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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY la NEW JERSEY * The Geological Survey of New Jersey, established in 1864, became in 1916 the Division of Geology and Waters in the newly organized Depart- ment of Conservation and Development. Its telegraph, mail, and express address is State House Annex, Trenton, New Jersey. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The functions of the Division of Geology and Topography are the investigations of the geology and mineral resources of the State in their broadest terms; the preparation and publication of topographic and geologic maps; establishment of bench-marks; and maintenance of the State Museum. Underground water in the geologic aspects of its oc- currence is also a subject of study. Stream gaging and the study of available potable water for public supplies is, however, under the juris- diction of another department. ORGANIZATION The Department of Conservation and Development is governed by a non-salaried, bi-partisan board of eight members, two of whom are ap- pointed each year for terms of four years. It comprises two divisions, one headed by a geologist, the other by a forester, each of whom is under Civil Service, holding office for indeterminate periods. At four-year intervals the Board elects one of these chiefs Director of the Depart- ment. Henry B. Kummel has been State Geologist since January, 1902, and Director since February, 1922. The salaries of the division chiefs are equal, but additional compensation is paid the Director. Theoret- ically, the Director's salary is fixed by the Board, subject to confirmation by the Civil Service Commission, but actually it is determined by the specific amount inserted in the Annual Appropriation bill. All employees of the Department, including the division chiefs, are under Civil Service, appointed by the Director, confirmed by the Board from certified lists furnished by the Civil Service Commission. For most technical positions there are no Civil Service eligible lists, hence appointments to these positions are practically made by the Director and Board. The appointee, however, must later take a Civil Service examina- tion. The technical force of the Division of Geology and Topography com- prises one geologist besides the State Geologist, and one topographer. * Information furnished by H. B. Kummel, State Geologist, March, 1932. 6

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76 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND The clerical work necessary is included in the general administration of the entire department. There are also six technical and seventeen clerical employees in the Museum. The total personnel for the entire depart- ment, including forestry, forest-fire service, aIld parks, but exclusive of per diem labor and emergency fire fighters, is 145. Clerical salaries range from $600 to $2,760, average $1,380; geologist and topographers, $3,600 to $5,800. The Department rarely has funds for the employment of advanced college students or college professors, and is not organically connected with any college or university. APPROPRIATIONS The Department is supported chiefly by legislative appropriations from (a) the General Treasury, and (b) a State forest income fund. It receives some federal funds for forest-fire prevention and forest-nursery work; none is contingent upon cooperation. Appropriations are made annually, under the budget system, listed under thirty-five or forty dif- [erent heads. During the last two years, the grouping of these appro- priations has changed completely, so that comparisons cannot readily be made with previous years. Exclusive of federal funds, the total appro- priations in recent years were as follows: 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 $310,864 $43D,803 $593,719 $453,488.50 Of the above amounts there was available for geology and topography, for the year ending July 1, 1932, $21,814, including this Bureau's share of administrative expenses. For the same period there was appropriated for the State Museum $52,120. PUBLICATIONS Publications of the New Jersey Survey are as follows: Final Reports of the State Geologist, Volumes I to VIII. Annual Report of the State Geologist, published yearly from 1864 to 1909, except 1868, containing Administrative Reports and Scientific papers. Bulletins Nos. 1 to 35, chiefly scientific papers. :From 1910 to 1914 inclusive, the General Administrative Report of the State Geologist was published in the Bulletin series. Since 1915, it has been included in the Annual Report of the Department. Annual Report, Board of Conservation and Development, 1915 to 1929. No general administrative report has been published since 1929.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 77 From the beginning, the reports have covered a great variety of sub- ject.s- geology, hydrography, topography, mineralogy, forestry, drainage, and, in the earlier years, some botany and zoology. The money now available for publication is much less than was available twenty years ago, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain funds for printing. The department should have an increase of at least 200 per cent for this purpose. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since 1911, the Division of Geology and Waters has conducted in- xTestigations both independently and in cooperation with various State and Federal organizations. The following work was carried on in co- operation with the limited States Geological Survey: a report on potash in the greensand marl deposits; quantitative investigations of under- ground water in type localities. of New Jersey, on which one report has oeen pu o~snect and three others are nearing completion; the prepara- tion and publication of geologic folios; and stream gaging. The Division has cooperated with the United States Bureau of Soils in the completion of the soil survey of the State and the publication of rel)orts nod man. ~ .~.:~C 1~ ~ OTT -1_ ~ ~1_1 _ ~( ~ ~ 1 1: ~11~ 1 1 1 1 ~ _ ~ ] ~ _ ~ ally wow c~e u En ogres Bureau of Planes In the annual collection of mineral statistics and the publication of an annual bulletin. Independent of other organizations, the Division has made constant revision and publication of the State's series of topographic maps, has prepared and published a summary of the geology of New Jersey, reports on fossil fish, the archaeology of the State, the Pleistocene deposits of South Jersey, and three editions of a geologic map of the State on a scale of one inch to four miles, has compiled additional lists of bench marks based on new lines of precise leveling, and has continued the collection of well logs and local geologic information. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORX With its present small geologic force the geologic work is limited chiefly to miscellaneous observations of general geologic structures, well records, mining developments, mineral production, and advice. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS In 1835 an act was passed by the Legislature authorizing the Governor to be " empowered to employ some suitable and scientific person or persons to make a geological and mineralogical survey of the State and snake a report thereon to the next session of the Legislature." Henry D.