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ELI:C07RTC~ PROPERTIES OF OTTER W. A. Yager Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hi1 l,, N. I. T. Introduction The Subject of the Electrical Properties of Matter is so general and broad in scope that one reviewing it is immediately faced smith the problem of ,.~'ha~c material to include and karat to re ject. This sorting-out process is to some extent inf luenced by the T,ersonal equation and refit ects the reviewer' ~ own interest. In Arriving this section of the Digest ~ an at~Gem~t has been made to mace the emphasis an the physical aspects of dielectric be_ . . . havior Bind on the relation between dielectric behavior and structure. The various aspects of microwave technology are also Stressed in view of the nearness of this flied and the growing interest in di- electric investigations at micro rare frequencies a - The volume of literature on dielectrics and related sub jects for 1946 was ~ arge. Research and development in this field was stimulated and actively pursued during the ~.~ and many laboratories and industrial concerns are continuing their ir~ves&Gigations on a peace_tirne basis. A considerable amount of classified material accumulated during the war was published in 1946 but much still remains in as yet unpublished reports. Several dielectric symposia were her ~ last year. The London branches of the Royal Institute of, Chemistry and the Institute of Physics held a Joint meeting aid the Royal Institute on March 20th at which 'Ghe fields of physical theory, chemical re~arati on and industrial application of dielectrics severe broadly surreys The Fawaday Society sponsored a symposium on dielec- trice at the Wills Physical Institute at Bristol, April 24-26th. General surreys and many original papers on the present state and immediate trends of ~hysical-chemica' and physical research in dielectrics severe presented at this meeting. A very good re- sume of these two meetings entliled Dielectrics in Theory and Application appeared in Nature. New Dielectric and Insulating Materials in Radio Engineering was the topic for discussion at a meeting of the Patio Section of the Institute of Electrical Engineers (London) on May 2Ist. A retriever of this discussion on near developments in Plastic and ceramic dielectrics appeared in Engineering and also in Engineer . Three dielectric symposia revere held in this country. Five Scrapers , Plastic Compositions for Dielectric Application,, High Dielectric Constant Ceramics, Paper Capacitors Containing ~ ~ _

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ChIorinated Tm~regnants, Dielectric Constants of Dimethgl Silo- ~ane Poly!ners, Id Polystyrene Plastics as High Frequency Di- elect~ice, 'were presented at the April Meeting of the American Chemical Society at Atlantic Giber. This program was ranged in cooperation High the Committee of Chemistry of the Conference on Electrical Insulation, National Research Council. The newly organized Electric Insulation Division of the Electrochemical 130cielg~ sponsored a symposium on New Plastic Insulators at the Both General Meeting of the Society at Toronto, October 16_19th at which the following papers were presented: Thermoset~cing Vinyl Polymers (90~9), Molding Material preforms at Radio Frequencies (90-13), The Dielectric Properties of Phenolic Resins and Molded Compositions (90~3), Introduction to Silicon Che~nistr~r (90-18), Silicones as Electrical Insulating Materials (90_16), Properties of PolYtetrafluorethyler~e of Interest to the Electrical Industry (90-15), Polyethylene (~36 ), The Q-Me~Ger f or Dielectric Measure~nenta on Polyethylene arid Other Plastice at Frequencies up to 50 me/sec. (90-~), and Styrene Copolymer Solvent Reacting Varnishes - Foaterite {90_24~. The Preprint number is given in arentheois. These papers will be published in the forthcoming Transactions of the Electrochemical Society. The conference on Electrical Insulation, National Research Council has resumed its activities by ho1 cling a meeting at Baltimore, November 7-9th. The papers user e divided into two groups: one dealing .'rith Progress in Fundamental Research and the Development of blear Materials, the Decor High Measurement Technique and Application of Dielectrics. The first group in- cluded: a survey Aver on Dielectric Constant and ~e followed by papers on Selects ve Absorption of Microwaves by Polar Stators, d Dielectric Absorntion of Solutions of Electrolytes in Solvents of Lo`' Dielectric Constant; a survey pacer