLOr.ISrtS It is recognized that many p=~contolo~r~ist,s :~ ho are i steno S:J ec1 in `-:aleo~cologica] studies need ~ greater kno:-~ecige of preset LIT ;>cc~loc!~.7. Such of the ecoloc>,ical -.;orl' that has been done arid is ~ei::lg choice .;~.~th li~r- iia~, o-r~ganis:~s '`-as only ~ very i.~.~c'.~rect '.ocari~:g on ~:aleo:?.~olo,~ica1 corks but other studies furnish much inf'or~nation that is or =~-,^eat value to paleonto1- o~is'cs. The -reports or the Cor.~,mxitee attempt to cite cu:~;:ei~t -:efe3:~enc~.;s of this kind, buff there is a very large amount off:' ecological dray retouch of' it published many years ago, ill journals arid other 'oiological oublicatio3as$ not seer by max~-r p2leontol0~,~sts. ~ systematic retried of this 1-'terature by biologists who are weld a-`,r~a~e off the type of "material use:: to paleol~tol- o~ists `,-;ould be very v7o-.th While. Burl ~vesti.~;a~:c`~ or this sort was first su`<,rgested bar Do. H. ]3. Ste.rlzel. The CorLrli~tee feels that it ';~ou3d be justified ii: initiating a second bibliographic program to co~:cer~tra-ue -the specialized dada needed fo-r paleoecoloP:~ca2 studies furor -Lhe volu~ili,~ous literature of biology. This `~-:ork will be started Ju-l^~-i<.: -:he -t'211 Hi' 1943. CULLS:-, Tl1 ACT ENTITIES `` o~ UI~IT:3D STATES Josiah Bridge of bye U. S. Geological ,~;:rve,; has 'beer Wylie out faurlal rela-i,iorls;hips Aid the Upper Cambrian of Tennessee. S~r,~lar s-~ud~es5 ,~.ade 3rl Mama in collaboration -~'it'n Preston I. Cloud and llorman . Benson, indicate that lateral intergradat.lons of l~thologic :,,~pes can be -reco~,niz`~d across the rA OCR for page 2
of ~ his sponge in the Che.sa~?eake Say' areas acid occasiona.lly collections ~r.~.ere made or receipted from other ~soDaucct areas along tne Atlantic Coast. "From these studies on. taxonomy it appears that there are at leas-: seven species of boring sponges that Proust, be considered. The ~-orr..~er habit of simply referring, to the boring sponges as Cliona sulphurea or Cliona celata is in escrow In fact the na~e~sulphurea is not even valid for it s identical to the older species celata described in lcS26 frown col~ect~o::s. in Scot;lai~d. This Cliona celata seems to have a world ~.~ide distillation in strictly.~arine Haters. Two other species, one originallNr described from co' ~ ections off Scotland and i;: the English Channel along Che French Coast, and another originally from the coast of India arid later found to have a -wide Europeans distribution, also seen to be common in the -marine waters along Our coast. Threes o1^ the species appear to be clist=nct Arch previously describe ed specimens., and one of these is characteristic of Brackish ::Ja.ters. fine other specimen along the ~tlanuic Coast was ~L studied be: us bun appears in the collections from the Dry Tortugas, of ~ Flo;=i.da,, stuc fed by de Lauben~^eD s . 'iC1: opening spon, e-riddled oysters and remo~iilg the meat it is very common to find perforations penetlat~r~g through the idler face off one or both ~r~l~res. - Often a fresh white deposit of calcium ca,^~oi~ate "rna~r conceal older openings, at the same tine shoaling distinctly fresh 'oily o,oen~'il`~s, Ordinarily., it would seem, the oyster c`= handily coi~t-~>~^ol this i~:te:cierence of its i~nr!:ediate en~riroiLr!~ent 'between the mantle =~d the shell. Arother complemelat 0' infer surface perforations may easily be fouled in the muscle scar. 