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34 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND No expenditures are allowed for topographic surveys, the main ex- penditures being for geological work, and for gas inspection. Topo- graphic work in Indiana is directly in charge of the Division of En- gineering of the Department of Conservation, and the Division of Ge- ology has no connection with this work. PUBLICATIONS Approximately one hundred publications have been issued by the pres- ent Survey, all of them dealing with subjects of a geologic or geographic nature. The Survey is greatly hampered in the matter of publications because the entire cost must come from the appropriations listed above. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1919 The chief accomplishments of the Survey since 1919 have been in- vestigations of petroleum and natural gas, coal, kaolin, ceramic materials, molding sands, sand and gravel deposits, ground water, mineral wool resources, etc., throughout the State. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The work of the Survey at the present time is the pursuance of the lines of investigation already outlined. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The Geological Survey was first organized in 1837. That Survey existed only one year. Another Survey was organized in 1858, and it also existed but one year. A third Survey was organized in 1869, and has operated continuously since that time. The present organization of the Division of Geology began in 1919 and has continued to the present time. The early history of the Survey is described in more detail in an article her Pl~t;chlev " A Centurv of Geology in Indiana.'' Bane 87~ Proceedings IVJ ~ US-~-JO ~ ~ v i_ J ~ >J ~ ~__~, ~ _= _ of the Indiana Academy of Sciences, 1916. The publications mentioned in our report are the publications which have been issued since the organization of the present Division of Geology. A large number were issued by former surveys. IOWA ~ The geological department of Iowa is known as the Iowa Geological Survey. It was organized in 1892 and is located at the State lIouse at Des Moines. * Information furnished by G. F. Kay, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 35 SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The organic law states that the State Geologist " shall make a com- plete survey of the natural resources of the State in all their economic and scientific aspects." This includes not only the study of geologic data but also of the fauna and flora of the State, as well as topographic map- ping and studies of stream flow and qualities of water. ORGANIZATION The Survey is under the direction of an ex officio Board which com prises the governor, the State auditor, and the presidents of the State University, State College of Agriculture, and State Academy of Science. The members serve without compensation but are paid any expenses in- ourred in connection with the work of the Board. The director of the Survey is designated as. the State Geologist.. He is appointed by the Board and holds office at their pleasure. The present incumbent is George F. Kay, who was appointed in May, 1911. Doctor flay is also head of the Department of Geology, and Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, at the State University. He spends about one-fourth of his time on the work of the Survey. The Survey employs at its Des Moines office a secretary, who is ap- pointed, as are all other employees of the organization, by the Board on recommendation of the State Geologist. The State Geologist also uses the services of the secretary and stenographer in his office at the University. The Assistant State Geologist has charge of the Des Moines office and devotes full time to the survey work, including routine office work, edit- ing and publishing the reports of the Survey, and geologic work in the field. With that exception, all the field work of the Survey is done by advanced college students and by college professors who are engaged for the summer vacations. One professor has had charge of studies of ground waters and deep wells since the organization of the Survey. During Demerit years the Survey hats employed thirteen such geologists and ten chemists. The topographic work of the Survey is done in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, which furnishes the personnel and pays one-half the field expenses. In 1931 two engineers and four rodmen were employed during a part of the season. No work has been done since 1931. The same arrangement prevails for stream-gaging, although no work has been done in Iowa for five years past. The Survey has no organic connection with any school or other organ- zatlons.

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36 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND APPROPRIATIONS The Survey is supported entirely by appropriation from the State Treasury made biennially by the Legislature, together with such coopera- tive funds as may be allotted by the United States Geological Survey. During the biennium 1929-1931, the State appropriations were $12,200 annually, and during the biennium 1931-1933 these appropriations were $9,300 annually. During the first of these biennial periods the United States Geological Survey alloted for work in Iowa. $1,750 annually for topographic mapping, but during the second biennium no allotment was made, as the State Legislature did not make an appropriation for map- ping. No contingent funds are allowed by the Legislature and the Survey derives no support from royalties or other sources. Of the Survey's expenditures, approximately 52 per cent is for istrat.ive and clerical work, and 48 per cent. for geological and biological work. About 23 per cent of the State hats been mapped topographically, but probably not more than one-third of this may be classed as satis- fact.ory. PUBLICATIONS The Survey has published a series. of thirty-five annual reports devoted to geological subjects, and also a series of seven bulletins, most of them concerned with studies of the plant and animal life of the State. Two technical papers on the characters of Iowa coals have been issued The funds allotted by the State for publication have thus far proved adequate. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since 1911 the Survey has continued its areal studies of the geology of Iowa, using the county as. the unit. It has published reports on more than ninety of these counties. It has pursued its studies on underground waters and deep geology, publishing reports in 1912 and 1928; has examined the gypsum deposits, road and concrete materials, coals, ferti- lizers, refractory clays, and molding-sands of the State; has made special studies of the Pleistocene, Dakota, Missouri, Mississippian, :Kinderhool:, Wapsipinicon, and Maquoketa strata, and has pursued paleontological studies on mammals of the Pleistocene and on trilobites, echinoderms, and other fossils of the Paleozoic rocks of Iowa. In addition, a number of special studies have been made on limited areas, or on topics of geo- logical value. Until June, 1931, topographic mapping was carried on in coopera- tion with the United States Geological Survey.