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THE UNI TED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVE Y 95 State, making detailed studies of the various formations in the Arbuckle Mountains, making plans for the collection and publication of reports of the type fossils of the State, and working on other problems dealing with the geology and natural resources of Oklahoma. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS There was no previous State Survey, although there was a Territorial Geological and Natural History Survey organized in 1899, which made some general surveys of a part of the State. OREGON * There is no organized State Geological Survey in Oregon. The only official organization for work of this sort is known as The State Mining Board, created under the laws of 1929. Its mail and telegraphic address is Salem, Oregon. The Board is composed of three members who serve for four years, or at the pleasure of the Governor, and without compensation. The chair- ma:o of the Board serves ex officio, being the Corporation Commissioner. The Board was created to match the funds expended in the State by the IJnited States Geological Survey. The work is done entirely by the federal organization, the only function of the State Board being the pay- ment of bills presented by the IJnited States Geological Survey. The appropriation passed for this purpose was $30,000. When this money is expended? which will be relatively soon, the Board will have no further duties or functions, since no further appropriation has been made by the State Legislature. So far there has been but one report of progress issued on this cooperative work and that was prepared by the United State Geological Survey. It is uncertain whether or not the work will continue. PENNSYLVANIA t The Topographic and Geologic Survey of Pennsylvania was organized as a Bureau in the Department of Internal Af3 airs, by the approval by Governor Sprout, June 7, 1919, of an Act creating such a Bureau. The Bureau began to function in August, 1919, under the preceding Com- mission Survey, pending the appointment of a new State Geologist, which appointment was made the last of August. * Information furnished by James W. Mott, ex officio Chairman, April, 1932. t Information furnished by G. H. Ashley, State Geologist, March, 1932.

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96 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND The present State Geologist reached Harrisburg on September 1, 1919, and the Survey began formal operations the following day. The office is located in the Clastor Building, Il2 Market Street. The address for mail, telegraph, or express is State Capitol, lIarTisburg, Pennsylvania. SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES The duties of the Bureau are covered in the following sections of the original Act: Se.ciion 4. The Bureau shall undertake, conduct, and maintain the organization of a thorough and extended survey of the Statue for the purpose of elucidating the geology and topography of the State. The survey shall disclose such chemical analysis and location of ores, coals, oils, clays, soils, fertilizers and of other useful minerals, and of , . . . ~ . . ~ . . waters, as shall be necessary to afford the agricultural, mining, metai- lurgical, and other interests of the State a clear insight into the character of its resources. The survey shall also disclose the location and character of such rock formation as may be useful in the construction of highways or for any other purpose. The Bureau shall collect such specimens as may be necessary to form a complete cabinet collection of specimens of the geological and mineral resources of the State. The State Museum shall be the repository of such specimens. The results of the survey shall be, with the results of previous surveys, put into form. convenient for reference. Section b. The work of the survey shall be done on such plan as shall be approved by the Governor and the Secretary of Internal Affairs. The State Geologist shall immediately, and thereafter as often as may be required, make out estimates. for all necessary implements and materials for the work and for all necessary expenditures, which estimates shall be submitted to, and approved by, the Secretary of Internal Affairs. Section 6. The Bureau shall collect copies of the surreys of this and other states and countries, and shall digest the information therein con- tained, to the end that the survey hereby contemplated made be made as thorough, practical, and convenient as possible. The Act provides that members of the Survey may enter upon all lands when necessary for their work; that the Bureau shall avail itself of all possible information possessed by citizens and corporations rela- tive to the geology and topography of the State, which information shall be considered public property, and may not be concealed or used for speculation. All publications shall be copyrighted. The Bureau is au- thorized to arrange for cooperative projects with the United States Geo- logical Survey and other National organizations. The State Geologist shall prepare a biennial report and submit the same to the Secretary of Internal Affairs. Printing and binding shall be done by the Department of Public Printing and Binding. Office equipment and supplies shall be furnished by the Board of Commis- sioners of the Department of Property and Supplies.