'these opeiair~js Bitt the a'~tach~-ts off the muscle =~i':ers -oust interfere Oh the facility of contraction aiad the maintenance off contraction of the abductor muscle . One riddled oyster s,oec~nen -~-~ith naturally gaping valves showed a don't discolored muscle mass and perforations at the shell autachr.le~tt. These sponges like others draw water into their "astral of digestion cha-nbers by allay o' the Pity surface pores and expels fit bar laz^ger surface pores. In the ones abodes process waste products are eliminate ill bite excu-r:~e:;~t -` love a:? water, If these tunnels o: the sponge open on the ~ ler surface of ar1 o<-~ste sneak i; seems that ~ luids of the oysters roust be circa- into -t! e sponge body by the inc~rre;lt flow aTld9 at the sar.le tinges some caste -materials of the sponge must oe aepo.s1tect In the spaces between the mantle and shell or between muscle fibers and shells One or both of these p-f~ocosses concei~-abl ~ could take place. Also it appears Sound to believe that because of' co.~inuous e.~r- ternal and internal operlin:;s ii: the shell, the ouster is Laos able to control the immediate environment surrou::dir? its mantles or body, These factors probably are responsible as tile chief causes of she mortality of the oyster since it You: bring about 1) a reduction of body ~ luids 2) contact with toxic wastes and 3) disease her OH intl~oc~uction of parasitic microor==a~isms from the sea Avatars "The bring sponge is easily cultured or 'kept Moliere in the la'co-rato;~. The easiest method" is to place a clean infested shell in a her oo'`',1 with just enough sea water to cover the shells A daily comp:Lel;= change of -~;A.~ater is not necessary. The sponge remans active and cor~-`i~ua11:r ejects thy fra`~,~nents of calcium ca;:bonateO IN You place one Of' these cultures node- a binocu7avr microscope, you can readily find the oscular,: o_ all ex~current canal

OCR for page 2
- fF - arlcl see that at re~.lar irate corals Moliere ~ s slve~i;1ed, fitly coi~sidera~;;le fo., ce.' a particle Go shell., "In a twenty-four hour interval manor small piles Gi these particles "~,:i11 have collected on the bottom of the dish and on the su-~:Cace of the shell. J.~oo;~il:,~ at these tiny panicles through the CO~pOUll] r,~cl~oscope YOU see many ar~gulated fra,~;ments. The concave surfaces sharp annexes and striations give once the impression that they could be the result of a mechanical action, a cutting action of one or more kinds of spicules. If you Prado thin pieces of transparent calcite among infested oysters and suspend the container in sea-water, you will -find, in tines a setting of the bolting sponge on the calcite. I`.ia~y pieces of calcite wi:L] illustrate a d~ilinuti~re spoke just beginning to since itself into the calcium carbonate, You Cook at this and into the young sponge sett:Led in the slight pit through the microscope, Leitz Ultrapak with ~rert~cal ill Nation using a mag~i~ica:Lior~ of 3-5 hundred One can readily see etched outlines ill the calcite about the sponge cor- responc;ling to the particles spewed by an active sponge in all oyster shell. Many of these tiny sponges show no spicules whatever so `;;rou realize that the cleavage of these pa - ~ cles is apparertl~r not due to a Mechanical action. . . j . . "Tn examir:~ng pieces of shell from the Calls of careens made by the hyping sponge ~ shed, you frequently ~ ind that boring fungi are also presents In some shells these ~ ilameints of the fUl3=i become ilt~l~erous form- in~ a reticulate stPuctu-re. And it seems logical to suppose float