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52 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND MICHIGAN ~ The present Survey is officially the Geological Survey Division of the Department of Conservation. Originally it was created by Act 20 of the Legislature of 1837. It was re-established in 1869, with offices located at Lansing, Michigan. In 1921, the Survey was made a division of the Conservation Department. It is under the direction of the State Geolo- gist., who holds' office indefinitely. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES In accordance with the act establishing a Survey, the Board of Geo- logical Survey was " to make or cause to be made a thorough geological and mineralogical survey of the State, embracing a. determination of the succession and arrangement, thickness, and position of all rock and strata, their mineral character and contents, and their economical uses, an investigation of soils and subsoils, and the determination of their character and agricultural adaptation; the investigation of all deposits of brines, coal, marl, clay, gypsum, lime, petroleum, and metals and metallic ores, building stones, marble, grit stones, materials for mortar and cement, mineral paint, and all other productions of the geological world within the limits of this State capable of being converted to the uses of man." Acts 250 and 251 of Public Acts of 1905 authorized the Board of Geological Survey to make a. biological survey and a topo- graphic survey of the State. In 1911 the office of Commissioner of Mineral Statistics was abolished by the legislature and the work given to the Geological Survey. In 1913 the work of the Suryey was further ex- tended by the legislature which appropriated funds for making an ap- praisal of mines and mineral properties for the State Tax Commission. The Geological Survey was consolidated under the Department of Con- servation by Act 17, Public Acts of 1921. The supervision of the drilling and plugging of oil and gas and test wells as provided for in Act 65. Public Acts of 1927, was the most recent duty added to the work of the Survey. ORGANIZATION The Survey is under the general control of the Commission of Con- servation, composed of seven commissioners appointed by the Governor, *Information furnished by R. A. Smith, State Geologist, Lansing, Michigan, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 53 for a term of six years. They receive no compensation but are reim- bursed for actual expenses. They appoint the Director of the Depart- ment of Conservation. In 1919, R. A. Smith was appointed State Geolo- gist of Michigan. The State Geologist is now appointed by the Depart- ment of Conservation but the appointment is subject to the approval of the Conservation Commission. By Act l?, Public Acts of 1921, The Board of Geological Survey was abolished and the Geological Survey consolidated with several other more or less related state agencies, and is now a part of the Department of Conservation. The State Geologist gives all of his time to the work of the Survey. lIe receives an annual salary, and expenses while in the field. The salary is fixed by the Con- servation Commission. The work of the division is carried on under six different general sub- divisions, more or less over-lapping and interrelated. A staff geologist or engineer is at the head of each, but all members assist the others as mutual interests and conditions may require. Most of the work is car- ried on in cooperation with other State and National institutions or agencies, for the purpose of doing more elective and comprehensive work than would be possible with the personnel, equipment, and funds of the Survey alone. The full-time staff and office force of the Survey comprises nine geolo- gists, one petroleum engineer, one laboratory assistant, and three sten- ographers. The part-time stain varies from six to forty each field season. The salaries of the stenographers range from $1,080 to $1,350 per year; those of the geologists from $1,000 to $4,500. All are appointed by the State Geologist, subject to the approval of the Director of the Depart- ment of Conservation. There is no Civil Service Commission. The part- time staff is composed almost wholly of college professors, instructors, or advanced students. The Geological Survey is not officially connected with any other State institution or agency, but it is in close cooperation with the University, the State College, the College of Mines, the State Highway and State Health departments, and with the Securities and Tax Commissions. APPROPRIATIONS Appropriations are made annually, but much of the Division's work is done by appropriations from other State agencies for special purposes.

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54 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND The income of the Michigan Geological Survey Division for the past four years has- been as follows: Direct appropriations Special income from by the legislature other State genies 192.9-30 ........ $62,300'+$10,800 1930-31 , 61,8~5 +38,500 + 1931-32 ........ 55,167 +2~;,600 1932-33 ........ 55,222 +23,000 Topographic Survey, from State Administrative Board Airplane Survey, from Conserva- tion and State Highway De- partments and from the Uni- versity Airplane Survey, from gas tax and special allotments from Department of Conservation Airplane Survey, from gas tax There are no other regular sources of income; a small amount of sup- port comes from oil and gas royalties from State lands. The appropri- ations are made biennially, with definite allotments for each year. It is difficult to estimate accurately the amounts expended for a,dmin- istration, inspection, etc., as there is no hard and fast line of demarea- tion between strictly geologic work and that done in connection with in- spection and mine appraisal work. An approximate statement of the division of expenditures, however, follows: 1. Administration 171 per cent 2. Topographic work None No topographic work is being done at present. Of the total funds, 30 per cent has been spent, in recent years, for airplane photographing and base mapping. About 25 per cent of the State is topographically mapped, but only about 20 per cent is covered with reasonably satisfactory maps. 3. Geological surveys ~ ~1 _r 1~_ c ~1 1 ............... 27 per cent ^11 OI one blare is covered oy geological surveys of varying degrees of completeness, from pure reconnaissance to very de tailed work. 4. Other items 55 per cent Fifty-five per cent of funds are for supervision of oil and gas development, oil and gas pipe lines, appraisal of mines (includes much geological work), water investigations, etc. PUBLICATIONS Under somewhat various titles, 58 publications have been issued by the Michigan Geological Survey. First was a group of Geological Reports prepared by Douglas Houghton from 1837 to 1845. The first and only Biennial Report of Progress appeared in 1860. There followed a series of nine volumes, covering the period from 1869 to 1904. There is one volume of Reports of the State Board of Geological Survey for several