on Ferroelectric Dielectrics followed by Darers on Development of Titanta Di . electrics, and Barium Titana~.te and Barium Strontium Titanate as Non-Linear Dielectrics; a survey paper on Plastics with papers on Solvent Reactive Astonishes, Silicones, and Teflon; and, a survey paper on Conductivity and Breakdown with papers on Electro~Che~nical Breakdowns of Boo id Insulation, and Conduction and Bre~Xdo,~ in High Vacuum. The second group consisted of 19 pacers as follows: Dielectric Constant and Lo98 Measurements from ~ cycle to Shiv cycles; two papers on Dielectric Measurements at Microwave Frequencies; Modification of the Resonant Cavity Method for Dielectric Measurements at a Fixed Frequency; a Resonant Cavity Method for Dielectric Measurements at 300 mc/sec.; Dielectric Heating- The Measurement of Loas Under Rising Tem- perature; Electrical Identity Test for Plasticizers of the Type Used in Polyvinyl Chloride Plastics; New Instrumentation and Uni_direction Direct_Current Measurement; The Significance of Current_Time Curves in Determining Dielectric Properties; In- -aulation Resi=tar~ce Measurements smith Particular Reference to Charging Currerit Errors; Use of the Scale Model Method in De- termining O,rerheat~ng of Cables; Corona Starting Voltage Measurements' a survey Hater on Developments in Microwave Cables; a survey Baser on Technic ques and Problems in the Production and Development of Condensers; Effect of Asphalt as a contamination - 2 -

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in Oil and in Impregnated Paper; The Use of a Redid D.C. Life quest in the Evaluation of Capacitor Paper; Vitreous Ceramic Compositions; Ceramic Sheet Condensers; and Righ Altitude Flashover and Corona Correction on Ceramic Bushings. Abstracts of these Daters will appear in a forthcoming report of the Conf erence . ~ ' ~ A few parers have appeared dealing with liquids, ionized . gases, crystals and metals. The influence of the concentration and mobility of ions on dielectric los s of ~ nsulating oils has been investigated by Rang . Re concludes that provided there is no dipole loss, the relatiorlship between dielectric loas, W. and viscosity, I, of an insulating oil may be exceeded as log W = A-B log, enrich points out that the mobility of ions is an important factor in the di- elec1;ric loss of an inking oil. Thermal agitation, which causes further dissociation of the oil, increases the dielectric 1 oss by increasing the number cuff ions present. The addition of deteriorated oil rabidly increases the dielectric loss thus shoaling that this ~ oss is a function of the concentration or content of free ions in the oil. An increase in the concentration of ions in en oil may result in a critical decrease in dielectric Toss it the viscosity is increased to the point where the mobility of the ions is decreased relatively more than -the ion concentration is increased. Finally, it is concluded that if non-~ol ar oils of the same degree of "electrical purity" are used for low frequency applications where the floss of the liquid is unimportant, the of] of higher viscosity is ,3refera~b~e from the standpoint of poorer hi electric los ~ . Gonick6a has obtained data for the osmotic behavior, conductance, bend relative viscosity of solutions of hexanolamine ca~r~ylate and diiso~ro~y~amine crate and has determined the concentration of free cations in the former Re concludes that hexanolamine carry ate associe.tes fire t ~Q neutral ion pairs f~~b by secondary association to col~oid. In a later cater, Gonick conceders the relation between Stokers law and the imiting conductance of organic ions. Equations are proposed for expressing the limiting ionic cor.ductances of organic ions in terms of CHUB groups cr their equiva:1 ents for monobasic and dibasic ~.li~hatic carboxylic acids, ali~hatic primary, secondary and tertiary am.ines end ali~hatic divines. Hydration through hydrogen bonding increases the ionic conductances as a result of the reduction of the van der Cal' s radius of the group in- ~ro~ red . The effective " spherical volumes " as Cal cul ated by Stokers low severe founcr to agree Cal osely with the volumes cal- culated from. independent date., and are 'Ghought to be a~croxi- mutely the same as their true ~rolurnes. With other series these values differ from the true volumes. The limiting cor~ductances of severer alkyd cerboxylate ions vrere calculated .! ma- method corps proposed for determining the en,3rox.ima~ce CH2 eoui~ralents of - 3 -

