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118 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND lion by the latest legislature, in conjunction with emergency expendi- tures for fire control during the past summer. The work of the past field season was largely scientific in character as a preliminary to detailed economic studies to follow. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The first recorded Geological Survey was established prior to 1891, and so far as publications are concerned resulted in two small volumes: the first and second annual reports of the State Geologist under the title "Mines and Minerals of Washington." This early Survey appears to have operated without any supervision of the State Geologist. A decade later, in 1891, there was established by legislative enactment a Board of Geological Survey authorized to appoint a State Geologist. This organ- ization svas active until the enactment of the civil administrative code setting up the present divisional institution. WEST VIRGINIA * The West Virginia Geological Survey, as commonly termed, is a separate State institution, its legal name being State Geological and Eco- nomic Survey. It was established by act of the Legislature in 1897. By consent of University authorities it is provided with working space and storage rooms by the State University at Morgantown. Its rooms for offices, laboratories, and library include 5278 square feet of floor space in a fire-proof building, and it has certain additional basement fire-proof space in the Chemistry Building, also space in the University Library basement which is fire-resisting. Its telegraphic and shipping address is 219 Chemistry Building, State University, and its mail address is Box 879, Horgantown, West Virginia. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The objects of the Survey as set forth in the Act which established it are: To make an examination of the geological formations of the State with special reference to their economic. products, the prevention of their waste, and utilization of their by-products; to examine the soils, forest and timber lands, and physical features of the State; to prepare special re- ports together with geological and economic maps covering the mineral resources of the State; and to consider such other scientific and economic * Information furnished by James D. Sisler, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 119 questions as may be deemed of value to the people of the State. The Survey is also responsible for a report to the Legislature before each meeting and for the distribution and sale of its publications, as well as for the distribution to educational institutions, etc., of all materials col- lected, after they have served the purpose of the Survey. The principal activities of the Survey have been, issuing comprehen- sive county reports dealing with the various phases of geology structural, stratigraphic, and economic geology. Additions to these reports include discussion of transportation, waterways, stream gaging, and soil survey. ORGANIZATION The Survey is under the direction of a commission composed of the Governor, the treasurer, the president of the West Virginia University, the president of the State Board of Agriculture and the director of the West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Members of the Com- mission serve without compensation but are reimbursed for actual ex- penses incurred in the performance of their official duties. The Survey is also under the direct financial supervision of the State Board of Con- trol, which has general charge of all educational and miscellaneous State institutions not definitely classed as State departments. All Survey ac- counts are submitted to this Board for approval, and on major purchases or contracts advance approval must be secured. The executive officer is the State Geologist. This office is now held by James D. Sister, who was appointed in 1930. The State Geologist does not hold office by virtue of any other State position and he has no stated term of appointment, but holds his position at the pleasure of the Com- mission. In the past, the position has been honorary, but the Commission has fixed a salary for the position. The geologic, or scientific, Stan includes six assistant geologists, and one chemist. The clerical staff: cor~sist;s of a chief clerk and trio ste- nographers, assisted by such occasional outside service as may be neces- sary. All the employees work on full time except two assistant geologists who teach in the University Department of Geology. In addition to these members, occasional temporary or special scientific workers are employed. In general, the Commission has the right to select all employees and to fix their compensation. This is usually done by the State Geologist with an advance authorization from the Commission and the State Board of Control, followed by formal approval at the next meeting of the Com- mission. No Civil Service regulations are in force. Permanent members of the clerical and scientific staff are employed for an indefinite period dependent upon the pleasure of the State Geologist and the Commission. Temporary members are often hired for a limited term.

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120 T H E STA T E G E O L O GIC A L S U R V E YS A N D The salaries of the scientific staff, exclusive of the State Geologist, range from $80 to $333 per month, and those of the clerical staff: from $~b to $~50 monthly. All topographic, hydrographic, and soil survey work is done in co- operation with appropriate bureaus of the United States Government and hence the Survey has nothing to do with the employment or direc- tion of such workers. APPROPRIATIONS The Survey is supported by legislative appropriations and by sales of publications. No royalties are available. For the four fiscal years ending with June SO, 1932, these funds have been as follows: 1928-29 Salaries and current general expenses$40,040 Sales of publicationsa1,500 192;9-301930-31 $47,000$47,000 1,5001,250 1931-1932 $29,000 2,000 Totals $41,540 $4S,500 $48,250 $31,000 ' These amounts may be expended provided they are collected. Anything in excess reverts to the State Treasury. These appropriations are renewed each biennium by the Legislature which meets in the odd year. No appropriation can be retained beyond the end of the fiscal year, however, and must therefore be spent or held by bona-fide invoice before June 30. Sixty days after June 30 are allowed for the settlement of old accounts. The I~egislat.ure of 1929 passed a general law requiring all State institutions to refund to the State Treas- ury all money collected. Institutions may spend only such part of these replacement appropriations as they actually earn, and in case of earnings in excess of the replacement fund no benefit accrues to the institution. Percentage expenditure of funds in the 1929-1932 period was as follows: Per cent Administrative and clerical 28 Topographic mapping (cooperative revision of m aps) 5 Geologic work, not including printing 27 Geographic work, not including printing Other items, such as mine inspection, oil and gas well inspection, review of mineral land values, water investigations, soil surveys, museum work, chemical work, etc 12 Printing 16 General once expenditures, postage, express, freight, janitor service, ice, water, telephone, telegraph, moving, painting, etc 8 The entire State is topographically mapped on the scale of 1: 62,500. Additional topographic map revision is being done as funds permit.

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THE UNI TED STA TES GEOLOGICAL SUR VE Y 12 PUBLICATIONS The Survey has issued five volumes and three Bulletins of General State Reports; fifty-four Detailed County Reports (published in twenty- eight volumes); eight editions of coal, oil, gas, iron ore and limestone maps of the State, and two editions of a railroad map of the State; three editions of a chart showing the bituminous coal beds of the State; one series of five mimeographed Bulletins; and one Special Report on Coal in Monongalia County. A second Special Report on oil and gas in Wetzel County is in press as is the first edition of a Geologic Map of Vest Virginia. ~ The General State Reports deal with such subjects as levels, oil and gas, coal, clays, limestones and cements, iron ore, salt, sandstones, for- estry and wood industries, lining and fossil flora, etc. The County Re- ports describe the geology, mineral resources, etc., of each county, to- gether with topographic and areal geologic maps. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since the publication of United States Geological Survey Bulletin 46b, in 1911, the Survey in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey has completed its topographic maps and in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture has largely completed its soil survey. Also, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey it has followed a comprehensive plan of stream gaging. On its own ac- count it has largely completed its series of County Geologic Reports, one of the largest programs ever undertaken by any State Survey. It has also completed and published Volume V, on Forestry and Wood In- dustries and another, V (a), on Living and Fossil Flora. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK At present the Survey is engaged in the completion of its County Geologic Reports, the completion of its county soil surveys (cooperative), the revision of culture on early topographic maps (cooperative), and the continuation and expansion of stream gaging activities (cooperative). The NVest Virginia Geological Survey has a fully equipped chemical laboratory for the examination of all samples which are submitted. All analyses of limestones, clays, and coals, which are published by the Sur- vey are made in the chemical laboratory. The correspondence and advice given by mail is a large part of the service given by the Geological Survey to the State. The percentage of work done in this manner is quite large