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122 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND because the Survey is not situated at the State Capitol, and callers are perhaps fewer in number than if the Survey were situated with other State Departments. It is also expected that the Survey can in the near future undertake studies on the by-product chemistry of coals, professional studies on the seven outcropping rock systems of the State, a Summary Report and Handbook or Index of the geology of the State, a further and more com- prehensive study of clays and ceramic materials, a new report on lime- stone, a report on sand and gravels, underground water resources, special reports on coal and gas, and a more complete system of handling and reporting current developments in coal, oil, and gas. A geologic mail of the State will be issued about June i, 1932. Publications on Under- ground Water Resources, Oil and Gas Sand: Intervals, special reports on Coal in Barbour County and (foal in McDowell County, and a detailed county report on Green Trier County are in preparation. The usual routine of field geologic work for county reports has been somewhat revised during the past biennium. From now on, emphasis will be placed on collection of data which will be directly attributed to development of mineral industries. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The present Survey, established in 1897, was not preceded bar any similar organization in the State. Its career has been continuous for thirty-five years, except that no legislative appropriations were granted . in the biennium of 1b'39-~, when only routine office matters were handled. Dr. I. C. White served as State Geologist for thirty years, or until his death in 1927. David Reger, Assistant State Geologist was in charge until the appointment of C. McC. Lemley, ~= ~ who served as State Geologist from November, 1929, to March, 1930, or until his death. The present State Geologist, James D. Sister, has been serving since July I, 1930. WISCONSIN * The present organization is entitled the Wisconsirl Geological and Natural History Survey. It was organized in 1897. Its offices are located in Science Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The law creating the present Survey was passed in the spring of 1897. It provided for: * Information furnished by E. T. Bean, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 123 (~) The completion of a geologic survey of the State with special reference to economic features; (2) a study of the soils of the State; (3) a study of the plallts, especially of the forests, with reference to cul- tivation and preservation; (4) a study of the animal life of the State, especially the fish; (of a. study of the physical geography and natural history of the State and the publication of results in such borne as to serve as manuals for the public schools; and (6) the completion of a topographic map of the State. The legislature of 1913 directed the Sur- vey "to examine the mines and explored mineral lands of the State by persons competent to make such examination and make an accurate determination of' the amount of ore therein, the expense of mining, and such other factors as may be necessary, in the judgment of the State Tax Commission and the Geological and Natural History Survey, for a proper valuation thereof." Since 1924 appropriations have been made for road material surveys. ORGANIZATION In 1931 the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey bias placed under the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin,. Prior to that time its governing board was an ex officio body composed of the Governor of the State, President of the State University, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and President of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. The executive officer is the State Geologist. The present incumbent is E. F. Bean, who was appointed by the Board of Commissioners in 1925. In 1931 he was appointed State Geologist by the Regents of the Uni- versity. All of his time is devoted to the Survey. The compensation is an annual salary determined by the Regents. W. O. lIotchLiss was State Geologist frown 1908 to 192a=. 111 subordinates are subject to Civil Service. It has been customary to employ University students for technical positions. The clerical force consists of two full-time stenographers, one typist for approximately five months per year, one part-time draftsman, and one part-time office aS~ sistant; this last-named position is usually given to a geology student. Salaries within this group range from fifty cents to one dollar per hour, and from 675 to 812a per month. The geology division consists of the State Geologist, E. F. :Bean, ill direct charge, and the Assistant State Geologist, lI. R. Aldrich, who give their full time to the Survey. Another geologist devotes part of his time to well records and glacial geology. In addition to these permanent em- ployees, about fifteen geologists and twelve assistants were employed 9

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124 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND during the summer months, prior to 1931. For this work the Survey employed University students specializing in geology, at salaries ranging from $75 to $250 per month. The Natural History Division is in immediate charge of Dr. E. A. Birge, who receives no compensation, except payment of actual traveling and field expenses. This division employs one full-time biologist and approximately six part-time assistants, who are advanced students in chemistry and biology. This division receives financial aid from the United States Bureau of Fisheries and from the Research Fund of the University of Wisconsin. Owing to the lack of funds, the work of the Soils Division was sus- pended on July I, 1931. Prior to that time the Soils Division was in immediate charge of A. R. Whitson of the College of Agriculture, Uni- versity of Wisconsin, who received no compensation except for actual traveling and field expenses. most of the work was done in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture and the IJniversity of Wisconsin. This division employed one full-time specialist, part of whose salary was paid by the Survey and part by the United States Bureau of Soils. About nine other persons gave part of their time chiefly as field assistants and chemists, at salaries ranging from $85 to $250 per month. APPROPRIATIONS The Survey is supported mainly by appropriations from the State. These are continuing, and for the last four years have been as follows: 928-1929 .... 929-1930........... 9'30-1931 .......... 1931-lg32.......... General ......................... $7070008 75,000 75,000 . 35,000 a Of this amount $15,000 per year could be expended for topography. The Survey has been materially assisted by sources of support other than State funds as follows: U. S. Geological Survey U. S. Bureau (Topography) of Soils Other 928~1929 $15,000 $~0,000 $3,000 929-1930 15,000 10,000 4,600 930-1931 15,00~) 10,00~) 4,500 931-1932 ...... 4,500

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 120 Estimated expenditures for each of the following items: Per cent 7 1. Administrative and routine clerical 2. Topographic work in cooperation with U. S. Geological Sur vey. About 25 per cent of the State has been completed with satisfactory maps. All work ceased July 1, lg31 20 46 3. Geology 4. Geography very little expended except for printing reports. .. 5. Other items, such as soils, biology, mine valuation, etc 27 PUBLICATIONS ...... ~ The publications of the Survey are issued as bulletins (numbered consecutively), biennial reports, and maps. The bulletins are issued in four series. The scientific series of bulletins consists of original contri- butions to the geology and natural history of the State which are of scientific interest rather than of economic importance; there are fifteen volumes in this series, eight of which have been published since 1911. The economic series includes those bulletins whose interest is chiefly practical and economic; it comprises twenty-four volumes, nine of which have been issued since 1911. The educational series includes bulletins primarily designed for use by teachers and in the schools; there are nine volumes in this series, seven of which have been issued since 1911. The soil series includes the bulletins prepared by the Soils Division. All but one of the forty-one volumes have been issued since 1911. The publications include reports on geology, physical geography, geog- raphy, biology, and soils. An increase of at least ten per cent in the pre-depression appropria- tion is necessary if publication is to keep pace with investigation. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 An areal survey has been made of about 10,000 square miles in the northern part of the State. Road material surveys have been conducted since 1920. This work has made available much detailed geological data. Stratigraphic work started in cooperation with Dr. E. O. Ulrich of the Enited States Geological Survey has been continued in cooperation with the Milwaukee Public Museum. A study of the-Niagara formation is under way. The main work of the Biological Division has been directed to the study of the productivity of lakes. Their scientific contributions are outstanding.