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substituted methyl enes anci ethyl enes . The electrical conductances of aqueous solutions of r~ote~sium meta~eriodate and potassium r~errhenate were measured by Jones7 over the concentration range 0.0004 m to approximate s~.~uration. The lin~i~cing conauctences were determined by three tr~ecendent ~r.ethod.s with sP~tis~actory agreement. The limiting cond~'lcta~.ces of the anions were determined by use of the reco-^ded revue for the K ton e.ncl the ~.e~sured values for the salts from this in~resti~P.tion. The values acc elated for ~0 are 127.90 for the metP.r)eriodete and 128.20 for the ~errhenate with an accuracy betided to be ~ 0~07 conductance unite. The fol~o:~ng values f or the 2nobilitles ,~rere obtained: metaneriodate ion - 54.38 0~07 ond ~errhena~re ion - 54~68 ~ .07. P!alstion and '-oerr8 have investigated the electrical conductivity of hexed _ and dodecyl _ arnn~onium chlorides in pure coaler, pure ethanol and in various concentration of aqueous e~ch?.nol. The ads it' on of ethanol to aqueous solu~Gi one of he~:yl- em-.oniur~ chloride ].o~Ters the conductivity at all concentrations investigated. The conductivitles of concentrated soluti one of dodecylam~onium chloride are increased by the addition of small amounts of alcohol. The addition of alcohol to more dilute solutions of this salt 1P accompanied by an irregular decrease in the conductivities. The difference in behavior of these two salts is ascribed to micel le formation in solutions of dodecyl- ammonium ch1 oride. Mlcelle Coronation is completely inhibited by the addition of large amounts of alcohol. The behavior of these salts in the solvents used is discussed in the light, of the present micel le theory. The formation of ionized water films on dielectrics under-condition of high humidity was studied by Field e Wher. a dielectric is placed in a saturated atmosphere, art ionized film of fretter forms on the surface whose conductance at the er] of one minute is Thin a factor of 10 of its equilibrium value which is usually Chained in an hour. This ea,uilibrium con- ductance ranges from loo micromhos for. ordinary glass and quartz to er,~roximately zero for silicone resins, silicone _ treated g1 ~ n and hydrocarbon pries. Time _ rely curves are shown for Polystyrene, Polyethylene, quartz, mica and asbestos filled ohenolics, polyamide, s'reati~Ge and mica. Ce7llllose acetate butyrete ~neint~-ins ~ high resisti~ri~cy even after at'_ sorbing a~ rater. The ~e~axatior~ frequency for dielectric Colors zatior~ shears to be in the audits e range . Chau~hur~; ~ studied the effect of the change in the concentration of Acne near the electrode surface upon the corl- ductivities or mobs ~ ~ ties of lone in strorl~ electrolytes and deduced an equation for the conductivity of electrolytes. It is shown the t Onnager' s equation is a limiting equation for low concentrations of electrolytes, lower voltages and high frequencies The variation of the c~nducti~rity Keith varying voltage and con- centretions and ureter dirferen~c conditions is discussed. - 4 _

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Fox\} investiga~Ged the effect of ultrasonic waves on the conductivity of Bait solutions. Adiabatic compression raises the conductivity of an aqueous sal1; solution because of direct pressure influences and of increase in temperature e An ultrasonic A. wave, therefore, modifies periodically the conductivity of the medium. If a filament of current passes normal to the wave prom r~agation, the Brave train produces under proper conditions an alternating potential Rich can be picked up. A convenient re- ceiver can be constructed which indicates absolute intensity and can be used for the investigation of ultrasonic fields in water provided the frequency is not above ~ .5 me e Ogg has reported a new effect in metal_am~nonia solu_ lions which is a~eribed to the Physical interaction of electrons with liquid dielectric media. Re found that extremely dilute liquid asnmonta solutions of metallic solid show a marked in- crease in electrical! conductivity upon irradiation ~.