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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 89 PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE lDll One of the chief lines of work since 1911 has been the investigation of the lignite deposits, carried on for many years by the State Geologist and his assistants. The Survey has prepared and published a geological map of North Dakota. Detailed studies have been made of the problems of the glacial drift, Pleistocene drainage changes in western North Dakota, and the artesian conditions in the State. Investigations have been made of the gravel and sand deposits of the State, the oil and gas possibilities, and, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, of under- ground waters of the State. The Federal Survey has published a report on the ground waters. The State Survey has cooperated with the United States Geological Survey in topographic mapping so! far as limited funds allowed, and in the preparation of the Bismarck Folio. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The principal subjects of investigation at the present time are the artesian waters and the gravel deposits of the State. OHIO * The organization for geological research in Ohio is known as the Geo- logica,l Survey of Ohio and since 1921 it has been a Division under the State Department of Education. The once is located at Orton Hall, Ohio State University, (Columbus. The present or Fourth Organization of the Survey dates from 1900. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The functions of the Survey are threefold: (~) To study in the field the rock succession and structure, and the former life recorded in them; the mineral deposits of value; and the surface features; (2) to publish in bulletins and on maps the results of' these studies; aIld (3) to assist by correspondence and interviews those seeking definite information on some phase of Ohio geology. ORGANIZATION There is no Governing Board. The Survey operates under the De- pa,rtment of Education and in most respects the State Geologist is given * Information furnished by Wilbur Stout, State Geologist, April, 1929. Revised March, 1932.

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90 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND free rein. He is appointed by the State Director of Education. Wilbur Stout, the present incumbent, was appointed State Geologist on Novem- ber 9, 1928, to succeed the late Dr. J. A. Bownocker. Compensation is by annual salary and is fixed by action of the State Legislature. The clerical staff of the Survey includes an office secretary at a salary of $l,980. This position is under Civil Service but the State Geolo- gist is permitted to choose from the eligible list with the approval of the Director of Education. Also, two student assistants are employed, a typist and a boy for handling bulletins, filling orders, etc. They are paid at the rate of forty cents per hour and are not under Civil Service. The amount expended for student help ire 1931 was $~75. The technical staff, including chemists and similar technical persons, consists of one assistant geologist, employed by the year, and ore chemist, employed as needed. In 1931 the chemist worked nine months. Three assistant geologists were employed for one month each. Of these, one is a professor at Ohio State University, one a professor at the University of New Hampshire (an Ohio man), and one a professor at Oberlin College. One other assistant geologist was employed for three and one- half months, collecting samples of brine. A professor in the Department of Engineering Drawing, Ohio State University, is on our Civil Service list as engineer. He worked only one-fourth of a month in 1931. The salaries of the technical staff range from $100 to $208 per month. Tl~ese positions are filled by the State Geologist from candidates supplied by the State Civil Service. Some of the geologists employed only during the summer months are provisional appointees and thus their services are limited to three months. All of the assistant geologists employed during the summer, and as needed, are either college instructors or, in a few cases, advanced students. The Ohio Survey has no official connection with the Ohio State Uni versity except that the office is located at Orton Hall, the building where geology is taught. The Orton DIemorial Library of Geology is located in the same building and houses the exchanges of the Survey. During the winter quarter, the State Geologist teaches one class on clays. APPROPRIATIONS The Ohio Survey is maintained entirely by the biennial appropriations allowed by the Ohio General Assembly. The receipts from the sale of bulletins go directly into the State Treasury. The funds appropriated for the past three years and for the current fiscal year are as follows:

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 91 Year 1929.... Year 1930.... Year lD31.... Year 1932............ . . - . ~ . . . $15,750.00 15,350.00 17,337.00 (From this a deduction of seven per cent was made in the Budget office, in order to balance the appropriation with the financial resources of the State. This left $16,123.41.) 11,155.00 (A deduction of 15 per cent was made for 1932, leaving only $9,482.) Of the amount expended for personal service, thirty per cent covers administrative and clerical work and seventy per cent geologic and technical work. The topographic mapping of Ohio has been completed. PUBLICATIONS Under the Fourth Organization, thirty-six bulletins have been issued and two editions of the geologic. map of Ohio. Previously, earlier organizations of the Survey issued volumes ~ to ~ on Geology and Paleontology. Also the First and Second Annual Re- ports (1838), Reports of Progress for 1869, and Report of Progress for 1870, First. Annual Report for 1890, and the Geological Map of 1879. The subjects covered are geological or geographical except for bul- letins on the uses of hydraulic cement, on the manufacture of hydraulic cement, on the manufacture of sand-lime brick, on the manufacture of roofing tile, and on the industrial water supplies of Ohio. Printing funds have been available for all of the bulletins which have been prepared. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 Since 1911 the Ohio Geological Survey has conducted studies and published reports on various economic projects. Some of the most out- standing of these have been the Bremen oil field, the building stones of Ohio, the coal formation clays of the State, analyses of the coals of the State, the peat deposits of Ohio, the industrial water supplies, and the mineral industries of the State. A cooperative investigation of the Lawrence clay hats; just been completed in mnjunction with the fronton Chamber of Commerce and the Engineering Experiment Station of the University. The Surrey has also carried on regional investigations on the geology of ten counties or districts within the State and has made stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of various individual formations and series of formations. A publication entitled " Geography of Ohio " has been pre- pared for use in the schools, and a geologic map of the State has been issued. 7

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92 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORK The present work of the Survey is a continuation in the same general lines previously followed. Work is going forward on a survey of lIolmes County, an investigation of the corals of the Devonian, and the collec- tion of oil and gas well logs, and drawing of structural contours on the topographic maps. An investigation on the brines from the deep-seated rocks is in progress; fifty samples of brine have been collected over Ohio and analyzed by the Survey chemist. The work now, however, has had to stop because of lack of funds. A survey of the geology of Lorain County was started, but had to be stopped after only one month because sufficient money was not available for its continuation. Several investigations started in former years have not recently pro- gressed. These include several county surveys, a study of the Mononga- hela formation, and a " Physiography of Ohio " for use in the schools. Manuscripts have been prepared for some of these, but money is not available for publication at this time. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS The following is a summary of the various Survey organizations from the earliest to the present Survey: First Organization, 1837-1838. W. W. Mather, Chief Geologist. Pub- lished First and Second Annual Reports, both dated 1838. Not intended as a permanent organization. Second Orgar~izat~on, 1869-1889. J. S. Newberry, Chief Geologist, succeeded in 1882 by Dr. Edward Orton. Published Reports of Progress for 1869 and 1870, volumes i-6 inclusive, and Geological Map of Ohio, dated 1879. Third Organ~zatiorz. From 1889 to 1894 the funds provided were sufficient to carry on the work on a small and inexpensive scale; and from 1894 to the time of his death in 1899, Doctor Orton retained the position of State Geologist but without any compensation, while during the first five years he was employed only for part time. Fourth Orgarz~zatiorr, 1900 to present. :Edward Orton, Jr., became State Geologist after the death of his father. This organization marks a change in policy of distribution of the publications, a small charge being made for all of them. These bulletins and maps are designated :Fourth Series.