a more .. . . co~.;~lex reticulate structure of =~te-rcor~r~ecting and crossings, Magi- fila:'nerl' s . . could produce a separation 03: tiny Byrne particles. But here again :an ky~ pothesis or a symbiotic relationship bet`~\lee:~ a rock fu~n-,u.s and a sponge ~" s questionable, pro'~abl~r -far-fetched; since many other pieces of she'd from, the war Is of caverns d o not reveal any evidence of' ~ r v his . . . ''Chitirlous.sheets found ',:~-t~,.'een layers of calcium c(~;-,~or~ate in shells also 'become per:Eorat,ed by a gradual removal c~ tiny pieces ccr?.:~esoond:~g in form to the e-~pe:1ed pies or fragments of shells. This, a;cco~dir~g . to some ar~,urQents, seers to be a 1~~-t against a.no~he;^ ':~ypo~hesis Phi ch holds that the boring action is due Lo an acid secretion. On `.he other [land, analyses of sea-~,ra' er containing, active boring sponges in otherwise clean sine' Is did snow a slight daily increase in dissolved calci'~-~, ''Boring, sponges, like o-'~l~er spon`,es, reproduce ase~cua~ly and sexually. Tn the Chespaeake Bay at Solomo::s we loused eggs Within the sponge be.,~:ing about "'iu~ust ist. Glean pieces of shell or calcite rece~vecT ~ set of larvae as easily as July 286~. :3uropean investigators have 'owed eggs as early as l'~Iarch Ad as date as October in various species. The young ~n- dividual bores very a.cti~rel:r and as it spreads nerve ~ndi-~ic'.uc~ Ls '~ranch or bud. from the original. 23c-,r the approach of unfavora7~1e cor~c.~-tic~s, a mass of Sponge consisting of hurdreds or individuals; proc7~uco~ as the result of budd-r'~g, has pei~etrcaced the confines of the shell. Activities as Remeasured by the ejection of she'd particles s:Lacken and stop, an,d ct this Verne ger.~i~ules, internal buds consisting each of many primitive cells, tsar be 'fouled in pockets at the find or a tunnel ire the oldster shell. Ger!~mu:Les fret: are found also during the active season. They are naked bodies ~hov.t spicules.

OCR for page 2
- 5 - "Boring sponge ergs ace OCR for page 2
- 6 - have been silting mo-.e ra.~:ict~c-, in receipt yea . . . . . . . . . PacTre CCs? =,d, Abbe scuthern~ost barrier island of -':he Texas Coast is said to: leave been green uncoil: shorc:iy after 1070 ~v,~h-~3:~ fit beccame area, denuded of vegetation and the fauna changed. rekey rapicl filling of the coastal ]:a'`i~on, Laguna ~:.tad~^e, has taken place since flee -~-irst Claps here Blade in l22:L, chiefly by sally from Padre Island carried igloo the Lacuna bar h:.7rr~c~nes and the southeast Winds and presumably at an ir~c-x~eased rate since cTenudat~on of the is]~. Il~e record rains of :L94] and the heavy pre- c~'piia~ion of 1942 have restored r.tluch of the mask cover of the northern hail of ~he, isDai~d--that :Least disturbed lay the onerous hurricane tides On fat past decade. Tree Acura ;i.Iadre is the most prolific fishing: area of Texas apace is of 1oar-Licu7'ar interest because it becomes over-sal!,~y during dry years, the salinity- oeco~nin.v~ almost three times that of sea water in soul= instances., arid ~ he anti Tife Thin it dies. There is p-ractical1~ no drai;~=ge into bile Lacuna. Doodad the area of s!~aCl10-~ flats is incr<3asi..:,: and in the future She high evaporation -rate of ~i`~ater, Which becomes very, warm in the sl~al10w areas, cat: be elected to br-ri~g about o~re;~-saline coi~ditic::s more r.