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78 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND Rogers, Professor of Geology in the University of Pennsylvania, was appointed. lEIis first report was received with great satisfaction, and an appropriation made for the continuance of the work. Rogers continued this survey until 1840 when his final report, an oc~vo volume of 301 pages with a geological map of the State on a scale of six miles to the inch, was submitted and later published. The entire appropriation for the five years' work was $5,000. In 1854 a Survey was organized to make " an accurate, thorough, and complete geological survey of the State, to be made and described in sections of one township each accompanied by proper maps, diagrams, profiles, etc., etc." Dr. William Mitchell was appointed State Geologist, Professor George H. Cook, Assistant State Geologist, Dr. Henry Wurtz, Chemist and Mineralogist, and General Egbert L. Viele, Topographic Engineer. Detailed surveys were made of the iron and zinc mines in the northern part of the State, and of the calcareous and glauconitic or greensand marls of the State, and chemical and mineralogical work was done on the calcareous marls. Topographic work was begun in Sussex County. The work of the first season was highly satisfactory and similar work was carried on in. 1850 and 1856. Three annual reports were made and published? as. was also a report on the Geology of Cape May County. A total appropriation of $49,000 had been made, but at the end of the third year funds were no longer available. In 1857, and subsequent years, efforts were made to revive the Mitchell Survey, but Doctor Kitchell's death in 1861 terminated these efforts. In 1864, through the active efforts of Dr. George lI. Cook, an act was passed authorizing a new geological survey, and Doctor Cook was named as State Geologist. This survey, planned at first to last only four years, was by repeated authorizations extended from time to time, so that geologic work has continued without interruption from 1864 to the present, a period of sixty-eight years. NEW MEXICO * The New Mexico State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources was established by the State Legislature of 1927, and began to function on July i, 1927. It is located at the New Mexico School of Mines, Socorro, New Mexico, and should be addressed at Socorro. * Information furnished by E. H. Wells, Director, March, 1932.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 79 SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The chief objects and duties of the Bureau, as provided in the Act creating it, are as follows: To investigate the geology, mines, and mineral resources of New Mexico and to prepare and publish bulletins and reports based on such investigations; to collect, compile, and publish statistics, and to collect a library and bibliography pertaining to New Mexico geology and mineral resources; to study mining, milling, and smelting operations, and oil and gas production and refining in the State, with special reference to their improvement. ORGANIZATION The State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources is a department of the New Mexico School of Mines and is under the direction of the Board of Regents of the school. The Board, consisting of five members, is ap- pointed by the governor for a period of four years. Board members serve without pay but are allowed traveling expenses in connection with meetings. The executive officer of the Bureau is the Director, who is elected by the Board. Since its organization, E. H. Wells has served as director, and also as president of the faculty of the School of Alines. Since January 1, 1931, he has also served as State Geologist, without any additional salary. Of the time not devoted to his duties as State Geologist, the Director gives seventy-five per cent to School administra- tion duties, and twenty-five per cent to' Bureau activities. His salary is paid monthly by the School and the Bureau ore the foregoing basis, which is at the discretion of the Board of Regents. For the 1931-32 fiscal year the other employees of the Bureau are four geologists, a geologist arid librarian, and a stenographer, all on a part-time basis. They are employed by the Board of Regents on the recommendation of the Director. Some of the geologists are on a per diem salary basis; the other employees receive a regular monthly salary. One of the geologists also heads the Department of Geology and Miner- alogy of the School of Mines, and devotes approximately thirty per cent of his time to Bureau work. Two of the geologists are employed on a per diem basis during the period of their assignments. One receives a fixed sum for completing his assignment. The geologist and librarian also holds the position of librarian of the school. The stenographer is also secretary to the president on the regular school staff. The salary of the director is $1,800 per year for Bureau work. The salaries of geologists paid on a monthly basis would be from $2,100 to $3,900 for full-time Bureau work. Geologists on a per diem basis receive .,

