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Appendix F Glossary Ada An advanced programming language sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense and named for the nineteenth-century mathematician Countess Augusta Ada Ilovelace. Aeroflot Civil air fleet, USSR. Al, artificial intelligence The study of how machines can be made to perform tasks that mimic the intellectual, cognitive, and be- havioral functions in humans. A[U, arithmetic logical unit The part of the computer that actually executes the instructions. _ ARPANET A major national research network originally devel- oped by what is now known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Begun in 1969 with four host computers, today it consists of hundreds. ASIC, application specific integrated circuit Custom-designed inte- grated circuit used in a particular system or subsystem. ASU, automated management system Soviet term for management information system, which is a set of programs used for account-- ing and other data processing functions in an enterprise. Bandwidth A measure of information carrying capability; the differ- ence between the lowest and highest signal frequency, expressed in hertz (cycles per second). 265

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266 BESM A large electronic digital computing machine APPENDIX F and the name given to an early series of Soviet general-purpose scientific com- puters. Binary code The form a program must be in when it is executed by a computer; the translation from source code to binary code is clone automatically by programs called compilers and assemblers. Bipolar One of several fabrication techniques used in making inte- grated circuits; semiconductor devices using such technology are characterized by their high speed and cost frequently used in emitter-coupled logic and linear (analog) devices. Bit Basic unit of logic, represented symbolically as either one or zero and electronically as a volt age difference. BITNET A major research network developed and used primarily by the academic community, linking over 1,400 computers at higher education institutions and other research facilities in the United States with each other and many foreign counterparts; maintained and supported by Educom's BITNET Information Network Center. BTAM, Basic Telecommunications Access Method Part of the IBM software used for telecommunications; communications protocol between devices. Bus Normally a primary path for bidirectional data flow through a computer system. Byte Eight bits (one character of data). Cache memory Extremely fast, typically expensive memory located between the processor and main memory, employed to temporar- iTy store recently executed instructions. CAD/CAM, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing The generation of design specifications and production process instructions with the assistance of a computer, frequently using graphics capability. CAMAC, computer automated measurement and control Set of standards for interfacing measurement devices and computers. CCITT, International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Com- mittee An international standards body based in Geneva, Switzerland.

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APPENDIX F 267 CMEA, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Established in 1949 to promote trade and economic cooperation among the USSR and its aUies. Member nations include: the USSR, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Repub- lic, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, and Viet Nam. Yu- gosTavia, while not a full-fledged member, is nevertheless an ac- tive participant in many projects. Iraq and Mexico signed limited joint agreements in 1975, as did Nicaragua in 1983. Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, and People's Democratic Re- public of Yemen participate as observers in some activities. CMOS, complementary metal oxide semiconductor A fabrication technique characterized by very Tow power consumption with potential for high circuit densities (transistors normally employ field effect, as opposed to bipolar, technology). CoCom, Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls Began operations on January 1, 1950, as an organization to con- trol the export of strategic materials and technology to the Com- munist world; today membership includes all NATO members (except Iceland and Spain) plus Japan. Notable nonmembers are the European neutrals and such Asian countries as Taiwan and South Korea. CoCom's rules are applied to the USSR, its Warsaw Pact allies, the People's Republic of China, and certain other Communist countries. Compiler The software program that translates a computer pro- gram written by a programmer (the source code) into machine readable form (binary code). CPSU, Communist Party of the Soviet Union. CPU, centralprocessing unit The part of a computer where instruc- tions are received, interpreted, and executed. CVD, chemical vapor deposition. DAILOS, Interactive Automated Information-Logic System artificial intelligence program. DBMS, database management system. DEMOS, Dialogue Portable System One of the UNIX-like operating systems created by the Soviets. DES, Data Encryption Standard A public method to encrypt data for secure communications developed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (formerly the National Bureau of Standards), originally released in 1977, recertified in 19S2 and again in 1987 for another five years. Soviet

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268 APPENDIX F DIF, data interchange format A standard file format frequently used to transfer data between application programs. DI[O S. Dialog Information-Logic System Same as DAlLO S. DM[, data manipulation language Used to submit queries to a database. DOS, disk operating system The operating system developed for the IBM-PC, now used on many PC models. DRAM, dynamic random access memory A common type of mem- ory that allows locations to be read and written in any order but needs to be periodically refreshed to retain the stored data (see SRAM). DSS, decision-support system Part of the management information system; characterized by interaction with the user and the ability to present several various scenarios at the user's request. ECAD, electronic computer aided design. EG[, emitter-coupled logic One of the standards for digital logic integrated circuits (TTE is another); of note is the high speed of the gates (bipolar technology is one method used to implement this standard). Eksiton Eksiton Factory, Pavlovskiy Posad. Elektron Elektron Production Association, I,'vov. Elektronmash Elektronmash Production Association imeni V. I. Lenin, Kiev. Elorg Elektronorgtekhnika FTO, USSR. EMP, electromagnetic purse. EP[, Evaluated Product List. EPROM, erasable programmable react-only memory. Expert system A knowledge-based computer system that seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques in analyzing and solving complex problems (e.g., medical diagnostics or the repair of sophisticated machinery). FTO, Foreign Trade Organization The authorized Soviet organiza- tion for doing business with other countries. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) A particular type of semiconductor ma- terial noted for the speed of the devices fabricated from it of particular interest to the defense community. GASNIT, State Automated System of Scientific-Technical Infor- mation Created to provide nationwide access to bibliographic information in the USSR.