~-pid:L~r arid thus more often. Since 2SSO a large strip from the t~dcl~e Laguna has -come flay hand covered with orals an inch or two oil wake. at ohe very h~!,,?hest ticies. Fillip of the Lava Padre is non all iso~at;e: p.:e`~loi.,ena. There are loo- specific Clara at hand to es-ta'c~is~ the -bate of f1~3il rear a Bert, But there seers to rave 'seen an acce1=ratio:~ since lS~0, :u the sane time as others geo1Og:Lcal and b~ol<,pical ch=Ilges. It is conc~ucied l,';~at flee dis- appec~rance of much of Che native ve~ei;atio:: of Loader :Ts1a,~cl accelerated file ra;te of' fighting of Lacuna ;..:adre ky sediments cold fl~a-u She. i~!c~derlce of cl.rough,,s combined faith -the activities of Rancid Dim] s I- en parts fir re- spo:lsi~i:1e :For desertic conditichs on the isTalld between 1Ei30 and 192+1.. Centu=~y~old live oak trees atoll many mesquites vie k;.'~]ed All South Tee as in the early 1830's. Since :~870 meso~uil;e, chaparral and other Thor onrush : row the Sou:'~h~est has covered the coastal Prairie northward and cast~i.?arci fro:~.the Nueces River to ;~a-rankawa Sa~r,-a~`d also a3::eas eastward to the Baas Borers Ri~rer-a;~d ~i.uh~r~ the memo, of Tiering rayon, L=r~d;~dS of thousands of acres of tall grass prairie have been tr=~s-''or!-:ed into brushy junks. The coati fund' has ~,r1 recent Rears become es~a'`olished in soutleItn ."Ie;~ 1;le~ico anti Arizona and there are indications that i-G may- be iln~radiil,~ Texas. Elite roadrunners has Pearl eas-~-~'ard in recent <,~ca-rs to East I'c-~as and has rickety been seen in Louisiana. The a~=m.aQilio has spiced from the Brand of cacti and horned toads'7 to points east, 3~ the t`~SSiss:Lpp1 River,, covering, ~ distance of 400 ~1es or moire Irk firstly As. There axe i.~dicauions that other elements o:r the biota are spreading nort1~-\~a:^d arc'- eastward. Contrary migrations in the Con hare not been obse~eci or re~:o~ecl. It is co~cludec4! that these charlgc~s were brou~,11t about 'oy-~^arr~lii~<,~, draii~- in ~ Grazing arid others influc::c~s of the white settlers, couple ~qi^6h series of ha.-ed droughts in SoutI. Teas beginning in the ]S'~,Ots.

OCR for page 2
- 7 - F. `~:I. Folshause~1 of -~he -Tumble Oil aid. -fit Cody states that studies of bottom samplers obtained from the Gul:E of ile-~ico linear the mouth of tale Rio 3raxlde are being carried on and that S. -or. LGW11~TR of the Shell Cor~.pan~T~is worl~in$ on thief samples from the mouth of the Mississippi River and from ax area lyre- east of ~ the ~.Iississippi delta. . Dr. L. Are Stophorason of the U. S. Ctoological Surlier plans to con Anus his study of the Lew~s~rille mer.Qber of the Upper Cretaccous Goodbye fo.--mation ill Texas. The LO1~3iSVi1 1C, as pointed out by Dr. Steph nsorl;, is a shallows; uniter facial whose fauna differs from that of the Corna~lche below- acid froln that -of the Ogle Ford.- abodes :~-.'~ESTEtt:~ UNIT:3D STATES Dr . Lore David of the Calif o-rnia Inset tut e of Technolog~,r, ,.- ho has contributed a special article on fossi1 fish remains to the present report, states that a general paper or ''The use of fossil fish scales in ~cro- pa2~eon~olo~J" is hi printed by the Carnegie Institution of ~`tash~n~ton. Do. David is nova ~-inish~rg reports on the Cretaccous and Eocene scales of California which ~!vril] also be published by the Car.~egic Institution. The paper by J. Hyatt Durham, entitled "Corals from the CTU1:E O:j: California and the No~+t7: Pacific Coast of Ari:~-rica", mete in last year'- report of finis Committee has 'seen su7omitted for pu'D.~catlon. (~ abstract e:lt~-'~]ed "decent Pacific Coast Coral Faunas" was published it the 3u71etin of the Gecl. Soc. ~. vol. 53, p. =~;35, ~ 942. 