~rith visible light. This effect was observed in the temperature range _35 to -7500. and the phenomenon is discussed ore the basis of quantum_ mechanical considerations. The absorption spectrum and magnetic susceptibilities of meter ammonia solutions are in at least quali- tati~re agreement with theory. In a second paner, Ogg)3 outlines briefly the theoretical considerations which preceded the e~eri- mental discoveries relating to the properties of metal ammonia solutions. Weissm.an has observed the de~x~ase in resistance enrich occurs when a solution of sodium in ~i.quld ammonia, in a concentration range which yields two liquid phases, is rapidly frozen as reported by C}gg. Rapid freezing of solutions of methyl_ amine to which several per cent of ammonia has been added seas found to produce similar changes in resistances When a 0.05N solution of potassium in JO to ~ methylamine ammonia was rapidly chilled. frown 260 to 90 E. and then "heal edit at 1 70E, the resistance propped from a Prague of 700 ohms at the highest Hem_ - Erasure to a steady value of OR ohm in the solid state. The changes in the electrical conduc~Givities arid vis- cosities smith temperature of the negatively charged colloidal solutions of ferric venede.te' mo~ydate,, tunstate, borate, ar_ senate and phosphate have been investigated by Mushran and Prakesh\S. The temperatures of zero conductance of the vari our solutions have been obtained by extrapolating the conductance versus temperature curves to zero conductance. Values lying between -16 and -2~3~5Co were found. The temperature coeffi- ciente of conductivity of the various solutions have been ce.~- cul ated and it is observed I the values are a] ''rays ~ es ~ chart 2< of the conductences at 35C. The temperatures or infinite viscosity for these solu~Gions were ~ike~.rise obtained by extra_ Orion of the inverse viscosity versus temperature curves. These temperatures lie between _17 and _28~. It is concluded that the temperatures of zero conc~,uctance of the various solutions . ~ are nearly the same as those of infinite Viscosity. I:x~eriments on the Hill effect by Kelabukho~rl6 show - 5 _

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that ~ crystals saturated stitch iodine possess an electronic conductance. A mechanism of such a conductance is suggested Tuna is used to explain previously observed results for KI crystals in a strong electric field. The electrical conductivity of. twenty singe e crystals of SiC have been measured by Busch A sensitive null method using a Alfferential gal manometer loran used to test Ohm's law. For currents between 10-5 and a~nroz:l- m~te 1 ampere per sq. cm. t the law was found to hold within experimental error. No volume rectifying effect was observed. A vacuum tube voltmeter was used. to measure the temperature dependence of the cond~ucti~rity between 80 and 1400E. Both the conduc~Givi~cy and the temperature variation are re~roclucible for the same crystal but wlae hart ations were observed be~c~'een dif- ferent crystals At room temperature, the conductivity varies between 5 x 10-13 e.nd 5 reciprocal ohms/c!n. At high t.emcerature, the conductivity goes through a maximum. At sufficiently low temperatures, t,`'o temperature regions were found in ditch log conductivity is a linear function of the reciprocal temperature, the Diodes of the lines in the two regions being different. The theory of disordered crystal ~ is applied go the semi_conductor problem . Morton)8 demonstrated that cat culation of the ioniza- ~cion current in a gaseous discharge by means of the classical Townsend equati on is likely to lead to large errors when the field distribution is non_uniform. A differential-difference equation for the electron current as a function of the electron energy aria distance from the cathode is derived an, the ioniza- tion current is calculated for ~ restricted range of pressure and applied frontage. The results vrere found to agree with neesurea current Are thin the range There the assumed functions apply. The conduction and dlsoersi~n of l onlzed gases at high frequencies were studied by Margenau 9. Re derived a distal_ button 1~w for the energy of electrons in a high frequency electromagnetic fl eld by kinetic theory methods. By means of this la1'`7, the currents density and the complex conductivity are calculated as functions of electron den.si!X treasure and fre_ quency of the field. The real Cart of the conductivity has a maximum for gas pressures or frequencies such that the mean free path of an electron is approximately equal to the bellow of the field. From the complex conductivity the dielectric constant of the medium, its index of refraction and its extinction co_ efficient are deducecl. The results are applicable in micro- ~ra~re res earche ~ and in ionospher e ~rob] ems . Although perhaps a little far afield from dielectrics, the electrical resistance of metals at high frequency is never- theleas an important consideration in the design of high frequency test equipment. The electrical resistance of iron wires =d ermalloy strips ~,rere measured by Smith20 and his collaborators ire the frequency range from l.5 to 6 me. Empirical equations

