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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 37 PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The Survey is continuing its studies of the Pleistocene, including a thorough investigation of the glacial gravels. A study is also being made of the plant remains fou:rld in the drifts. The areal geology of the State is being studied as are the ground-water resources. Reports are being prepared on some of the geological formations and their fossil content. Special attention is being given to the State's road-making resources and to the coals of the State, both as to their strat.igraphy and their character. A report on the plant geography of Iowa is being prepared for pub- lication. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS In January, 185d, the General Assembly of Iowa ordered a geological survey of the State, and James Hall of New York was appointed State Geologist. He and several assistants studied the geology of eastern Iowa, and incorporated the results of their work in a report in one volume bound in two parts, issued early in 1859. The first part discussed the geology, the second the paleontology, of the area included. This survey was discontinued, but in April, 1866, another survey was instituted and Charles A. White of Iowa City was appointed State Geologist. Doctor White and his co-workers devoted most of their efforts to the geology of western Iowa, and in 1870 they published a report in two volumes, which again marked the conclusion of their work. No further organized work was done by the State until 1892, when the present Survey was authorized. KANSAS ~ Geological investigations under state auspices in Kansas are in the hands of the State Geological Survey of Kansas. This Surveys organized in 1888 by legislative enactment, is an activity of the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. SCOPE. OF ACTIVITIES The Survey is instructed to make a geological survey of the State, paying particular attention to the mineral deposits (including under- ground water and road materials) and to publish reports on these in- vestigations from time to time. In 1919, the legislature authorized counties to cooperate in the expense of local geological investigations undertaken by the Survey. *Information furnished by Raymond C Moore, State Geologist, April, 1929. Revised by K. K. Landes, Assistant State Geologist, March, 1932.

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38 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND ORGANIZATION As a definite part of the State University, the Geological Survey is governed by the State Board of Regents, comprised of nine members, apointed by the Governor, and serving for a period of four years each. They receive no compensation other than actual travelling expenses. This Board has jurisdiction over all of the higher state educational institutions and the various departments attached thereto. The Chancel- lor of the State University is ex officio director of the Geological Survey. However, actual administration is in the hands of Dr. Raymond C. Moore, State Geologist. This office is filled by appointment of the Board of Regents. According to legislative enactment, the State Geologist must also be a member of the faculty of the Geology Department of the State University. The present State Geologist was appointed in 1917. lIis salary is paid from the Geology Department budget during the spring semester, and from the Geological Survey appropriation during the sum- mer and fall. The amount of this salary is determined by the Board of Regents. The full-time subordinate stag consists of an Assistant State Geolo- gist, two geologists, and a secretary. During the winter months four to six students are employed on an hourly basis for drafting, filing of well samples, photographic work, preparing a relief model of the State, and miscellaneous duties. During the 1931 field season, two professors and four graduate students were added to the stag. The Assistant State Geologist is appointed by the State Board of Regents. lIis salary is paid from the Geology Department budget during the fall semester and from the Geological Survey appropriation during the spring and summer. The salaries paid by the Survey to the full-time subordinate staff range from $100 to $390 per month. Student employees receive from thirty to fifty cents per hour. Professors on summer appointment receive $200 per month, plus expenses, and the graduate students from $50 to $125 plus expenses. APPROPRIATIONS The fiscal year for all State Departments in Kansas is July 1 to June 30. In the year 1928-1929 the Survey received an allotment of $4,360 from State University funds. Beginning with 1929, biennial appropri- ations from the State Legislature (as a separate item in the University's appropriation) have been available. The appropriations to date have amounted to $2b,OOO yearly, but owing to economic conditions the Gov- ernor has requested that the Survey spend but $23,780.88 during the present year (1931-1932~. During the year the United States Geological

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 39 Survey and the Kansas Geological Survey each contributed $4,500 on two cooperative geological projects. The appropriations constitute the only source of income, with the exception of a moderate mailing charge for publications, which yields but little more than postage. About 35 per cent of the Survey funds are expended for administra- tion, clerical work, office overhead, drafting, and engraving; the entire remaining 65 per cent is spent in geological investigation. No topo- graphic work has been undertaken. About 78 per cent of the State is mapped at the present time, though all but five per cent is on a reconnais- sance scale. No strictly geographic or other non-geologic work has been done during the past four years. The printing costs have been carried by the State University out of its biennial allotment of appropriations to the State printing plant. PUBLICATIONS Four series of publications have been issued since the establishment of the present State Geological Survey, as follows: University Geological Survey of Kansas: Reports, nine volumes NIinera1 Resources of Eansas (1897-1903), six pamphlets. four. State Geological Survey of Kansas: Bulletins, eighteen; Circulars No publications are included in any of these series outside the fields of geology and geography. The Geological Survey has had no difficulty as yet in the printing of its reports. However, engraving costs have to he borne by the Survey which hampers publication to some extent. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 The projects undertaken since 1911 may be classified as follows: IJnder the heading economic three on oil and gas, and one each on ground water, volcanic ash, diatomaceous marl, district, county, and general; in the field of strictly geological investigation two district, one state, and sixteen county projects (four in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey); two on paleontologic studies and one on crystalline rocks, making a total of thirty-one separate projects with- out duplication. Bulletins (or circulars) have been published or are in press for all of these projects. Beside the maps included in the reports, several maps, including a physiographic diagram of Kansas, have been published. In addition to these projects the stag handles a large volume of cor- respondence, rendering service by giving geological advice and informa