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80 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND $8.00 and $18.00 per day, the latter rate being due to the special qualif~- cations of the geologist. APPROPRIATIONS Appropriations for the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources are made by the State Legislature to the School of Brines from State funds. The School has received $~5,000 annually for Bureau activities since the organization of the Bureau, with the exception of the 1928-29 fiscal year when the amount was $10,096. The 1929 Legis- lature provided that this appropriation shall continue in future years without additional legislative enactment. Moneys received from the sale of bulletins and other publications must be paid into the State treasury and are not available for Bureau expenses. The Bureau is not obliged to spend all of its appropriation during the fiscal year for which it is received and any balance at the end of the fiscal year is available for the following year. During the fiscal year ending June SO, 1931, the total Bureau ex penditures were $20,392.75, distributed as follows: Administration Geologic and related work Geologic and topographic work in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey 14.1 ............................... 6.9 6.8 6.9 2.0 Printing and publications Traveling expenses ......................... Automobile purchases, upkeep and operation Miscellaneous .......................................... Per cent 16.0 47.3 PUBLICATIONS 100.0 The publications of the State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources consist of bulletins, circulars, and maps. Circulars are mimeographed and are used for short and preliminary reports and those which it is desirable to issue with the least possible delay. Up to March 1, 1932, publications consisted of six bulletins, including three by the School of Mines Mineral Resources Survey of New Mexico, which are included in the same series; four circulars; and one map. Publications deal only with geology and mineral resources. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1927 The chief undertakings of the Bureau since its organization, the results Of which have appeared in bulletin form, are an investi:,ation of the

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 81 fluorspar resources of the State, the preparation of a complete biblio- graphy of geologic and mining literature of the State, and the compila- tion of the mining and mineral laws of the State. The mica and lithium deposits of the State were studied, but the manuscript, etc., of the re- port was destroyed by fire in 1928. A study of the geology and ore de- posits of the Magdalena district, Socorro County, was begun. Circulars have been issued dealing with the mineral resources of the State in a general way, the ore deposits of the Groundhog mine, Central District, Grant County, and the lIobbs field and other oil and gas areas in Lea County. An oil and gas map of the State has been issued. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK Bureau undertakings in progress during the 1931-32 fiscal year, some of which were begun in previous years, and which will result in the pub- lication of bulletins prior to January 1, 1933, are as follows: An in- vestigation of the oil and gas resources of New Mexico; a study of the ore deposits of Socorro County; a. study of the ore deposits of Sierra County; an investigation and compilation of information from various sources on the metal resources of New Mexico and their economic fea- tures; an investigation and compilation of data from various sources of the non-metallic mineral resources of New Mexico and their economic features; and a study of the lithium and other deposits of the pre- Cambrian rocks of southern Taos County. A circular will be issued on gold deposits and gold mining in New Mexico. In August, 1930, the Bureau entered into an agreement with the United States Geological Survey for cooperative work, and provision has been made for continuing this work through the 1932-33 fiscal year. The study of the. geology and ore deposits of the Magdalena District, Socorro County, which was begun by the Bureau in 1928 was included in the cooperative agreement in 1930. Other cooperative undertakings ;11 ~1-Ut,1~:5 UUli~l~ Ale ~0i-~ need ~ Prier Ore an in~ractio-~+imn ^f the i_ A i__ A ~ _ -~ at ~ ~ n O ~ O ~ ~ _ ~ J _w_ ~ ~ ~^ In ~ ~,~ 1~-Vim V1 Lll\;i geology and ore deposits of the Central District, Grant County, and an investigation of the geology and ore deposits of the Lordsburg District, Grant County. The reports on these projects will be issued by the United States Geological Survey. This cooperative work has included the preparation of topographic maps of the Central and Lordsburg Dis- tricts. The funds allotted to this work are discretionary with the Board of Regents. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The work of the State Bureau of Mines is closely related to that of the School of Lines Mineral Resources Survey of New lIexico, which was