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THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 99 In the matter of mineral resources, a series of broad, comprehensive reports by resources has been undertaken covering coal, oil and gas, oil shales, cannel coal, lead and zinc, iron, feldspar, glass sand, molding sand, limestone, slate and building stones. Studies are being continued on these, on clay arid clay products, on sand and gravel, and on other mineral resources. The ground water studies of northwestern, southwestern, southeastern and northeastern corners of the State have been covered, and well "agings are being read all over the State to determine the relation of water-table to rainfall. Fundamental scientific studies have been made on a number of geologic problems, including the physiographic history, and especially the glacial history of the Susquehanna and eastern Pennsylvania, on the stratigraphy of the Silurian and Devonian systems, and on other minor studies. PRESENT MAIN LINES OF WORE The Survey is at present undertaking one new county report, is con- tinuing work on several quadrangles to be included in Atlas reports, and this year it is completing work which has been in progress over a number of years on oil and gas, limestone, slate, and a number of Atlas quad- rangles, with a view to publication during this biennium so far as funds will permit. PREVIOUS SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS This is the :Fourth Survey of Pennsylvania. The First Survey, under H. B. Rogers, was started in 1836, lapsed in 1842, and then in 1851 was revived long enough to prepare two large volumes in 1858. The Second Geological Survey, under J. P. Lesley, was organized in 1874 and con tinued to 1887, with some additional time for the preparation of a fou~*- volume Summary Report completed in 1895. In 1899 a Topographic and Geologic Survey Commission was provided for, under which topographic and geologic work was done by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Commission. In 1908 a State Survey was estab- lished and R. R. Oice appointed State Geologist. Cooperative geologic work ceased, though cooperative topographic mapping continued. This Survey failed to receive adequate support and in 1919 it was replaced by the present Survey. RHODE ISLAND No information was furbished.