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obtained are compared With ex' sting theoretical equations derived on the assumption of constant permeability. Pip~ard2) determined the skin resistance, R. of suora-conducting tin and mercury at a frequency of 1200 me. relative to Rn for the normal metal Just above the transition point. A plot of R/Rn is given for both metals in the temperature range 2.0 _ 4.2~. This ratio is less than 0.01 for mercury all 3. 7K . , and for tin at 2.6OR ~ and ri ses steeply to ~ . O at the transition temperatures ~ Partington22 has prepared electrets by allowing different types of dielectric materials to got ~ dify in a field of a~proxi- m~tely 10,000 v/cm. bet~.~reen into parallel metal electrodes, the vo] tage being maintained f or about 2 hours. Measurements of both the anode and cathode surface charges were taken from time to time using a Lindemann electrometer. Typical charge-time curves for electrets prepared from4G~ro different grades of prime yellow car- n?~be. wax, from rosin, and from a mixture of rosin~and carnauba wax are shown and d! acumen. IT B. Dielectric Constant and Dielectric Lose A number of papers appeared last year dealing with din en echoic logs mechanisms and the dielectric ~?ro~erties of Sari ous gases, liqulde and solids. Many of these fall into the categories covered by other sections of the Digest and hence are omitted here. Some of there, hoverer, particularly those dealing ~.~rith the di- en ectric behavior of the ~citanates, represent important contri- b~ions to the uncleretanding of the correlation between dielectric properties and structure. In such cases, it was considered worth_ . 'Chile to risk duplication and retried the more important conclusions troth the emphasis ple.ced on the ch~rsical and st~c~cura~ aspects of the investigation. Gros s and Denard have shown by curves, that ~ permanent charge may be of carnaub& wax by charging it at an e] cooling to R 1 offer temperature. _ ~v ~ is reco~rerer1 which cou15 be stored at the Coverer temperature, the remainder being "frozen in". By mear~s of a graphical analysis of -the d~gche.rge course lt curves using the method of Cole and Cole, Field shows the t the temperature coefficient of all three Earl 7,ati on ~era.meterS ~ - change in dielectric constant, relaxati on tine and storage coeds ici ent are all ~o~iti~re. This beha~rio~ is in c ~n~crast to corresponding negative values for morn! dipol e pol ari _ 7.~' one. Similar experiments with capacity ~ made of oil-fir led Barer, glass, steatite, and mica liked shower ~ positive tem oe~ature coefficient of dielectric constant and a "frozen in'' charge ',hen the color is cooled. Field concludes that it seems reasonable to expect similar behavior for ocher material s in 'which the in~ertaciP1 type polarization is important. means or current-time savored in a capacitor Bade evated temperature and then On discharge. only that charge vitro ev and Jurevich24 have modified Debye's dispersion fr3rmu1?.s to take into account the inertia of rote-~Gion- vibrational _ 7 _

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notion of dipole canticles. As a consequence, the electrical con- dUCtlYity yes through ~ maximum which increasing frequency in- stead of approaching a limiting value as required by the formulae when the effect of inertia is neglected. Snoek and Pre 5 describe the atter_effect (relaxation) phenomena enrich are the cause of the d' en ectric losee.s in dielectrics and of at leapt pert of the 1GSSeS in ferromagnetic substances. The close analogy and the connection beeper el ectrice.1 and megne~sic aft~er-ef~ect OCR for page 1
