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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 111 C. B. Adams published annual reports. Zadock Thompson published a report in 1848, and Augustus Young in 1856. In the years 1857 to 1801, Dr. E. Hitchcock and several assistants studied many parts of the State and published several more or less brief reports and a final report in 1861. From 1861 until 1898 only brief notices of geological work were printed, and for years no geological work was carried on in the State. VIRGINIA * The Virginia Geological Survey, a Bureau of the State Commission on Conservation and Development, is at the University of Virginia, Char lottesville, Virginia. (Box 1428, University, Virginia; telegraph, Uni- versity; express, Charlottesville. ~ In September, 1908, under an act approved by the General Assembly of Virginia, February 2a, 1908, the Virginia Geological Survey was organized. The governing body was designated as the State Geological Commission until the State Commis- sion on Conservation and Development was created March 17, 1926, when the Geological Survey became part of this Commission. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The functions of the Geological Survey, as enacted in 1908, consist of: (1) The investigation of the geological formations, mineral substances, road-building materials, soils, streams and water powers, water supplies, and physical features " with reference to their practical bearing upon the occupation of the people"; (2) the preparation of geological and eco- nomic maps and illustrated reports; (3) the consideration of other scientific and economic questions of value to the people of the State; and (4) cooperation with the United States Geological Survey in "topo- graphic, geologic and hydrographic work." These functions remain un- changed except that the soil surveys are being made by another State organization, and the hydrographic work is in charge of the Water Re- sources and Power Bureau of the State Commission on Conservation and Development. ORGANIZATION The governing board is the State Commission on Conservation and Development. This Commission consists of seven members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the Senate. Two members were appointed for a term of two years each; two for a term of three years each; and three for a term of four years each. Subsequent appoint- ments are for a term of four years each, except appointments to fill ~ Information furnished by Arthur Bevan, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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112 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND vacancies, which are for the unexpired terms. Members receive no salaries but are paid their necessary expenses and ten dollars a day while engaged in the discharge of their duties. The Governor may remove members of the Commission at any time. One of the members, designated by the Governor, is chairman. The executive officer of the State Geological Survey is the State Geolo- gist. He is appointed, on indefinite tenure, by the State Commission on Conservation and Development, and his annual salary is fixed by the General Assembly. Upon the resignation of Wilbur A. Nelson, Septem- ber 1, 1928, Linwood E. Warwick became Acting lIead of the Survey until June 1, 1929, when Arthur Bevan, the present incumbent, became State Geologist. The permanent staff includes an Assistant State Geologist, a part-time chemist, a part-time petrographer, a clerk, and a stenographer, who are appointed by the State Commission on Conservation and Development for an indefinite period. Several geologists are employed each field sea- son, about half of whom are usually advanced college students or college professors. The others are chiefly employees of the United States Geo- logical Survey, assigned to cooperative projects in the State. The salaries of the clerical force range from $80 to $200, those of the field geologists from $125 to $200, and those of the field assistants from $40 to $70, per month. Until September 1, 1928, the State Geological Survey was connected with the University of Virginia, the State Geologist being Head of the School of Geology, and deriving part of his salary from that source. At present the Survey has no official connection with the University of Virginia, but the University provides free office space in Brooks Museum. APPROPRIATIONS Appropriations by the General Assembly are made biennially. Unex- pended balances lapse to the State Treasury at the close of the biennium, unless reappropriated by the General Assembly. The appropriation for topographic mapping is contingent on cooperation with the IJnited States Geological Survey. The appropriations for each fiscal year of the period beginning July 1, 1928, and ending June 30, 1932, are as follows: 1928-1929 - 192.9-1930 1930-1931 b 1931-1932 (geological surveYing; $29,880 $29',38;0 $43,295 - $33,135 Topographic mapping in coop eration with U. S. Geological Survey 25,000 25,000 34,000 25,000 $54,88~) $54,380 $77,295 $58,135 Fiscal year was March 1-February -28. D Includes four months interim period when beginning of fiscal year was changed to July I.