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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 97 ORGANIZATION After it was first created, the Bureau was shifted to the Department of Forests and NVaters in 1923; four years later it was returned to the Department of Internal Affairs. In the meantime the State had adopted a Code under which all Bureaus were abolished and their functions trans- ferred to the Departments. The Department then creates an organiza- tion to carry out the several functions assigned to it, which, when ap- proved by the Executive Board, becomes the legal and official organization. As now organized, the Topographic and Geologic Survey is essentially a bureau in the Department of Internal Affairs and operates under a State Geologist, as provided for in the original Act. Involuntary Advisory Council has been organized, made up of repre- sentatives of the various mining industries, of teaching geologists, and of some others with whom the State Geologist, may consult. This Council has no authority nor is it provided for by law. The Executive officer is the State Geologist, George H. Ashley, origin- ally appointed by Governor Sprout on September 1, 1919. His term of office is during good behavior or at the pleasure of the Secretary of In- ternal Affairs. All of his time is given to Survey work. Iris salary, on an annual basis, is fixed by the Secretary of Internal Affairs. He may, with the approval of the Secretary of Internal Affairs, appoint and fix the compensation of clerks, stenographers, engineers, draftsmen, and other assistants as needed. The personnel of the Survey consists of five Associate Geologists, three Assistant Geologists, and twenty-one cooperating geologists, on the tech- nical staff; and of four clerks and one draftsman on the clerical staff. The twenty-one cooperating geologists include six members of the United States Geological Survey, the others being- professors or ad- vanced students in the colleges of the State. Some of the cooperating geologists are employed only during the summer, though a few are, so situated as to be able to continue their project, work on a small scale during the scholastic year. Of the permanent geologists, Mr. Ralph W. Stone is ranked as As- sistant State Geologist. Salaries for the others range from $3000 to $4000 for Associate Geologists and from $1500 to $3000 for Assistant Geologists. The salaries of cooperating geologists range from $5 to $15 a day, with expenses while in the field. As a rule this Survey pays only field expenses to members of the United States Geological Survey, though in some instances salaries have been paid as well. Topographic work is, done in cooperation with the United States Geo- logical Survey; it is paid for on the basis of square miles completed.

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98 THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND This Survey therefore keeps no record of the personnel of the men working in the State. During earlier years, when such a record was kept there were on an average from ten to fifteen engineers employed and about thirty-five rodmen the latter holding only temporary ap- pointments. In addition to the foregoing figures, the Survey is cooperating with the United States Geological Survey, using two of their hydraulic engi- neers in a ground water study of the State. The Survey has no official connection with any other organization outside of its own Department. APPROPRIATIONS The Survey depends entirely upon biennial appropriations, which at the present time amount to $150,000 for two years, plus $30,000 as- signed to the Department. of Property and Supplies to cover printing and the purchase of equipment and supplies for the biennium. Using the figures for the last biennium, the expenditures were ( 1 ) gen- eral operations, 23 per cent, which includes administration, giving of information and the preparation of publications; (2) topography, 35 per cent; (3) general geology, 19 per cent; and (4) mineral resources, 23 per cent. PUBLICATIONS The Survey work is reported in the form of bulletins which have been listed in five series under the letters M for Mineral Resources; G for Geology (General); C for County Reports ; A for Atlas parts, cor- responding to the United States. Geological Survey folios, but fuller on the side of Economic Geology; W for Ground Water Reports. To date the Survey has published three Administrative papers; seven- t.een Mineral Resource papers, with three in press and four to go to press soon; one County report, and two in press; two general geologic reports; seven Atlas parts, corresponding to folios but more detailed, two in press and several others nearly completed; one Ground Water paper in press, and others ready. In addition, the Survey has issued 104. mimeographed bulletins. The Survey's publications include reports on mineral resources, cer- tain technical mining subjects, ground waters and soils, as well as ge- ology and geography. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS SINCE 1911 It will be noticed by the percentages given under appropriations, that more money has been devoted to topography than to any other single item, though exceeded by geology and mineral resources together.