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126 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND Since 1916, thirty-five quadrangles have been completed. Aerial photo- graphic base maps of the Three Lakes and Robbins quadrangles were -s- sued. The following ecunty topographic hi~hwa.y snaps have been pub- lished: Green County, 1926; Vernon County, 1928; Trempealeau (~ountv. 1929: La Crosse County, 1931. NIaps of Buffalo and Crawford ~ at, ~^ .~ ~ VJ ~ ~ 7 ~ counties are in press. Detailed soil surveys have been completed for a large part of the southern half of the State. Reconnaissance surveys have been made in the northern part. A State soil map was published in 1927. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF UNCORK Road materials surveys and lake studies are continued. A report on the eweenawan is in preparation. With a return of normal appropriations, areal geolo~,ic work, and stratigraphic work will be resumed. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS In 18~3 Edward Daniels was appointed State Geologist. of Wisconsin, but in 18a4 he was succeeded by James G. Percival, who held once until his deftly, Slay 2, 18~6. Each of these men made a brief report, chiefly on the southwestern portion of the State. A general geologic survey of the State was not commencecl until 1873, when a survey was ordered by the legislature, and I. A. La.pham was appointed State Geologist. He continued in that position for two years, when he was succeeded by 0. W. NVight, who held the position one year. La~ham died In 1876. In February of that year Dr. T. C. Cha.mberlin r a- V err ~ V V was placed in charge of the Survey, and he carried it through to com- pletion. The field work of that Survey was completed in 1879. The re- nort. n.nnon.ro.d in four octave volumes, containing about 3,036 pages, with an atlas containing 45 maps. The last volume was published in 1883. After the publication of this report the organization ceased to exist, and no geologic work was done by the State until 1897. ~1 ~ 1 ~ WYOMING 'I The Wyoming State Geological Department was organized in 1901 and has been located from that date to the present time in the Capitol ]3uild- ing, Cheyenne, Wyoming, which is also its mail, telegraph, and express address. * Information furnished by John G. Marzel, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 12 SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The original law creating the office of State Geologist specified that the appointee was to make reports on mining property, to collect official information relating to the various mines and mining projects of the State, and to publish and circulate such information as he might deem advisable for advertising the mineral wealth of the Slate, as well as to take any steps which would be likely to advance the de`-elor)~nnt of T1 mining industry. rl~h~ ~,~;~ ^f iLm Hi.- ~ ~ ~l~:~1 ~ ~,~ - - - 1 ~v ~ me ~LLto1~o ~1 c11~ ~ =~ULO~1~L iV~I~ Increaser by the enactment of the law in 1903 making the State Geologist ex officio Inspector of Mines, with power to examine into the cor~dition of any mine, mill, or part thereof, and all Knitters or things connected with or relating to the safety of the persons employed in or about same; to examine into and make in- quiry respecting the condition of machinery or mechanical devices, and, if necessary, to have same tested; to appear at all coro~er's inquests respecting accidents and, if necessary, to examine and cross-examine wit- nesses. These duties, however, do not apply to coal mines, as they are under the supervision of the Coal NIine Inspector. In 1919 the duties of the State Geologist were still further enlarged by action of the Legislature which required the State Geologist to make exa~nir~ations and reports on any State or school lands Allen so requester: by the State Land Board, and to make written report concerning the geology of any lands in which the State of Wyoming is, or may hereafter become, interested, as well as on similar matters upon which the said Board may desire information. The Act of 1919 further charged the State Geologist with the duty of enforcing the laws of the State of TiTyo- ming relating to the oil industry. The laws of 1921 provided for further conservation of the natural resources of the State. These laws place all oil and gas operations on State and patented lands under the supervision of the State Geologist. The intent is to prevent waste of valuable oil and gas resources by grossly negligent methods of operation. At the present time, these laws are enforced by two Oil and Gas Inspectors, who make annual inspections of wells throughout the State. When necessary, the Inspectors supervise repair work, conduct production tests, and also perform other protective duties that the State Geologist may direct, with the view of prolonging the life of the greatest source of direct revenue-the oil and gas fields of the State. ~ In the Session Laws of 1927 the duties of the State Geologist were again enlarged. In the latest act, he was charged with the duty- of en- forcing all of the laws of Wyoming relating to the oil industry. NIore