behavior of liquids of low molecular Freight. The relation between ~ and ~ depends on the nature of the Bipolar group. In mixtures of geranio! and medicinal naraffin,.t is little changed over that for Sure gerantol despite a nine fold increase in ~ at _27C. In mi';- tures of geraniol in n-he~tane, it was observed that ~ and ~ de_ grease but there arrears to be no correlation in the activation . energies deri~red from the data. In these mixtures, ~ is not as decisive a factor for ~ as would be expected from Debye8s theory. One conclusior~ is that the mechanism of viscous flow of these long chain alcohols changes with rise in temperature. '2 ~ Osiers has applied the Onsager_Kirkwood theory of di- electric polarization of polar liquids to solutions of Solar molecules . A correlati on parameter, Ashore value differing from unity is a measure of the hindering effect of a molecule on its neighbors, is calculated for Solutions of polar molec ales in non- nolar solvents. This parameter is a direct measure of the extent and nature of molecular association. Al ~ of the systems examined shower the same general behavior: parallel association of dipoles in solutions of large concentrations of the polar components and antinarallel association at some lower concentration. At extreme- ly dilute solutions, the dipoles become free of each other. Low- ering the temperature enhances both parallel and antiparal~el associations, the latter arrangement becomes more Pronounced at lower concentrations. Low concentrations of ~Tari~us polar mole- cures in crater generally alter the dielectric constant of the crater in a predictable manner. However, dioxane lowers the di- electric constant of crater much more than predicted by theory, indicating strong interaction with water. The variation of the dielectric constant of the nl-ohase of p 9 ~'~azoxyaniso] by magnetic fields has been investigated by Maier32. The change in dielectric constant in longitudinal (I-) and transverse (T) magnetic fields up to 5000 gauss wee determined and it was found that the ratio T/L is not -~/2 as predicted but rather -~/10. By means of X-raya, it is demonstrated that phi a difference is due to orientation in the field free state which in turn is largely due to convection currents. A horizontal tem_ Erasure gradient of O.Io/cm. produces almost complete rotation. This result invalidates existing data on the dielectri c constant as evidence for or against- the Disarm theory. The basic aesump:tion of the a warm theory that the normal state of a cl-~hase is com_ repletely random is not yet Proven. Several comprehensive Caners have been riven ~ eel ing with the dielectric ~ror~ertieg of solic dielectrics. One of these is the contribution of Severs 3 whose gaper on the Relation Between the Po,-er Factor an] the Temnera~Gure Coeffici ent of the Dielectric Constant of Sol ice. Die, ectrics consists of five carts Gevers has measured tan ~ and Ac (temperature coefficient of capacity) or At (temperature coefficient of dielectric constant) for a number of solid dielectrics over a aside range of tem~eratur and frequency . Thes e me&suremen~Gs hare shown that in general die' ectri can having a large T.C. (tem~era~Gure coefficient) also _ 9 _ e

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have a large ~ra3..ue of tan ~ whereas dielectrics having a small T.C ~ al so hare a small value of tan ~ . A remarkable fact is that the ratio of An to the value of tan ~ at a given temperature croci frequency is nearly the same for most Delia dielectrics. At 20C. and over a elide range of frequencies, the fold owing re_ Cation was found to hold: And Ac - 0.06 tan ~ . Gevers points out that it is impossible to explain this behavior on the basis of existing theories . In Part ~ of thi ~ report a summary is given of several well knows. theories concerning the causes of the dielectric loa ses and A of ionic crystals . Arguments are given to show that these theories are not able to explain the above relation and must, therefore, be replaced by a new one. part T] given a critical Luminary of avail able data in the liter- ature on tan ~ and Ac or A restricted to solid clielectrice and radi o frequencies. As far as doe sible ,, the causes of the di- electric losses are inclicated. From this summary, Severs con- cludes that the data found in the literature is not affrays re_ liable and is insufficient to check adequately the Proposed relation bet~reer~ AC and tango Revere, therefore, found it necessary to repeat all measurements as a function of temperature and frequency. Part ITI explains Severs' never theory about di electric losses and the temperature coeffici ent from 'which the proposed relation above follows in a natural prays The negative T.C. of some dielectrics (i.e., TiO2 and polystyrene) is ex_ claimed from the fact that these solids either have a high di- electric constant or a high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion. Another conclusion from Ge~rerst theory which is confirmed by experiment is the existence of a similarity Grin_ ci~le. Finally in Part TIT some remark" are given concerning the dielectric Properties of mixtures of dielectrics. The