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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 47 PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The main work being done is along the lines already outlined, and the preparation of the annual report for 1932 which will include pri- marily a bibliography of Maine geology and other short subjects in geology. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS A thorough and concise statement of the history of the Survey of Elaine will be found in Meisel's Bibliography of Maine Natural History, on pages 600 to 606 inclusive. MARYLAND * The Maryland Geological Survey was organized in 1896 with offices at Johns Hopkins University. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The scope of the Survey, as originally defined, included the examina- tion of geological formations, soils, and physical features of the State; the preparation of special reports, with necessary illustrations and maps; and the consideration of such. other scientific and economic questions as seem to be of value to the people of the State. Under this broad organiza- tion the Survey has inaugurated or administered the State highway work, now in the hands of the State Roads Commission; and the State forestry work, now in the hands of the State Department of Forestry; it has also organized exhibitions representing the State's resources, and other similar projects. ORGANIZATION Since the reorganization of the State in 1920, the Survey has been nominally under the Regents of the University of Maryland, with an Advisory Council consisting of the President of the University of Maryland, the President of the Johns Hopkins University, and two other members appointed by the Governor. Because of the Survey's long existence and its independent operation it still deals directly in admin- istrative arid financial matters with the appropriate State officers arid not through the Board of Regents. *Information furnished by E. B. Mathews, State Geologist, September, 1930.

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48 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND The executive officer, defined in the original bill as Superintendent, is known generally as State Geologist. The present incumbent is Edward Bennett Mathews. The appointment was originally made by the Com- mission, first as Assistant State Geologist in 1898, and as State Geolo- gist in 1917 without specific term of office. The present Assistant State Geologist is Edward W. Berry, appointed in 1917 and now under the ~ . .. ~ . . .. clvll Service regulations of the State, subject to dismissal only after in- vestigation of charges by the State Employment Commissioner. The State Geologist must be a man of recognized scientific standing as evi- denced by membership in one or snore of the professional societies. Com- pensation is on the per diem basis, fixed by the State Employment Com- mission on recommendation of the Advisory Council. The clerical staff includes a secretary-stenographer, a senior clerk, and a librarian. There is no permanent technical staff. All are employed on a per diem basis, or selected for particular work. The Survey is allowed to employ without appointment on an expenditure of less than $600 per annum, and by appointment for larger amounts. The number on the pay roll rotaries from time to time according to the discretion of the executive, but the monthly pay roll usually carries about eight to ten names. The per diem rates range from $4 upward, $9 or $10 a day being the usual amount for independent investigators. Almost all of the employees are college professors or advanced college students. The topographic work of the State has been completed. Engineering hydrographic work is usually done for specific projects on cooperative contracts. The Survey is officially associated with the University of Maryland, but its offices and employees are associated with the Johns lIopkins Uni- versity. The State Geologist is ex officio Director of the State Weather Service, and a member of the Advisory Board of the State Department of Forestry, as well as a member of the Development Bureau, and of the \Vater Resource Commission. APPROPRIATIONS The appropriation of the Geological Survey comes by biennial ap- propriation of the Legislature as a part of the budget prepared by the Governor. In addition, the Johns Hopkins University supplies office and laboratory rooms, light, heat, etc. Besides the specific amounts ap- propriated by the Legislature, it has been customary to credit to the account of the Survey the monthly receipts for maps and publications remitted to the State Treasurer. All balances in the annual appropriation revert to the State at the end of the fiscal year unless already under contract. The appropriations

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 49 for the past four years, and for the current biennium ending September 30, 1933, are as follows: 928 929 ....... 1930 lD31 1932 1933 The genera.! ratio of the distribution follows: $18,875 18,875 1 g?O0O 19,000 24,100 24,150 of expenditures is about as Administrative 38 per cent. Topographic None, as the state has for many years been completely covered with topographic sheets on the scale of 1: 62,500. Geologic and geographic, 25 per cent. Other items, 6 per cent. Printing, 31 per cent. PUBLICATIONS The reports of the Survey are in the following series: General reports, 12; special reports, 15; systematic reports, 10; county reports, 14. The general reports constitute a numbered series containing papers on a wide variety of subjects in geography, geology, road work, magnetic surveys, etc. We are not appreciably hampered by lack of funds as the State has usually granted whatever has been asked. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 The work since 1911 has been a continuation of the work previously undertaken, since we have had little occasion to change our program from that originally adopted in 1896. This program involves a series of studies on the various subjects dealing with the physical features of the State, of interest to the people. These included originally: discussion of the physiography, geology, mineral resources, soils, magnetic declina- tion, hydrography, and forestry of the entire State. With. the expansion of the work since 1911, the Survey has not carried on work in forestry; and since the completion of the topographic maps for all the twenty- three counties, little has been done in topographic or magnetic surveying beyond keeping the accumulated data. up to date and issuing reprised editions of the county maps.

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50 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The Maryland Survey is now engaged in revising and issuing new editions of topographic maps of the counties as editions become ex- hausted, and in continuing the detailed geological mapping of the counties of the State, chiefly in the crystalline rocks of central Maryland. The Surrey hats now, in published or manuscript form, geological maps on the scale of 1: 62,500 for fifteen.of the twenty-three counties, and work is well advanced in most of the remaining eight counties. Work is also being done on the revision of soil maps in cooperation with the United States Bureau. of Soils and. the State Experiment. Station, the entire State having been mapped and sheets issued for all the counties. The Survey has also undertaken the task of revising and refining the stratigraphy of the Coastal Plain formations, and of completing the monographs on the remaining geologic systems represented in the State. These include the Crystallines, the Carboniferous, and the Triassic. Time is also being devoted to eomplet.ing and publishing reports on the physical features of the counties, including five on the eastern shore, four in the central part of the State, one in southern, and two in western Maryland. The Survey cooperates with the Bureau of Mines in the eol- leetion of mineral statistics, and with the United States Geological Survey in geological and hydrographie work. PERVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The first Geological Survey of Maryland, the third in America, was inaugurated in March, 1833, under the direction of J. H. Alexander, Engineer, and J. T. Dueatel, Geologist. That Survey, before its abolish- ment in 1842, issued nine small reports comprising about 600 pages; 18 maps, including maps of ten counties on the scale of 1: 211,200 with 4-foot contours, and contoured maps with areal geology probably the first instance in America. A manuscript snap of the entire State on the scale of 1: 200,000 was also prepared but never published. From 1848 to 1856 James Higgins, as State Agrieultura.l Chemist, prepared and published five reports which eonta.ined a. meager amount of geological information. He was succeeded by Philip T. Tyson who issued reports in 1860 and 1862 which treat quite fully of the geology and industrial resources of Maryland, and include the first colored geo- logieal map of the State, prepared in 1859. From the end of that Survey in 1862, until the organization of the present Survey, most of the geo- logieal work done in Maryland was through the a.etivity of the faculty and students of the Johns Hopkins University with occasional studies by members of the United States Geological Survey.