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Appendix C European Projects ISTAR: AN INTEGRATED PROJECT SUPPORT ENVIRONMENT Imperial Software Technology (IS T) was started in 1983, and since 1984 it has been working with British Telecom to develop the first implementation of its approach called ISTAR. ISTAR consists of a framework and a set of tools. The framework provides support facil- ities such as a user interface (Graphic Kernel System-based graphics, forms editor, syntax-directed editor, a window manager, and a menu- ing system), a tools interface, and local area network (LAN) or mul- tisite communications options. The tools cover project management; configuration and data management; technical development; elec- tronic office services, such as editing, document production, and electronic mail; and rapid prototyping. The technical development tools are dedicated to real-time software production. Future tools will include hardware configuration and design tools and software systems. Plans call for incorporating some artificial intelligence (Al) func- tionalities into ISTAR (ISTAR was originally written in Prolog, but was changed to C when Prolog proved too slow in the VAX environ- ment). Also, the graphics and windowing systems are rudimentary and need enhancement. 255

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256 APPENDIX C ESPRIT'S PORTABLE COMMON TOOL ENVIRONMENT The purpose of the Portable Common Too} Environment (PCTE) project is to design and implement a software "substrate," on which certain common facilities (e.g., object management, inter- faces, and network configuration management) and complete modern software engineering tools can be implemented. Industrial partici- pants in PCTE are Bull, GEC,ICL, Nixdorf, Siemens, and Olivetti. The project began in 1984 and finished in 1988. Within the consor- tium, Bull, ICE, and Siemens are jointly developing a UNIX-based version of PCTE; Olivetti is responsible for the first implementation of the PCTE prototype and an Ada version; and GEC and Nixdorf are developing two sample tools a Knowledge Based Programmer's Assistant (KBPA), which is similar to MIT's Programmer's Appren- tice, and the Configuration Management System. The KBPA uses Al techniques to assist in the reuse of software and software expertise. The first-phase results of the project yielded a functional speci- fication for C/UNIX and Ada, an implementation of the KBPA on Sun workstations in Franzlisp and C, and the specification and par- tial implementation of the communication infrastructure for PCTE, plus ports to Sun 3, IBM-PC, HP 9300, VMS, and Bull and Olivetti workstations. Projects to enhance PCTE will continue in the second phase of ESPRIT. The Eureka program is funding a software factory based on PCTE. The PCTE project in ESPRIT's Software Program has recently completed its first phase, and two products built on top of PCTE are now available: ECLIPSE and EMERAUDE. ECLIPSE is a complete software development environment sold by Software Sci- ences Ltd. of the United Kingdom, and EMERAUDE is a validation suite sold by C.~.E. Emeraude, a spin-off from Honeywell-Bull. Both are distinguished by effective object management systems, database facilities, and configuration control (for versioning accountability). FORMAL METHOD S FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ESPRIT's Project RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) has emerged as a challenger to the approach underlying the PCTE. The thesis underlying RAISE is that software for large systems can be professionally developed only if its develop- ment is based on well-understood and proven mathematical theory. The proponents of RAISE believe that size and complexity problems can be overcome by abstraction, by decomposition of tasks, and by stepwise development. RAISE is aimed at development of software

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APPENDIX C 257 for a range of large systems from real-time embedded systems to network software, to database management systems to computer- integrated manufacturing software. It covers specification, design, and implementation.