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24 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND The Survey library has consistently grown during this period. It now has six thousand publications, and nearly two thousand topographic sheets, maps, and folios. Exhibits have been prepared of economic geology and mineralogy; the forestry of the State is represented by 165 sections of trees; the agricultural exhibits include displays of cotton, grain, fruits, nuts, etc., and in addition there are the educational, the entomological, and the ethnological exhibits. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK At. present, the Survey is engaged in reconnaissance mapping of the crystalline rocks of Georgia. in preparation of a State geological map. The Survey is also investigating the mica and kaolin deposits of the State. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS In August, 1874, the Governor of Georgia appointed Dr. George Little as State Geologist. As funds were provided for five years only by the Act of 1874, the Geological Survey was interrupted after the year 1879. Although in 1878 and 1879 several bills wereintroduced providing for its continuance, they failed to pass; in 1886 another effort to re-establish the department failed. IDAHO * The Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology was created by the legisla- ture in 1919. Its office is located at the School of Mines, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES Under the law it is the duty of the Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology to conduct cooperative work with the United States Bureau of Mines in the investigation of mining and metallurgical problems of the State, and to conduct cooperative work with the United States Geological Survey in completing the topographical mapping of the State, in hydrographic surveys, or in other geological work deemed by the Board advantageous to the development of the mineral or water power resources of the State, provided that the Federal expenditure for such purposes shall be at least equal to that of the State; and~to conduct such geological and economic investigations or surveys of the mineral resources of the State, inde- pendently of the United States Geological Survey, as may be deemed by the Board advantageous; and to publish from time to time such bulletins and reports of progress as the Board may deem expedient. * Information furnished by John W. Finch, Secretary, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 20 ORGANIZATION The Idaho Bureau of Hines and Geology is under the direction of the State Board of Control of the Bureau, which consists of the following members: The Governor of the State of Idaho, who is. ex officio chair- man, the Dean of the School of Mines of the University of Idaho, who is ex officio secretary of the Board, the State Inspector of Mines, the IIeaa of the Department of Geology of the University of Idaho, and the Presi- dent of the Idaho Mining Association. All members of the Board serve without pay, provided, however that they shall receive their a.nt~.1 one ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ J ~ ~ ~ v owl ~ ~ ~ necessary traveling expenses while attending the meetings of the Board. The executive officer, John W. Finch, has the title of Secretary, by law. lIis appointment is continuous so long as he is Dean of the School of Mines, University of Idaho. His duties are equivalent to those of state geologist in other states. IIe is allowed traveling expenses by the Board, but serves without salary, by the provision of the law. He rives about one-third of his time to Bureau work. . , _ ,, . The main work of the Bureau is done by college professors, under the direction of the Secretary, but students and others are employed, when qualified, as. assistants and in other subordinate positions. The clerical work of the Bureau is handled by one office secretary and accountant. The geologic staff includes the following: Two geologists serving as chiefs of field parties, paid while in the field in the summer season at the rate designated for assistant geologists in the United States Geo- logical Survey classification; one of these is appointed by the United States Geological Survey under Civil Service for cooperative work, the other, by the Secretary, for State work; one chief metallurgist in charge of laboratory research, paid two months by the Bureau, for the balance of the year paid as Head of the Department of Metallurgy of the Uni- versity, but carries on supervision of Bureau research throughout the year; one mining engineer, assisting chief metallurgist on mining and metallurgical problems, paid two months by the Bureau, and the balance of the year paid as Assistant Professor of Mining of the University; one full-time assistant geologist, 1931, employed for rock and mineral de- terminations and for answering questions from mining people (this salary now discontinued, but the same service is maintained by members of the School of Mines faculty); one full-time chemist, who assists as analyst in metallurgical research and mineralogical determinations; two research fellows at the School of Mines, working under the chief metallurgist, receiving stipends, maintained by the Bureau; and six student assistants at rodman's wages (summer season), four of whom are members of cooperative field parties. In addition to this staff as out

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26 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND lined, some hydrographic and engineering work is carried on; one geolo- gist was engaged on a per diem basis for underground water studies in 1931. One per diem geologist is employed to assemble well-logs and to study cores and Grillings. Cooperative topographic work was done by the United States Geological Survey men in 1931. No such work has been arranged for 1932. The Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology is not connected officially with a university or other state institution, except that by an under- standing with the University of Idaho the Bureau has the use of the School of Mines laboratories and equipment, and in turn gives oppor- tunities for research in metallurgy through Bureau fellowships. APPROPRIATIONS The source of support for the Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology is through special appropriation by the Legislature. This is partly con- tingent upon Federal cooperation as previously explained. There is no income from royalties. Amount of appropriation for 1925-26 $30,000 Amount of appropriation for 1927-28 35,500 42,600 44,183 _ ~ , - .. Amount of appropriation for 1929-30................ Amount of appropriation for lg31-32................ The total axnount is divided into three funds, the 1931-32 appropria- tion being distributed as follows: In cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines.. In cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey. State Mineral Resources Investigation.......... Total .......................... $15,583 4,900 13,700 $44,183 The average distribution of expenditure of these annual a.ppropri- ations has been estimated in the following percentages: Per cent 1. Administrative and routine clerical work 15 2. Topographic field work 1 Not more than 10 per cent of State is completed with satisfactory topographic maps. 3. Geologic work, not including printing... 4. Geographic work ...................... 5. Other items, inspection of gas wells, ground water. 6. Mineral determination service................... ................ 48 lo 6 30 00

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 27 PUBLICATIONS The Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology has issued 14 bulletins, 35 pamphlets, and several press. bulletins upon geological, metallurgical and mining subjects, and ground water investigations. Also, the United States Geological Survey has printed Bulletin 814 as the result of co- operative work. Our reports include publications upon mining and metallurgy. In addition to those published by the State Bureau, the United States Bureau of Mines has issued Bulletin 205, Technical Paper 403, Reports of Investigations (Serial Nos. 2932 and 2949), and In- formation Circular No. 6382,upon work in cooperation with the Bureau. Another report was prepared in 1931 by the State Commissioner of Reclamation upon a ground water problem studied jointly with the Bureau. The United States Geological Survey has recently issued a press memorandum upon cooperative investigations of ground water in the Snake River Plains. Much detailed geology remains to be done in Idaho, but inadequate appropriations delay its completion. An amount double the present ap- propriations could be used advantageously at this time in studying the gold areas upon which the interest of mining people is at present focussed. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 The Bureau of Mines and Geology was organized in 1919. Since that time it has investigated the economic geology of the State, and prepared and published numerous reports. These investigations have dealt princi- pally with the geology and ore deposits of various districts within the State but have also included studies of clay deposits, of phosphate de- posits, of oil and gas possibilities, of ground water resources, etc. As has already been stated, considerable work hats been done in coopera- tion with the United States Bureau of Mines and the United States Geological Survey. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The Bureau is carrying on detailed geological field study, and the map- ping of two quadrangles in gold-producing areas of the state, and is also. completing, independently of the United States Geological Survey, the geologic map of Latch County. At the present time the Bureau is not contributing toward cooperative surveys. Metallurgical research upon problems in the treatment of Idaho ores is carried on continuously; also, free service is given prospectors and mining companies in making mineral determinations, and general geo- logical and mining information is supplied to citizens who make inquiries.