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 113 The Virginia Geological Survey cooperates with the United States Geological Survey, on a dollar-for-dollar basis, in special geological problems and in topographic mapping, and with State bureaus in Vir- ginia. Between March 1, 1928, and February 28, 1930, the Survey re- ceived $4,000 from the Virginia lIot Springs Company, B:ot Springs, Virginia, on account of a cooperative investi~nt.inn of tile therms anrin~ra of Virginia. --~ ~vim-v ~^ ~ ~ ~^ ~^ ~t ~ ^~5~ i~ ~7 It is estimated that about 30 per cent of the salary expenditures have generally been for administrative and routine clerical work, bb per cent for geologic work, and 15 per cent for other items, such as chemical and mineralogical work, drafting, and salaries of field assistants. About 45 per cent of the total annual appropriations to the Survey has been ex- pended for topographic mapping. About 43 per cent of the State is covered by modern topographic maps (scale 1: 62,600~; about 60 per cent has only reconnaissance maps; and about 7 per cent is unmapped. PUBLICATIONS The publications of the Survey consist of thirty-three bulletins, six biennial administrative reports, and eleven separate maps. Two of the bulletins treat only of surface waters. The others all deal with such sub- jects as the physiography or mineral resources of some specific area or the deposits throughout the State of coal, clay, sand and gravel, salt and gypsum, zirconiferous sandstone, diatomite, gold, tin, manganese, titan- ium, and apatite, etc. The appropriation of $12,000 for the current biennium for printing is about sufficient at this time. The $9,250 appropriated for the biennium beginning July 1,1932 will be inadequate. An increase of at least fifty per cent will be needed for the next few years, in order to make results of economic investigations promptly available. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since 1911, five administrative reports, thirty bulletins, and ten sepa- rate maps have been published. The bulletins treat separately: Geology of the Coastal Plain, the Upper James River basin, the country about Camp Lee, fensters in southwestern Virginia, and the Triassic system; ore deposits of the Virgilina district, oil and gas possibilities in Scott County, and mineral production; ground water and surface waters; de- posits of titanium and apatite, gold, zirconiferous sandstone, salt and gypsum, tin, manganese, clay, coal, and sand and gravel. Several of the

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114 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND investigations were cooperative. The maps include a new geologic map of the State (1928) prepared under the direction of W. A. Nelson and G. W. Stose. A handbook on Minerals of Virginia, their Occurrence. and Uses, was prepared by the Survey in 1927 and published by the Virginia State Chamber of Commerce. Stream gaging in cooperation with the limited States Geological Sur- vey was begun in 192d, with J. J. Dirzulaitis, Hydraulic Engineer, in charge. Prior to that date, records had been kept at 64 stations, mostly for relatively short periods. There are now 83 gaging stations in the State and continuous records for most of them are available since 192~. This work was transferred in 1927 to the Bureau of Water Resources and Power, of the State Commission on Conservation and Development, with Mr. Dirzulaitis in executive charge. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK Four reports are in press: pegmatite deposits, caverns, thermal springs, and lower Williamsburg peninsula. Six reports and two maps are available for publication: James River iron and marble belt, molding sands, kyanite deposits, Eagle Rock quad- rangle, lead and zinc deposits, and talc and soapstone deposits. The maps are a geologic map of the Appalachian Valley (scale 1: 250,000) and a map of the mineral resources (scale 1: 500,000~. Ten other reports on completed field projects are being prepared for publication: ground water in northern Virginia., commercial granites, Blue Ridge Cambrian hematite, iron deposits of western Virginia, slate deposits, outline of mineral resources, Brunswick County, Goochland County, Warrenton quadrangle, and the geologic story of Virginia. Eleven additional projects are being completed in the field and in the office: Paleozoic formations of the Appalachian Valley, Great Gossan lead, Write deposits, Giles County, Hot Springs district, Natural Bridge quadrangle, Warm Springs Valley, natural wonders, an outline of phys- ical features, county mineral resources, and an annotated bibliography. Six other field projects probably will be begun or resumed soon: ground water in Shenandoah Valley, marble deposits, Scott-Washington County gas district, Eocene formations, Abingdon quadrangle, and Stony Man quadrangle. Several of the above projects, in various stages of completion, are in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The first Geological Survey of Virginia was authorized by the General Assembly in 1835 and continued through 1841, with Professor id. B.