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108 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS As early as 1857 an attempt was made to develop Texas resources through the establishment of a state geological surrey known as the Shumard Survey. That Survey terminated in 1861 but, owing to its short duration, no very definite results were obtained. lIowever, several publications of value by B. F. Shumard, and one by G. G. Shumard, subsequntly issued, resulted from work done at that time. From 1870 to 187b, a second effiort was made to maintain a state geological survey, the Buckley Survey, but few tangible results were accomplished. In 1888 the State initiated a third state geological survey, commonly known as the Dumble Survey, which continued until 1894. Two reports of pro- gress, four annual reports, four bulletins, and one special report on lignite, were issued by that Survey. The Texas Mineral Survey, under the direction of Dr. W. B. Phillips, organized by the Regents of the Uni- versity, established in 1901, continued through 1905. It issued several bulletins. The present State organization for investigation of Texas geology and mineral resources, the Bureau of Economic Geology, was inaugurated in 1909. Since its establishment, this Bureau has published numerous reports on the geology of the State. UTAH * Utah has no active organization of a Department of Geology or State Geological Survey. In 1930 the State Legislature passed a bill creating such a department and its Governing Board, but made no appropriation for its activities. The Board was empowered to accept donations to carry on the work. It was thought that eventually a considerable amount of original investigation could be undertaken as a cooperative effort be- tween the Survey and various interested parties and mining companies, but to date there have been no donations. The Governor has appointed a Geological Board, but the matter has gone no further. Mr. Edward H. Burdick, who has for years acted as Consulting Geolo- gist for the State Tax Commission and the State Land Board, has under- taken, without compensation, the care of miscellaneous correspondence coming in from individuals, from the State Capitol, and from civic organizations making enquiries regarding geological subjects. In this capacity he carries the title of Acting State Geologist. VERMONT ~ The Vermont State Geologist and Curator of the Cabinet has his office at Burlington. The museum is located at Montpelier. * Information furnished by E. H. Burdick, Acting State Geologist, May, 1932. fInformation furnished by G. H. Perkins, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 109 SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The State Geologist " Shall have a competent knowledge of scientific and practical geology and mineralogy. Duties: Examines mines, quar- ries, and rock formations and makes report thereon; gives aid and advice as to the working of and development of mineral deposits or rock suit- able for building or road-making; has charge of the State Cabinet." The Survey also cooperates with the United States Geological Survey in topo- graphic mapping of the State. ORGANIZATION The Survey, as one of the State Departments, is entirely under tile direction of the State Geologist. The only executive officer is the State Geologist, George H. Perkins. :EIe is paid $5 per diem and expenses, while performing the duties of his office. This is fixed by law. The State Geologist is " appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Senate " for a term of two years, but holds office until his successor is appointed. Doctor Perkins was appointed in 1898 and has been reappointed ever since. He has also been in charge of the Department of Geology in the University of Ver- mont, although there is no necessary connection between the two. As there is no provision for assistants, the State Geologist is allowed to appoint these as he chooses, and they must be paid from. the appropri- at.ion. He has always found abundant help in college professors and a few graduate students who were paid $3 to $5 per diem, or only expenses, or, in some rare cases nothing, their service being gratuitous. Such as- sistants work only during their summer vacations. Some of these have been on the Survey for many years. The Survey is not connected with any other State organization or department. APPROPRIATIONS At present the appropriations are: for geological work, $1,500 an- nually; for cooperation in topographical mapping, $5,000 annually. The appropriation is made biennially. Printing is paid for out of genera.! State funds. Topographic maps of Vermont are now completed for four-fifths of the area of the State. PUBLICATIONS Reports of the State Geologist were published in 184D, 1846, 1847, 1848. (These were pamphlets and long since out of print.) Several

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110 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND small pamphlets were published in 1856-1859, but they contain little of value. In 1861 Dr. E. lIitchcock published, in two quarto volumes, a Report on the Geology of Vermont. Various brief Reports on the Geology of Vermont were published in connection with other State reports during following years, but they do not contain anything more than brief accounts of the " State Cabinet "; from 1861 until 1898 nothing of geological value was published, the State Geologist being only " Curator of the Cabinet.'' Since 1898 the present incumbent has published a Biennial Report, seventeen volumes having been issued. No bulletins or publications, aside from the above, have been published by the State. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since the organization of the present Survey in 1898 a large part of the area of the State has been studied and mapped, and the crystalline and metamorphic rocks of which the State is largely made up, have been determined. A number of competent geologists from outside the State have assisted greatly ir1 this work, and this is the chief work to be carried on during coming seasons. The comparatively small areas of stratified rocks (Cambrian, Ordovician, and a very little Tertiary) have been studied by the State Geologist and others. Discussions of all these forma- tions have been given in the several volumes of the present series of Geo- logical Reports. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK There are no mines except talc and one asbestos mine now worked in Vermont, but the main mineral wealth of the State lies in the granite, marble, and slate quarries and to the study of these much of the attention of the Vermont Geologist is, and has been, given during past years. Most of the State Geologistts time at present is being devoted to making an up-to-date report on the marble industry, which will occupy the larger part of the forthcoming Biennial Report (the 18th) which is nearing completion and will be published soon. Work is also being done by temporary assistants as time permits on the metamorphic rocks and some phases of paleontology. A study is planned of the Cambrian of northern Vermont, which is expected to make up most of the next Biennial Report. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The first State Geologist was appointed in 1844, and his first report was published in 1845. During the three following years, Professor