method of measuring tan it and A of dielectrics and the apparatus used for these measurements are described ~ n Part TV. Sources of error and the corrections to be applied are indicat,ea. With the ap- naratua described, the Ac of condensers up to 1000 muff. can be measured at a great number of frequencies in the range from 100 kc. up to 40 me. and at temperatures ranging from 90 to 450R. The results of ten S and As measurements as a function of ~ em~era~re and frequency are given in Part; V. For some . - materlals the results are treated in detail. The effect of admixtures of a small amount of a foreign substance on the di- e'ectric losses is described. It is shown that al ~ the reach FIGS of the experiments are in accordance with the new theory. Es- Specially the result that the ratio of Ac to ten S has a definite value (~..bout 0~06) for many dielectrics is of particular im- nor~Gance. Tt is pointed out that the nature of the dielectric loss mechanism cannot be deduced from the measurements of tanS and As only; kno'viedge of the chemical composition and the structure of the substance under consideration is inflisnensib~ e . Quartz, mica, various glasses, porcelain, mycalex, marble, ebonite, wood, celluloid, Philite, Pertinex and ~Tovotext are among the materials studied. A reader by StAger34 and his associates deals with _ 10

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organic insulating materials in electrical engineering. This Her is primarily concerned ''rith the die1 ectric properties of larnina1;ed structures . The Jie1 ectric ~ronerti es of d.ipolew solids is discussed by Fr~hlich35. Ball a36 found that the di_ electric constant of cotton fibers dried at IGOC. is about 6 and 3 in the longitudinal and transverse di Sections respectively. Measurements were also made as a functi on of moisture content in both direct) ons un to about 105 of the dry weigh1; at 100CO .. The experimental procedure and test equipment are described. A short table of the 60 cycle poorer factor at various temperatures from 20 to 100c. and of the dielectric cores Ant of various materials alas Published in the Electric li~orId~ ~ ~ Schallamach38 reported dielectric dispersion in crys- ta1line aii~o~ro~yl ketone. Data are given for the dielectric constant of this material at lol2 mcO an] 20.4 tic. and for the dielectric loss factor at 1.12, 4.4 and 20.4 mc. over the tem_ erasure range _150 to +20Co When Roaching the M.P. (-72~5 to -75.5C.) from higher temperatures, both ea and ~' increase, the rise of ~' indicating incipient anomal ous dispersion. The iallid sunerc cola generally to about -80C O an] then crystal_ lization is accompanied by ~ sharp drop in c' to a value enrich is still appreciably higher then the optical Braille arid is Be_ Dependent on frequency. Anomalous dispersion is observed in the crystalline state as evidenced by loss factor maxima. It is tentatively suggested that branching of the molecu] e causes a crystal lattice somewhat looser than that of straight ketones and thus reduces the in~Gra-molecular forces sufficiently to allow restricted molecular rotation. Mason39 has nerd the elastic, ~piezoelectric and d' electric constants of NR4H2PO*(ADP) and KH2PO`(KDP) crystals through temperature ranges dn;~m to the curia temperatures. The dies ectric properties of KDP agree Well Irish the theory pre- sented by Sl&ter based on the interaction of the hydrogen bonds Perish the PO4 ions. ADP undergoes a transition at _125C. at *which the crystal fractures. This transition is probably not connected enrich the H2PO~, hydrogen bond system which controls the dielectric and piezoelectric properties for these lie on smooth curares Rich do not change clone as the transition is encroached. It is suggested that two separate mnd independent hydrogen bond systems awe involved in ADP. The transition axed specific heat anomaly appear to be connected witch hydrogen b ond ~ be Aloe e n the ~ and i: he ~ of the PO. i on s Forte r e as the di_ e' ectric and ~ie%oelectric properties are control 7 ed by the }I2PO4 hydrogen bonds. Mason O has also investigated the elastic ~ niezo- electric and die: ectric properties of sodium chlorate arid sodium bromide otter ~ wide temperature range. At high tem~era~Gures, the dielectric end ~iezoelectric constants increase and in- dice.te the presence of a trans~ormati on point; which occurs at ~ temperature slightly higher then the melting point. A large _ 11 -