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128 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND over, the enforcement of all other acts relating to mineral deposits, aside from coal deposits, was therein placed under his jurisdiction. The re-enacted law also directed the State Geologist to make valuation sur- veys, investigations, appraisements, and reports ore the mineral resources of the State. Provision was also made for authority for the State Geolo- gist to supervise mining operations on State and school lands in the interest of their economic development. Also, authority was thereby granted to cooperate with the United States Government, departments of the State of Wyoming, University of Wyoming, or private corpora- tions in the matter of geological, topographic, soil, and mineral surveys, as well as on industrial investigations and examinations that may bring further economic development of the mineral resources of the State, with the stipulated proviso that in no instance should the State pay more than fifty per cent of the total cost of such joint investigations. Other provisions of the law required that a biennial report be made to the Governor, covering the activities of the office, in which would be included suggestions as to the enactment of laws relating to the mineral resources of the State. Permission was also granted to publish other reports, maps, and data that would be considered of public interest. ORGANIZATION The Wyoming State Geological Department is under no Governing Board and is connected with no other State Department. It cooperates, however, with all of them and especially with the State Land Board, in so far as requests for information on State and School lands are con- cerned. The Executive Officer of this Department is the State Geologist, the present incumbent being John G. Ouzel, who was appointed by the Governor and whose appointment was approved by the State Senate in the regular manner, for a term of six years, beginning April I, 1927, at an annual salary fixed by the State. The subordinate employees of the Department consist of two State Oil and Gas Inspectors and a stenographer. This force is assigned to the Conservation Oil and Gas section of the Department. One Mineral Production Supervisor and a stenographer are assigned to the statistical section of the Department. The Deputy State Geologist is employed in direct connection with the main once, where a chief clerk and ste- nographer are also employed. These employees are annually appointed directly by the State Geologist. The compensation of the Oil and Gas Inspectors, Mineral Production Supervisor and Deputy State Geologist ale limited to $37000 each per year. The range of pay for the clerical

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 129 force is frown $1,200 to $2,000 per year. The State Geological Depart- ment is primarily an economic resource department and is charged spe- cifically by statute to employ only men experienced in practical mining and oil field practice. Accordingly, none of the Department's appointees are advanced college students or professors. The Department is not con- nected officially or otherwise with a university, college, or highway department. APPROPRIATIONS The TVyomin~, State Geological Department is supported entirely by direct biennial appropriations by the State Legislature and has no other source of support or income: The biennial appropriation for the period from April I, 1929, to March 3l, 1931, amounted to $33,?00. The biennial appropriation for the period from April I, 1931, to March 31, 1933, amounted to $,20. The percentage of average expenditures is approximately as follows: Administrative and routine clerical.......... Mine inspection, oil and gas well inspection era1 land values......................... Per cent .................. 45 and review of min The area of the State topographically mapped by the United States Geological Survey to date amounts to approximately 20 per cent. PUBLICATIONS The publications of the Wyoming State Geological Departn~ent are divided into three classiDeations, as follows: Biennial Reports of the State Geologist, First to Fifteenth inclusive (edition usually 1,000 copies); Bulletins Nos. ~ to 22 inclusive, treating of geology and mineral resources of the Stain (nv`?rno.~ aRitinn 1 (inn ~ ~ Hi, ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ coolest; and tress Bulletins Nos. ~ to' 1b, inclusive, being mimeographed reports on oil and gas fields and mineral deposits of the State (each from two to three hundred copies). The foregoing reports relate principally to geology alone. The Department is very seriously hampered in publication by lack of funds and it is believed that there should be at least a ten per cent Increase. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since the year 1911, the Wyoming Geological Department has pub- lished twent:T-four Bulletins, fifteen Press Bulletins, five Maps and ten

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130 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS A.\D Biennial Reports. These publications deal with the geology, topo,raph:-, mining laws, oil and gas regulations, mineral resources, fossils and dino- saurs of the State and are replete with information that has aided greatly in the development of the oil and gas fields and other developed and undeveloped mineral resources. A small laboratory has been installed for the qualitative analysis of such minerals as may be submitted for tests. A very complete and ex- hausti~:e file has been assembled on all minerals so far discovered in the State, so that any information desired on this subject may be supplied quickly and efficiently. An almost complete file of all United States Geolot,ical Survey Bul- letins, Bureau of Dines :Bulletins and other practical publications has been gathered for the library of this Department. Through constant and thorough supervision by members of this De- partment, former wasteful and negligent methods of production of oil and gas have been curbed and, as a consequence, at the present time SUCh practices are practically non-existent. Regulatory measures have been adopted and are being ri~,idly enforced, compelling all operators drilling, for oil or gas to employer only the most approved methods, in order to pre- vent damage to oil or gas strata through infiltration of water, waste through loss of control, and factors endangering human life or property. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF N\rORX The Wyoming State Geological Department is contemplating in the next biennial period a program of thorough supervision of oil, gas, and mineral activities, with a view to the conservation of the natural resources of the State of Wyoming,; also to the wider advertisement of these re- sources in order to promote their development. No cooperative work is carried on with the Ignited States Geological Survey, State University, or other institution.