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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 57 The manuscript of a. report on the Niagaran limestone of the Upper Peninsula., by G. M. Ehlers of the University of Michigan, is nearing completion. This report represents the results of about sixteen years of field and laboratory study. The county marl reports are in typewritten form, and tracings showing the deposits have been completed. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The first State Geological Survey of Michigan was organized in 1837, the act establishing it carrying an appropriation of $3,000 for the first year. During the three succeeding veers ann~.l ~nnr`~nrint.inn~ of .~R non ran ^^A ~A_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~ ~^ ~4 ~r ~ ~ vt ~ e ~ trlw.LLo we w rev v ~ ~,~UIJ, anal ~1;6,()U(), respectively, were made to carry on the work. Douglas Houghton was State Geologist during the life of the first Survey. ~ v v The results of the work are contained. in five annual reports, the last bearing the date of 1842, all of which were published in the State Senate and House documents. At the end of the fourth year, as no further pro- vision for the Survey was made, the work ceased. Geologic work in Michigan was resumed in 1839, when the second Geological Survey was organized under the direction of Professor Alex- ander Winchell, but this was quickly interrupted by the outbreal: of the Civil War. The only publication was a first biennial report of progress, which was issued in 1861. The third, or present, Survey was crea.tect In 1869. NOTE.- The above statement regarding previous Survey organizations is taken from the United States Geological Survey's report on State Geological Surveys of the United States. MINNESOTA The Minnesota Geological Survey was reorganized October I, I91l, with offices located at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The purpose of the Survey is to plan and carry out a survey of the geology and natural resources of the State and to publish reports thereon. ORGANIZATION The Survey is governed by the Board of Regents of the University. The chief executive office is that of Director of the Survey, which posi- tion is now held by William lI. Emmons. The Director is nominated by the President of the University and appointed by the Regents. The * Information furnished by W. H. Emmons, Director, March, 1932.

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58 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND present Director was appointed in 1911. No salaries are received, except part of the salary of the Director. About twenty-two per cent of the time of the Director is given to the work of the Survey, and about twenty- two per cent of his salary is charged to the Survey allotment. The re- mainder of his salary is charged to the University, since the Director is also Head of the Department of Geology. Part of the time of one secre- tary is given to State Survey work. To The summer. during the vacation ~ ~ 1 period, about sly geologists are employed by appointment by the Board . _ ~ of Recants. No one gives his whole time to Survey work, and no one except the Director receives salary during the winter months. Prac- tically all of the geologists employed are members of the faculty of the Department of Geology, or advanced students ill the department, who act as assistants. No topographic, engineering, or hydrographic work is done by the Survey. Such services are provided for by other departments of the State government. All appointments are made by the Regents on nomination of the Di- rector. The geologists employed receive from $200 to $350 per month for their services. Student assistants are paid from $60 to $75 a month. All employees receive expenses in the field in addition to their salaries. APPROPRIATIONS The Survey is supported by allotments-from the University budget which for the last four fiscal years have amounted to $9,000 per year. Of this, $1,500 goes to the salary of the Director; the remainder for the field work done, and for the publication of maps and reports. The appropriations are allotted from the University funds which are decided by the Legislature every two years. Allotments for the last four years have been $18,000 for each biennium. Administrative and clerical work of the Survey amounts to about fifteen per cent of the total ex- penditures; geologic investigations, to fifty-five per cent; and printing and engraving, to about thirty per cent. PUBLICATIONS The publications of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota include a series of twenty-four Annual Reports from 1872 to 1898, a series of six Final Reports from 1872 to 1901, and a series of ten Bulletins from 1886 to 1894. Since the organization of the present Geological Survey, twelve additional Bulletins have been issued, bringing the total in this series to twenty-two. A geological map of the State is

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 59 now in press. The publications include no reports on subjects other than geology and related geography. Bulletins 12, 13, and 14 include sec- tions treating climate and soils of Minnesota; and Bulletin 20 includes sections on the fauna and flora along Highway No. 1. The Survey work is hampered by lack of funds. Twice the amount at present received could be used to advantage. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since its organization in 1911, the Survey has made studies of, and published reports on, the surface formations and agricultural conditions of most of the State, the clays and shales and foundry sands, and the peat deposits of Minnesota. The Survey has. also carried orr investigations of the various iron-ore deposits of the State arid published reports cover- ing these studies. A bulletin on the subsurface geology and water supply of northwestern Minnesota has recently been published. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The Survey is now undertaking work on the iron ores of the Cuyur~a range, on marls and limestones of Minnesota, on underground waters of the northern part of the State, and the problem of the Rove slate in northeastern Minnesota, and is also preparing a large-scale map, 1: 500,- 000, which will be accompanied by a bulletin on the mineral resources of Minnesota. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The Geological and Natural History Survey preceded the present organization. There was no official geological survey and no appropri- ation for geological work under this organization. Some geological work was done by it between 1872 and 1900. The income from the sale of salt spring lands, which amounted to a small sum, was used by the Geological and Natural History Survey for botanical and zoological work. A small appropriation was made to Professor C. W. Hall for the publishing of Water Supply Paper 256 of the United States Geological Survey. This appeared under the names of Hall, Meinzer, and Fuller, and the work was done in cooperation with the Minnesota State Board of Health and the United States Geological Survey. This was practically the only geo- logical work undertaken between 1900 and 1911, when the present Min- nesota Geological Survey was organized. 5