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187~.deVri jer F. W., Volger, J. and Gorter, C. J., Physica, 11, 41~8 (1946) 188. Griffiths, J. lI. E., Nature, 158, 670-1, Nov. (lg46) 189. Rittel, G., Phys. Rev., 71, 270-1, Peb. 15 (1947) 190. TIughes, R. K., Phys. Rev., 70, 570_1, Oct. (1946) 191. Maddock, A. J., J. Sci. Instr., 23, 165_73, Aug. (1946) 192. Winlund, E. S., Elec. World, 126; 80, Aug. 3; 98, Aug. 17; 84, Aug. 31 (1946 ) 193. Bock, A. P., Electronics, 20, 126, Jan. (1947) 194. Osborn, H. B., Jr., Elec. Contracting, 45, 81_4, 86, 88, Jan. (1946); 113_6, 118, 120, Feb. (194~ 195. lIartshorn, L., Mature, 157, 607-10, May (1946' l9B. Cable J. W. j Elec. Contracting, 45, 97-100, 102, 104, 108, Mar. ~ 1946 ) 197. Tinnerholm, A. R., Mod. Plastics, 23, 180_2, Air. (1946) 198. Nielson, R. A., Steel, ;~, 102, 104, 106, 112, Mar. (1946) 199. Bosomworth, 9. P., Rubber Age, 59, 429_40, July (1946) 200. Roberds, W. M., Inst. Radio Eng. , Proc., 34, 489_500, July 201. Relfel, lI., Elec. Mfg., 38, 148, 150, 212, Oct. (1946) 202. Kleinberger, R. C., Electronic Ind., 5, 78-9, June tl946) 203. Eohler, F., Plastics, 5, 50, 52, 55, 91_3, Dec. (1946) 20~. Chimer, E. 1~., Elec. World, 126, ale, 102, Oct. (19~;6) 205. Seeley, W. C., Elec florid, 126, 88_9, July (1946) 206. F5ro:m, G. H. end others, Inst. Radio Eng., Proc.. t',TeveS anti Electrons, 1, 5871-65W, Feb. (1946) 207. Schutz, P. W. end Mcvehon, E. K., Ind. and Eng. Chem., 38, 17~_84 t Peb. ( 1946 ) 208. WinJund, E. S., Electronics, 19' 108 (1946) 209. Electrician, 136, 351_4, Feb. 8, (1946) 210. E1ectronice, 19t 170_2, 174+,, Mar. (1946) _ 65 -

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211. Ind. Equin . Ne: rs, 14, 1, Peb. ( 1946 ) 212. Purchasing, ~2, 180, 184, Me=. (19*6) 213. Ind. E('ulpe News ~ 14 ~ 24 ~ Feb. ~ 1946 ) 214. Mittelmar~n, E. and Bo~omworth, G. P., Electronics, 19, 128-30, Mar . ~ 1946 ~ 215 . E1 ect. West, 96, 59_60, Jan . ( 1946 ) 216. Eng. File Facts, Matls. And Methods, 23, 183, Jan. (1946) 217. Brumle~re, C. C. J Plastics (pond. ) 10, 7_10, 56, Jan. (lg46) 218. Smithera, V. L., India Pubber World, 113, 505-7, 566, Jan. t 1946) 219. Electronlc Ind ., 5 , 84_5 , Jan. ( 1946 ) 220. Elec. World, 125, 126, 128, May (1946) 221. Tel~nisk Tidekrlft, 75, 1087-99, Octe (1945 ) 222. Cole, H. 1~., Elec. World, 125, 102-3, June (1946) 223. Textile Worlcl, 96, 118_21, 212, 217 , May (1946) 224 ~ Ind. Equip ~ Neons , 14, 1, 105 , June ( 1946 ) 225. 226 ~ 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235 236. SCI. Am. 3 174, 157, Apr. (1946) Electronic Ind., 5, 92, Feb. (1946) Elec. West, 96, 61, June (1946) Stirneon, T. E., Jr. , Pop. Mech. 85, 108_15, Apr. (1946) Ind. Equip. News, 14, 99, Mar. (1946) Ind. Equip. News 9 14, 80, Aug. ( 1946 ) Rambo, S. I., Electronics, 19, 120-2, Air. (19*6) Metallurgla, 34, 210_2, Aug. '1946) Electronic Ind., 5, 62~3, Non. (1946) Grsham, R. C., Racho Nears, 36, 46_S, 155+, Oct. (1946) Darner, A. J., Waves and Electrons, 1, W51-W37, Jan. (1946) Earner, A. J., Elec. Communication, 23, 63_9, Mar. (1946) 66

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237. Krueger, R. M. and Raabe, C. A. - Plastics, 5, 26-7, 99-100, Oct. (1946) 238. Krueger, R. M., Q8T, 30, 51_3, Air. (1946) 239. Smith, E. W., Wireless World, 52, 129-31, Apr. tl946) 240. Johnson) Ee 0e ~ R.,C.A. Rears, 7) 272-80, June (1946) 241. Zinmerman, K., Radio, 30, 13-5, May (1946); 20_1, 32, 55_6, June ~ 194.6 ~ Zimmerman, E., ED ec. World, 126, 102, Nov. (1946) 242. Cox, C. R., Electronics, hi, 130-5, May (1946) 243 . Ind . Equip. News , 14, 22, Ardor. ~ 1946 ~ 244. Cragg.s, J. W. and Ranter, O. J., Quart. Apt. Math., 3, 330-3, Jan. ~ 1946 ~ 245. Kal~mann, H. E., Inst. Radio Eng. , Proc., 34, 348-51, June ~ 1946 ~ 246. Electronics, 19, 330, Jan. (1946) 247. Mlldner, Re C ~ ~ J. Inst. Elect. Eng. , 93, At ~ III , 296_304 (1946) 248. Sampson, F. F., Jr., Wire and Wire Prods., 21, 885_8, 910_1, Mov. (1946) 249. Rer~logle, D. E., Electronic Ind., 5, 94.6, Air. (1946) 250. Elec . Mfg., 37, 158 , Jan. ( 1946 ) 251. Frey, lI. A., Distribution, 8, 10_1, Oct. (1946) 252. Litt, S., Radio News, 35, 44_6, 13.~_5, Jan. (1946) 253. Hutchins, L. H., Jr., Elec. World, 126, 64_5, July (1946) .. 254. Dexter, G., Radi o News , 35, 80, Mar. ~ 1946 ) ~ 255. Polgreen, G. R. and Tomlin, G. M., Electronic Eng., lS, 10~5, Ar)r. (1946) 256. Electronic Ink., 5, 76-7, Mar. (1946) 257. Mohler, J. B. and Sternisha, J., Meta1 Finishing, 44, 5Oo62, 99_100, Feb. (1946) 258. Pike, C. H., E]ec. Rev., Lond., INS, 11_2, Jan. ~ (1946) _ 67 -

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