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82 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND established unofficially by President F. A. Jones in 1915 and functioned until 1920. No regular appropriations were ever made for that Survey, and the lack of funds greatly restricted its attainments. NEW YORK * The Geological Survey of New York is organically a part of the Science Division of the State Education Department, dating from 1904 when various scientific activities then receiving government support were brought together under the one head. The headquarters and mailing address are State Education Building, Albany, New York. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES Its operations have been continuous, in a broad sense, since the Natural History Survey of 1836-43, which had for its primary object the investi- gation of the geology and the mineral resources of the State. ORGANIZATION Other coordinate branches of the Science Division, at the head of which is a Director, include botany, entomology, zoology, and arch~e- ology. A museum for the storage and display of collections illustrative of the scientific resources of the State of New York is maintained in the building, and members of the staff give more or less time to its care and extension. The governing authority rests with the Commissioner of Education and the President of the University of the State of New York, who is appointed by, and acts with, the advice of the Regents of the University. Members of this board are elected for specified periods by the Legisla- ture and serve without pay. Their head is the Chancellor. They appoint the commissioner and president whose tenure of office is for life. Ap- pointments to the scientific stad are regulated by Civil Service and run for indefinite periods- so long as efficiency and proper conduct are main- tained. Salaries are on an annual basis, paid bi-monthly; they are fixed by the legislative budget and appropriation bill. The Director of the Science Division and State Museum is Charles C. Adams, who was appointed in May, 1926. The present working staff includes the following: State Geologist, State Paleontologist, Assistant State Geologist and Assistant Paleontolo- gist, a draftsman and photographer, a technical assistant, a stenographer, * Information furnished by D. H. Ne~land7 State Geologist, March, 1932.
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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 83 and the necessary clerical help whose services are shared by other members of the division stag. The salaries of the scientific staff range from $1,600 to $4,600 per annum. Topographic and hydrographic work does not come within the province of the Survey but is carried on by other State bureaus, acting alone or in cooperation with departments at Washington. Temporary field assistants for are al mapping, or in connection with special field investigations, are employed from time to time, as funds therefor may be available. Appointees are usually professors or advanced students in colleges who seek opportunity for summer work. The funds are supplied out of the quota available to the division, which is quite limited. APPROPRIATIONS The salaries of the geological and clerical staff are voted in the annual appropriation for the State Education Department under the head of State Museum. The salaries are listed separately for each employee, but there are no specific items included for office and field expenses or for printing? as these are covered by the Department funds. The salaries of the permanent staff, including clerical assistance, amount to about $18,000 a year. Topographic work, soil surveys, mine inspection, archeology, and for- estry do not come under the functions of the State Geologist. The division of the work performed by the office is about as follows: Research "a edi- torial, fifty per cent; correspondence and advisory, thirty per cent; co- operation with other State departments, fifteen per cent; Museum work, five per cent. PUBLICATIONS The publications bear the captions " New York State Museum " and the imprint " The University of the State of New York." They include annual reports, the major titles of which have been published hitherto in bulletin form in advance of the cloth-bound volumes; a series of memoirs; and a series of handbooks. The annual reports have been issued since 1847. There are also thirteen quarto volumes on paleontology, issued between 1842 and 1894, and five quarto volumes on geology and mineralogy of the Natural History Survey, which are still regarded as standards for reference. The bulletins are issued in paper-bound volumes at short intervals, and the edition varies between the general limits of 1,000 and 3,000. They bear consecutive numbers, the latest being No. 281. About one half of the bulletins relate to geological topics. The Survey has been handicapped by lack of funds for printing, so that a large accumulation of scientific matter in manuscript awaits pub