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28 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS There was no previous geological survey organization in Idaho. The office of the State Inspector of Mines was established more than thirty years ago, and issues valuable reports. Formerly these reports contained a certain amount of geological matter, but now they are restricted to an account of mining activities. ILLINOIS The Illinois State Geological Survey, established by the State Legisla- ture in 190b, has its offices in the Ceramics Building, and its laboratory quarters in the temporary annex immediately south of the Ceramics Building, on the campus of the University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The Geological Survey is directed to' study the geological formation of the State with reference to its resources of coal, ores, clays, building stones, cement,- materials suitable for use in the construction of roads, gas, mineral and artesian water, and other products; to publish from time to time, topographical, geological, and other maps to illustrate the resources of the State; to publish from time to time bulletins giving a general and detailed description of the geological and mineral resources of the State; to cooperate with the United States Geological Survey in the preparation and completion of a contour topographical survey and map; to distribute, at its discretion, to the various educational institu- tions of the State, specimens, samples, and materials collected by it, after the same have served the purposes of the department. ORGANIZATION The Illinois Geological Survey is a division of the Department of Registration and Education, and is controlled by a Board of Natural Resources and Conservation. The members of the Board consist of the following: The Director of Registration and Education, who is ex officio chairman thereof, the president of the University of Illinois or his repre- sentative, and one expert each in biology, geology, engineering, chemistry, and forestry, qualified by ten years, experience in practicing or teaching their several professions. The title of the executive officer of the Geological Survey is Chief. The present incumbent is M. M. Leighton, who was elected to the posi- tion by the Board on April 13, 1923, for an indefinite term to succeed * Information furnished by M. M. Leighton, Chief, March, 1932.

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THE UN1 TED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 29 P. W. DeWolf who had served from 1909 to 1923. Members of the tech- nical staff are elected by the Board upon the recommendation of the Chief. The research portion of the organization is divided into a Geo- logica1 Resource Section, a Geochemical Section, and a Mineral Eco- nomics Section. The full-time technical stag consists, in addition to the Chief, of fifteen geologists and assistant geologists, eight chemists and assistant chemists, one sedimentary petrographer, one physicist., a mineral economist, a technical editor, a technical files clerk, and a draftsman. In addition, there is. a part-time staff composed of some seventeen professors, eighteen graduate students, and a petroleum engineer, who are employed for the summer months and on. special problems. The Geological Re- source Section is organized into the following divisions with a. full-time geologist in charge of each: coal, oil and gas, non-fuel products, areal and engineering geology, subsurface data, stratigraphy and paleontology, editing, and educational extension. The Geochemical Section is divided into a fuels, a non-fuels, and an analytical division with a full-time chemist in charge of each, and a chief chemist in charge of the section. The salaries in the technical staff range from $100 to $416.67 per month for full-time work and from the rate of $85 to $275 per month for part- time work. The full-time clerical staff consists of a bookkeeper, a secretary to the Chief, four stenographers, and a mechanician. These positions are all subject to the regulations of the State Civil Service Commission, and salaries range from $85 to $~50 per month. The Survey also employs from twelve to fourteen part-time student assistants. who serve as mail clerks, laboratory assistants, draftsmen, etc. These students are paid on anxiously basis, the wages ranging from thirty-five to sixty cents per hour. APPROPRIATIONS Appropriations for the Survey are made biennially by the State Legis- lature; there is no other source of support except the allotments made by the United States Geological Survey for cooperative topographic mapping. The last five biennial appropriations, including the appropri- ation for printing, but not including allotments by the United States Geological Survey for topographic mapping, are as follows: 1923-25 1925-27 1927-29 .................. 19429~31 1931-33 ............. $326,470 334,220 . 350,72;0 . 416,310 . 46S,890

