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14 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK A general survey of all the mineral resources off the State, described by county areas and begun in 1.'324, was completed in 1931, following which the several non-metallic groups are being taken up and specific bulletins issued. Geological surveys of specific areas are proceeding under this program of the Geologic Branch. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The First Geological Survey of California, created by legislative en- actment early in 1853, continued for four years, with. John B. Trask as State Geologist. At the end of 1856 it ceased for lack of further ap- propriation. The Second Geological Survey of California began in 1860 under J. D. Whitney as State Geologist, and continued to, and in- cluding, the year 1873, except that, although there were no appropria- tions for its support from 1867. to 1870, some work was carried oaf by Whitney personally at his own expense. COLORADO '8 An Act of the Colorado Legislature in 1929 established the present Colorado Geological Survey, with offices in the State Museum Building at Denver. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The purposes of the Survey as set forth in House Bill No. 371 are: (~) The study of the geological formations of the State with special reference to their economic contents, values, and uses, and the promo- tion of the marketing of the mineral products of the State; ~ 2 ~ the in- vestigation of the kind, amount, and availability of the various mineral substances contained in the State lands, with a view to the most effective and profitable administration of those lands for the State; (3) the con- sideration of such other scientific. and economic problems as, in the judg- ~nent of the Board, should come within the field of the Survey; (4) co- operation with the State Bureau of Mines, the United States Bureau of Dines, and the United States Geological Survey; (5) the preparation, publication, and distribution of reports and bulletins embodying the results of the work of the Survey. ~ Compiled from report by R. D. George, June 1929, and additional data from M. F. Coolbaugh, March 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 10 ORGANIZATION The Colorado Geological Survey is under the control of a Geological Survey Board composed of the Governor of the State, en officio Chair- ma.n, the President of the University of Colorado, the President of the School of Mines, the President of the State Agricultural College, the Commissioner of Mines, and the President of the Colorado Mining As - sociation. The members of this board receive no remuneration other than actual expenses incurred in the performance of their official duties. The foregoing bill provides also for the employment of a State Geolo- gist and such scientists and specialists and other employees as the Board deems necessary to carry out the work of the Survey. Dr. R. D. George was formerly State Geologist, but since the reorganization of the Survey in 1929, there has been no State Geologist. Sir. John T. Joyce, who is State Commissioner of Mines, is vice-chairman of the geological Survey Board. The present organization provides for carrying out the business of the Survey, other than its cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, through the free cooperative services of other State organizations such as the University of Colorado, the State Agricultural College, the Colorado School of Mines, the State Bureau of Mines, the Colorado Branch of the United States Bureau of Mines, and the Colorado Mining Association. APPROPRIATIONS The Survey receives a. biennial appropriation from the State, provided for by the legislature and designated the Survey Fund. Any income from the sale of Survey publications is turned over to the State Treasurer and credited by him to the said Survey Fund. There are no funds con- tingent upon cooperation, nor any support. from royalties. The appropriations for the past four fiscal years have been as follows: For the biennium 1929-1930......... For the biennium 1931-1932......... ...... $40,000 .......... $30~00 It was decided by the Board that the entire amount should be used in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. Geological activi- ties other than the cooperative work carried on by the State are distrib- uted among the various other State organizations already listed. This work is all done gratis so that. every dollar appropriated goes into cooper- ative work. PUBLICATIONS The Survey has published forty-two reports in thirty-two separate volumes. State maps were prepared and published as follows: a top()

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16 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND graphic map on a scale of eight miles to the inch and a contour interval of 500 feet; and a. topographic map on the same scale and having the same contour interval but showing also by depths. of tint the elevations in six zones of 2,000 feet. vertical interval. Preliminary reports of the recent investigations carried on in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey are being published by the Colorado Scientific Society. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 The previous Geological Survey was in existence from 1907 to 1929. The work of the Survey was divided rather evenly between a. study of the ~net.alliferous and the non-metalliferous deposits. Special bulletins were prepared on manganese, molybdenum, fluorspar, oil shales, clays, and mineral waters. The areal and economic geology of numerous metal- liferous mining areas was studied, mapped, and reported on. Several areas thought to contain oil deposits were mapped and reports were pub- lished discussing the possibilities. Individual maps of the State showing the coal areas, the oil possibilities, and many other economic mineral deposits have been prepared. A special bulletin on the common minerals and rocks, their occurrence and uses was prepared as the first number of an educational series. Representative collections consisting of two hundred rock specimens were prepared and sent to all the high. schools of the State, and to libraries and other public institutions. Maps and guides for prospectors were pre- pared and sent out with typical samples of various ores to aid them in their search for new deposits. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The Survey receives for analysis or identification an average of be- tween six hundred and seven hundred samples of rocks and minerals per year. Another feature of its work consists in helping to find markets for any kind of mineral deposit of economic value, and it also issues circu- calling attention to market possibilities for mineral substances which may be found in different parts of the State. Among the many special laboratory researches undertaken may be mentioned oil shales, radio-activity of minerals and mineral waters, the analysis of mineral waters, and the determination of radium, uranium, and vanadium ratios of the various ores of the carnotite area of Western Colorado. Projects are also under way in basic and economic geology, and in topographic and airplane mapping. The major accomplishment of the Survey has been the work done in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. This has included l