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY bo years between 1881 to 1892. Eight Annual Reports appeared from 1901 to 1908, and one Biological Survey in 1908. Since that time all reports have been issued as Publications. There have been thirty-seven of these, appearing in thirty-one Geological Series and six Biological Series. These publications have dealt primarily with geologic subjects, co~rer- ing stratigraphy, paleontology, mineral resources, etc., but have included also some biological and agricultural sub ects. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISTIME,NTS SINCE 1911 The varied geology of the State has necessitated a wide field of in- vestigation in the direction of both fundamental and economic geology. Detailed magnetic and geologic surveys of the iron-bearing and as- sociated rocks have been carried on in most of the years since 1911, and the results of these surveys have been incorporated in various publica- tions. In 1929, investigations were started in the western part of the Marquette iron-bearing district and continued to date on both the iron ore possibilities of the " hard ore " belt, and also of the Ropes gold min- ing area. Progress reports are in preparation. In 1914, as the result of several years, study of the copper-bearing rocks of Michigan, a special report on the Copper Deposits of Michigan was published. In 1925, detailed magnetic geologic surveys were begun in the copper-bearing and associated rocks, i. e., the Keweenawan series:. These surveys have been continued to the present. Several progress reports have been issued. The object is to trace out the detailed structures of the series of beds and thus enable the search for copper-beari~g lodes to be more efficiently made. Special studies have been conducted on limestone, ceramic materials, oil and gas, cement materials, Gypsum, rock-salt and brines. coal. and foundry sands, and monographs reports and maps issued for each. In many instances these reports represent as many as three or four years of field investigation and laboratory study. Detailed studies have also been conducted on marl and peat. During 1927 and 1928, an investiga- tion was made of the sand deposits of the State, to determine their fitness for foundry purposes. The report was prepared but lack of funds has delayed publication. A monographic report on the Surface Geology of Michigan, combining both the northern and the southern peninsulas, has been issued, as has also a report on the Inland Lakes of Michigan. The Survey has carried on, in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Public Roads, an inventory of drainage conditions, drains built, types, costs, etc., and published a report on Drainage in Michigan. In 1911 a special report was published on the glacial and postglacial uplifts of the Michigan Basin and also on earthquakes. , rev , , ~

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56 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND Since 1916, stratigraphic, faunal, and correlation studies have been conducted on the Niagaran limestones, particularly in the Upper Pe- ninsula. Much of the work is in manuscript form. Similar studies have been completed for the Ordovician formations in the Upper Peninsula. Portions of the results have been published by the University of Michi- gan. Studies of the corals and of certain other life forms have been com- pleted, or are nearing completion. Biological studies were carried on by the Survey from about 1905 to 1921, when this line of investigations ceased through lack of legislative . . appropriations. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORX During the present biennium field work is being greatly curtailed. A survey of the underground water conditions in the State is to be initiated in 1932, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. Eco- nomic and surface geology studies and mapping are to be conducted in Mackinac County during the present field season. The magnetic and geologic survey on the copper-bearing rocks is to be continued during the present field season, but on a limited scale. Airplane photographing and base mapping are to be conducted in four counties during the coming season. It is expected that about 4,000 square miles will be flown, as- suming average weather conditions. Studies on dune formation, move- ment, and control are to be conducted in the western part of the State. The annual appraisals of iron and copper mines will be completed by May 1, 1932. Work will be continued on many of the projects listed. During the past five years the Geological Survey Division has been greatly handi- capped by lack of funds for printing. Special effort is now being made, and will continue through the coming biennium, to get the accumulation of the geological reports into printed form for the use of the mineral industries and the scientific organizations. A new volume on the mineral resources of Michigan is now in prepa- ration. A comprehensive report, by Dr. G. G. Brown of the University of Michigan, on the foundry sands of Michigan is nearly completed and will be ready for printing within the. next few months. It represents the results of about four years of field investigation and laboratory research and should be of much interest and value to foundry men. A report on the coals of Michigan is in manuscript form and will require only a small amount of revision, on account of some recent developments, to bring it up to date and ready for printing. This will be printed with the next volume of mineral resources.