3 Dr. Denis L. For- or the Scat' ups Institution of Oc~ano~ra7ohy aid '.,tiesl ey Pa. Coo hairs prepared too papers of:: the Cal~o-rrlia s~c>~-~ussel. Ott]0 At these has already been pv6lis~ed Scot, Elm lo. and Foci., Doi~s L.s Biology of' the California sea-mussel ( I'~rtilus cn.li~ol^,licus), I. I:l~luciace of temperature, food supply, sex and age on the rate of growth, Jour. ~ A. Zool. 5 Carol. 90, To. 1, pa. ~-30, 1942], the manuscript of t,he other Shari; been completed on horil 10 of this year rFox, Dennis t. ~.rlcl Coc,, =Tesle>~ R..' -biology of the Ca ~ lfornia sea-mussel (l`I,N7tilus californicus) II, Nutrition .-~ctabolisri~' growth cons calcium d`,position] 0 A surgery of 611(,SO 1;~-`o i~a.~3crs o-,.~-pared ~.,r DO f?ox S IS [O]1OWS: Tithe California mussel is a mucus Seders opta~rli~; its Hooch by secret- =~;; s'~cets of mucus over the gals. in this inUCUS all the m~c~o-org?~nisr~s and detritus particles d.rawr~ by ciliate action =~to the mantle car it are col3cct- ed Or adsorbed OCR for page 2
- o - relal;iolnships bet-.vee3~. length and each of the other prop eerie . 'Rate of :,ro~:th is dependent upon suppliers of ~ ii:ol~r c~i~rid~ed organic detritus, zoospores, lowing waist n=~r..oplai~kton anc. otl:~7 ~r~licropDa:fll'~lJon -its special refer~.ce to dir~olare:.1ates) uJ~il~zed! as :~' TI-lere seems to be a geno rally positi;To correl~ltior~ between -~.,ate.-i~-~empera~ure and gro-.~h rat,c, but :~.;.th a decrease in the Ruth of ilighOS-I; tOm)Or2.~11rO. Duiin,, too of the: threes years th!~rc wits ~ gericrally positive cor'.~la'l,ioi~ bc~tweer~ Oh Or. =~d a. Sudan ce of Zircon la~,~1 lc~.;t os . "Gro:~.~h rate is ro~ar~ed in mussels liv=~,r~ on -locks c~?oscd -to the pounding sully and to lon-,or po-riods out of hater bet-~eci: Discs. These amass possess thicker, heavier sheds relative to Jeil~il~i than the 1~arxo~Jor th~nn~r-sh`~l:L~d pl~onot:rpe T^ou}::d on the is off the pinch 'overt: Doling ri~u.sse;ls off a':ou~ 10 r.i=. length possess ~ sli~,~htl~r Or tissuc--v:ater content than -the 1 arger Arlene] s ~ fib,! -us. 83%) airy nearby s~- fold the; co`~centration of tissue calciums ~ ~ .12% v-s. 0.2~) . Ash copycat is v-ari~:le, -pith an aurora ,~ of about 11~. Shell s we c] ohs to 93',<0 CaCG -:ith small Mounts of o}:~al~ic netters especially in the o~-iostracum. 'iFu-~l, ripe Sacs Oh Is much or more than the sonic tissues, and contain about 44~' protein Firer relights and from 6 'to 10~: ~ipoids (sperm and c~:,s rospective] OCR for page 2
- 9 "Tl~e mussel affects the physical '.~-l~operties of its eivi'~orullent by rerno'~'la.Ionterey Bay, California. They have issued preDid^~:;~ar<~: check . . . lists in the marquees of the Cc;:cholo~,ica1 Chub of South In Ca~i~;or'.:ia. The list based off material :Erom off Rodondo Beach has boon rov-sed bar the ~.iessrs. Burch and is to be incorporated in ~ paper that Pros. Schlock and I:r~ss Myra Keen have completed- on the use of mo~uscan assemblages for OCC]9giC in:Eerences . OUTSIDE TV- UNITED STATES :. L. .~t,lai~d of the Richfie1 d Qi1 Corporation, Lon<;, 3cach, California, states that his world or a large number of bottom sax~p:Les cold ected off South Amorica has back halted, probably for the du-rat~or1 of ~c war. A chart choir,, the bath:,r.~tric ranges of the Foramii~i~--a arcs other micro- scopic organisms has$ horror, been prepared and should ally one desire a rough cops; of this chart it can be furnished with littic trouble.