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60 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND MISSISSIPPI * The Geological Survey of Mississippi is known officially as the " Geo- logical, Economic, and Topographical Survey." Its office location and mail address is University, Mississippi, but express, freight, and tele- gra.phic communications should be directed to Oxford, Mississippi. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The Geological Survey has for its objects: (a.) Investigations of the economic natural resources of the State, both metallic and nonmetallic; (b) preparation of reports and maps embodying results of these insesti- gations; (c) examination and classification of soils of the Sta.te; (d) in- vestigation and mapping of water resources, both surface and under- ground; (e) examination and report upon road-making arid other structural materials; (f ~ examination and report upon the physical features of the State; (g) preparation of reports and maps exhibiting the general and detailed geological structure of the State; (h) the con- sideration of other kindred scientific and economic questions pertaining to the State. ORGANIZATION This Department is governed by a Commission of five members, all ex officio, consisting of the Governor of the State, who is Chairman of the-Board, the State Superintendent of Education, the Chancellor of the Sta.te University, the President of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College (now "Mississippi Sta.te College"), and the Direc- tor of the Department of Archives and History, all of whom serve with- out salary, receiving only actual expenses incurred in attending meetings. This Commission appoints the Director of the Survey and his assistants, and the Director and his assistants are given a free hand in organization of the work of the Department. The executive officer of the Survey is the Director, appointed by the Commission, for no specific period, but during the pleasure of the Com- mission. The present incumbent is Ephraim Noble Lowe, appointed June 4, 1909. Since the removal of the Survey from Jackson to the State University, in 1924, the Director is also Head of the Department of Geology at the State University. About two-thirds of the time of the Director is devoted to the work of the Survey, and one-third to teaching and administration of the Department of Geology. The salary of the Director of the Survey is fixed by law, but additional salary is received from the University in proportion to time given to University work. * Information furnished by E. M. Lowe, Director, April, 19291. Revised, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 61 Besides the Director, the regular geological force of the Survey con- sist.s of one Assistant Geologist, and one secretary aIld librarian. As- socia.ted with these in part-time work are Federal workers on soil survey, a variable number on hydrographic survey, and a topographer and about eight or ten assistants on topographic survey. The topographer and assistants are State employees, and are active during summer months. These State employees are selected by the Director, with the consent of the Commission. Preference is always given to college students. No Civil Service examination is required. Pay for summer employees is. per diem. During 1930-1931 three advanced students and one college professor were employed in field work for the State Survey. The Mississippi Geological Survey is connected officially with the State University. From 1909 to 1924 the Survey was located in Jackson, Mississippi, with headquarters in the Old Capitol. Lack of laboratory facilities in Jackson, however, led to the removal of the Survey, by Act of the State Legislature, to the State University at Oxford, Mississippi, in the summer of 1924. The Department of Geology of the University was then put in charge of the Director of the Survey, who has since administered both departments. The Survey was at first located in the Library Building of the University, but since August, 1931, has been housed in the old Law Building, which was renovated to accommodate the Survey and the Department of Geology. APPROPRIATIONS The Geological Survey is supported by Legislative appropriation, made biennially. The amounts for the past two biennia are as follows: 1928-1929 (exclusive of Director's salary), $15,500 1930-1931 (exclusive of Director's salary), $17,500 The law states, "The sum of $10,000 herein appropriated for the purpose of topographical, mineral, and hydrographical survey for the State to be used in conjunction with such amounts as the United States federal government shall put up for this purpose.', It is estimated that the funds appropriated are expended approxi- mately as follows: Administrative and clerical Topographic work ....... Geologic and mineral investigations....... Soil survey, oil investigations, archaeology... Printing ................................. Per cent - 20 .. 20 ......... 30 15 ......... 15 , .....

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62 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND PUBLICATIONS Since its organization, in 1906, the present Survey has published twenty-three Bulletins: On the geology and mineral resources of the State, 20; on forest conditions of the State, 2; and on native plants of the State, one. Thirteen biennial reports have been published, of which eleven were administrative reports, one contained a historical sketch of the Survey, and one contained a report on the petroleum possibilities of Mississippi. In addition to these, the Survey has published eight shorter bulletins and reports on various phases of the work of the Survey, one report (cooperative with the United States Geological Survey) on the Ground Water Resources of Mississippi, and one report on the Ar- ch~ology of Mississippi. A number of press bulletins have been issued from time to time on technical subjects relating to the geological work of the State. Besides these publications, there have been fifty-two detailed county soil reports, with maps, issued in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, and twenty-three topographic sheets done in cooperation with the IJnited States Geological Survey. Except for the years 1920-1921 the Geological Survey has always been handicapped by inadequate financial support. The appropriations should be at least doubled, even quadrupled, to enable elective work to be accomplished. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 The chief accomplishments of the Survey are indicated by the reports it has published. Each of these represents field investigation and labora- tory research on the subject covered, before the information could be prepared for publication. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The chief activities of the Geological Survey for the present are di- rected to the completion of a full report on the Stratigraphy of the Coastal Plain of Mississippi, which includes the whole State except part of one or two counties in the extreme northeast corner. Along with this, and collateral with it, a careful study is being made of the subsurface geology of the State, based upon microscopic examinations of well-cut- tings and of typical outcrop material. Attention is also being given to the completion of a soil survey of two counties, Greene and Marion, in cooperation with the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.