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86 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND Since the organization of the present Survey in 1925, three Bulletins, seven Economic Papers, eleven Circulars, one Educational Series, three Biennial Reports and various miscellaneous publications have been issued. The Division is very much hampered in publication by lack of funds, and could use five times as much as is now available. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS It is worthy of note that the first Geological Survey by public authority in America was established by the State of North Carolina. In 1823 an act of the General Assembly authorized the Board of Agriculture to pay the expenses of "geological excursions" for a period of years. This first work was begun by Professor Denison Olmstead, of the State IJni- versity. On his removal to Yale in 1825, the Survey was continued by Dr. Elisha Mitchell. The original appropriation made in 1823 was $2aO a year for four years. This was afterwards renewed for two years. Two reports were published in 1824 and 1825 by Olmstead, and a third on the mineralogy of the State by his assistant, C. E. Rothe, and two reports by Dootor Mitchell. These geological reports are the first of the kind ever made in this country. In 1852, Dr. E. Lenezer Emmons was appointed State Geologist, and during his regime a number of reports were published relating to the geology and natural history of the State. Emmons retained the office until his death in 1863, although the work of the Survey closed in 1860 on account of the Civil War. In 1866 the Survey was again resumed, with Dr. W. O. Kerr as State Geologist, who carried on the work until his death in 1885. During Doctor Ferris administration several reports were published on the geology and mineral resources of the State. After 1885 the Survey was allowed to lapse until 1891, when the North Carolina (geological Survey was established with Professor Joseph A. lIolmes, of the State University, as State Geologist. This Survey pub- lished twelve Bulletins, nine Economic Papers, and seven Biennial Re- ports, as well as thirty-seven Good-Roads Circulars. In 1905 it was re- placed by act of Legislature by the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. This organization functioned until 1925, when the present Department of Conservation and Development was created. NORTH DAKOTA ~ The North Dakota Geological Survey was established by act of the Legislature in 1895. The office of the Survey is at the State University, ~ Information furnished by A. G. Leonard, State Geologist, April, lg29.

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THE VNI TED STA TES GEOLOGICAL SUR VE Y 8 7 University Station, Grand Forks, North Dakota, which is the mail, telegraph, aIld express address. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The following is a summary of the laws governing the activities of the Survey: The Board of Administration of the State University is authorized to carry on a geological survey of the State. The purpose of the survey is to investigate the geological formations together with their " ores, coals, clays, peats, salines and mineral waters, marls, cements, building stones, and other useful materials; " to collect and tabulate such meteorological statistics as may be needed to account for the climate in various parts of the State; to ascertain, by barometrical observations or other means, the elevations of different parts of the State; and to prepare a geological map of North Dakota, upon which the geological formations shall be represented by means of colors and patterns. The Survey is authorized to collect specimens of all rocks, soils, ores, coals, fossils, cements, etc., and to preserve them for public inspection in the University of North Dakota. So far as practicable, duplicate specimens shall be collected for exchange with other universities and scientific institutions, of which the Smithsonian Institution shall have the preference. On the completion of any piece of work the Survey shall prepare a report embodying all useful and important information accumulated in the course of the investigation. ORGANIZATION The Professor of Geology in the State University is designated ex officio State Geologist. The governing board of the Geological Survey is the State Board of Administration which is composed of five members; three are appointed by the Governor, and two are ex officio the Com- missioner of Agriculture and Labor, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The executive officer, who has the title of State Geologist, is Arthur Gray Leonard, head of the Department of Geology of the State Uni- versity. He was appointed in 1903, when he came to the University, and has held the position until the present time. Approximately one quarter of his time is devoted to Survey work, and the compensation is on a per diem basis while employed in field work for the Survey. It is fixed by the administrative board.

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88 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND The clerical assistants are furnished by the University. The geologic assistants include an Assistant Sta.te-Geologist., who is Professor of Geology in the IJniversity, and is appointed by the governing board for an indefinite time. Other instructors are employed as special assistants and are paid a per diem rate while employed in field work. :Field as- sistants, who are advanced students in the University, serve during the field season, their salaries ranging from $40 to $60 per month in addition to their expenses while in the field. Topographic work has in recent years been under the direction of the State Engineer and is carried on in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. The Geological Survey is officially connected with the State University. APPROPRIATION S The appropriations for the Survey are made biennially by the Legis- lature, and are not contingent on cooperation. The appropriation for topographic mapping is, however, contingent on cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. The biennial appropriation during the last four years has been $2,500. For topographic work the biennial appropriation has been $10,0(30. The expenditures were divided approximately as follows: Administration . . . .. . . .. Economic and stratigraphic geology..... Underground water investigations.... Miscellaneous Per cent . .......... 24 20 50 In topographic work the State Engineer cooperates with the United States Geological Survey. The part of the State mapped to June 30, 1928, was 17.! per cent. PUBLICATIONS The publications of the Survey comprise biennial reports and bulletins. Six biennial reports, and six bulletins have been issued. These publica- tions deal with the lignite deposits, clays, cement materials, underground waters (including artesian waters), oil and gas possibilities, and the geology and topography of the State. As shown above, the publications have not included reports on sub- jects other than geology and geography. The cost of publication has not come from an appropriation of the Survey but from the State printing fund. When this was small, it has delayed the appearance of the reports, or has made necessary small editions.