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30 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND Administration and office Road materials survey . Topographic mapping .. Geology ............... Geophysical studies .... The appropriation includes $100,000 each biennium for topographic mapping, to which is added an equal amount by the United States Geo- logical Survey. Omitting the $~5,000 allowance for printing, expenditures during tl~e 1929-31 biennium have been distributed approximately as follows: Per cells 16 13 33 35 3 ~ 100 Approximately 61 per cent of the State has been completed with satis- factory topographic maps. PUBLICATIONS The following publications have been issued: Bulletins, 59; Mono- graphs, I; Mining Investigations Bulletins, 33; Reports of Investiga- tions, 24; Press Bulletins (Illinois Petroleum series), 21; Educational Series, 3. Quadrangle topographic maps, prepared in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, are available for 187 quadrangles. A base map, a geologic map, and an oil and gas field map of the State, also prepared in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, all on a scale of one inch to eight miles, are also available. In addition, the Survey has published a map and directory of Illinois Mineral Opera- tors and numerous engraved areal geology maps of quadrangle units which accompany the various bulletins. Some of the reports on work done in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey have been published in the United States Geological Survey folios and bulletins. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since 1911 some 13,000 square miles have been mapped geologically in detail, partly in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. The coal resources of each mining district have been studied in detail and reports have been printed; Illinois Mining Investigations were begun in 1913 in cooperation with the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois and the IJnited States Bureau of Mines. Of the reports, eighteen bulletins have been issued by the Survey, fifteen by the Engineering Experiment Station, and nine bulletins and seven technical papers by the United States Bureau of Mines.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 31 Oil and gas studies have been carried on extensively in the southeastern Illinois field, and in local fields in southwestern and western Illinois, and structural studies elsewhere in the State. Nearly three hundred analyses of oil-field Waters provide data for an important geophysical study. Geophysical studies have been recently made with the magnetometer and an electrical resistivity device. Studies have been made in petroleum engineering, including methods of controlling water corrosion in eastern oil fields, oil-field muds, the effect of different types of oil-field waters on the rate of setting of neat cement, and the repressuring of old producing fields. Studies have been made in many non-fuel products, including fire- clays, brick clays, sand-lime brick, cement-making materials, limestone, sand and gravel, silica, St. Peter sands, fullers' earth, the fluorspar de- posits of Eardin County, and the lead and zinc deposits of northwestern Illinois. Studies have also been made in underground water resources, includ- ing artesian waters of northeastern Illinois and the structure of the Dresbach and St. Peter sandstone formations. Studies in engineering geology, particularly in cooperation with the State Highway Division, have included problems connected with land- slides, mud-flows, rock-falls, bog-foundations, unequal settling of fills, road-building materials, behavior of aggregate material in use in pavement and bridge foundations. Municipalities have sought informa- t.ion on surface water reservoir sites and dam locations, the possibilities of subsidence over mined-out areas, and so forth. State-wide studies have also been made of land drainage and the reclamation of poorly drained areas. Intensive studies have been carried on in subsurface geology and in the systemic stratigraphy and paleontology of the Silurian, Devonian, Mis- sissippian, Pennsylvanian and Pleistocene systems. Topographic mapping with the United States Geological Survey on a dollar-for-dollar basis has been carried on with nearly 35,000 square miles of sketching, approximately 1900 square miles of revised mapping, and most of the State now covered by primary traverse and primary leveling. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The present main emphasis of the Survey work may be said to be three- fold: (1) A study of the occurrence of the State's mineral resources; (2) studies leading to improved and new uses for these resources;

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32 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND (3) a study of the State's mineral economies with a view to providing a complete picture of the movement, and the factors affecting the move- ment, of minerals into and out of the State for the benefit of the State's mineral industries. The Survey has within the past year established new Mineral Research Laboratories well equipped with modern scientific apparatus, where the extended~program of mineral research is being car . rlec . on. The work now being done consists largely of the continuation of such research and field activity as has already been outlined under " Principal Accomplishments since 191l,'' with the exception that research work in geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral economics considerably enlarges the scope of activity. Field, laboratory and office projects are going for- ward in coal, oil and gas, non-fuel products, areal and engineering geology, subsurface geology, stratigraphy and paleontology, topographic mapping, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral economics. The Survey maintains an educational extension division whose work includes the publication of educational bulletins and pamphlets, the organization of field study conferences and lectures for teachers of high school science, and the providing of collections of rocks, minerals, and fossils to high schools. The Survey has always maintained a close relationship with industrial, com~nereial, scientific, educational, and state organizations throughout the State and with related scientific associations of the nation. The recent addition to the organization of the section of Geochemistry and Mineral Economics has widened the scope of the Survey's work and offers large opportunity for valuable fundamental research and significant contribu- tions to our fund of knowledge regarding the economic geology of the State. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS Illinois' first Geological Survey was established in 1851. Dr. J. G. Norwood was in charge until 1858 when he was succeeded by A. E. Worthen, who prepared eight comprehensive volumes on the geology and paleontology of Illinois. After 1872, appropriations for field work ceased, and after 1875 the small appropriation for publication also ended. There were some independent geologic and paleontologic studies, some topographic mapping by the United States Geological Survey and some aneroid surveys by the University of Illinois, but no work was supported by the State until 1905 when the present Survey was established by the Legislature.