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APPENDIX F 269 Gateway A network station that provides an interface between dis- similar networks or devices through protocol translation (i.e., allows communication between two systems that otherwise could not communicate). Gigaflops Billions of floating-point operations per second. GKNT USSR State Committee for Science and Technology, Mos- cow. _ ~ . . ~ GKVTI USiSK State Committee for Computer Technology and In- formatics, Moscow. Gosplan USSR State Planning Committee, Moscow. Gossnab USSR State Committee for Material and Technical Sup- ply, Moscow. Gosstandart USSR State Committee for Standards, Moscow. Hertz Cycles per second, a measurement of frequency. I/O, input/output. IC, integrated circuit A circuit consisting of many components (e.g., transistors) on a single surface. IlASA International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxen- burg, Austria. IK! Institute of Cosmic Research, Moscow. IMPU[S Severodonetsk Scientific Production Association Impuis' imeni XXV Syez~a KPSS, Severodonetsk. IMS, Information Management System For many years the flagship program from IBM for storing and retrieving data. INMOS, Portable Tool-Oriented Operating System Soviet acronym for UNIX-like operating system. IPSE, Integrated! Project Support Environment. {RS, information retrieval system Class of software used to retrieve bibliographic or textual information. ISO, International Organization for Standardization Developed Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and standards. ISUP, Information System of the Management of an Enterprise Specific set of Soviet software packages used for management information at an enterprise. ITAR, International Traffic in Arms Regulations. IV[, individually validated license. Josephson Junction (JJ) An extremely fast solid-state switching technology that operates at extremely Tow temperatures. Kamaz KamaK~ver ~rucKrtan~, undo. _ - red ~ ~1 ~ TTC~C~

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270 APPENDIX F Kernel Core of the operating system, allocates and manages mem- ory and machine resources, decides when and which processes are to be run, and coordinates signals among them. KFK! Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. KGB USSR Committee for State Security, Moscow. Kilobyte (kbyte) One thousand bytes (actually two to the tenth power: 1,024 bytes). KUVT, Computer Science Education System Acronym applied to a Soviet microcomputer used in education. [AN, local area network A computer network in a localized geo- graphical area (e.g., a building or campus) that offers electronic communication among a variety of devices. [OMO Leningrad Optical-Mechanica] Association Leningrad [SI. larae-scale intearation ~ O ---a Refers to the fact that many circuits have been packed into a small silicon chip. MARS, Modular Asynchronous Adaptable System A Soviet "fifth- generation" program to build multiprocessor computer systems. Mask A patterned, glass-like screen that is used to optically transfer the desired circuit patterns onto the wafer surface; a mask is an exact replica normally in actual sizeof each circuit lever a different mask is used for each circuit layer. ~ 7 Megabyte (Mbyte) One million bytes (actually two to the twentieth power: 1,04S,576 bytes). Megaflops (Mflops) Millions of floating-point operations per sec- ond. MIMD, multiple-instruction stream/multiple-data stream A form of high-speed computer organization in which multiple processors receive independent sets of data and instructions to be processed simultaneously. Minelektronprom USSR AB-Union Ministry of the Electronics In- dustry, Moscow. Minpribor USSR All-Union Ministry of Instrument Construction, Means of Automation, and Control Systems, Moscow. Minpromsvyazi USSR All-Union Ministry of the Communications Equipment Industry. Minradioprom Ministry of the Radio Industry, Moscow. MIPS, millions of instructions per second A measure for the speed of a computer. MIS, management information systems A set of programs for ac- counting and other basic data processing functions within an enterprise.

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APPENDIX F 271 MNTK Interindustry Scientific-technical Complex Soviet organiza- tion that comprises institutes from industry and the Academy of Sciences in an attempt to cross rigid bureaucratic boundaries that impede joint research and development. MOPS, millions of operations per second A measure for the speed of a computer. MOS, metal oxide semiconductor A technology commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits because of its ability to support high circuit densities (CMOS and NMOS are extensions of this technology). MSI, medium-scale integration. MTTF, mean time to failure A measure of reliablity. MVS, Multi-Virtual Storage Name given to one of the flagship operating systems from IBM for the 370-architecture mainframe computers. NCS C, National Computer Security Center Security Agency. Part of the National ~ _ NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology Formerly, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). NMOS, N-channe! metal oxide semiconductor (see MOS). NSA National Security Agency. OGAS Statewide automated system, a plan to create a national network in the USSR linking together ad important bodies in the economy; although not yet realized, this would allow rapid transmission of data up and down the industrial and Communist Party hierarchies. OlVTA Department of Informatics, Computer Technology, and Au- tomation, Academy of Sciences, Moscow. OS, operating system The software of a computer system that con- trols the execution of computer programs; handles input/output requests, resource allocation, and management of data (e.g., UNIX, VAX/VMS, DOS). OSI. Oven Systems Interconnection -. v An international set of stan- dards for telecommunications so that computers from various manufacturers can communicate in a network; consists of a seven-layer communications mode} developed by the Interna- tional Organization for Standardization (ISO). Parallel processing A technique or architecture that uses two or more processors, working together, to simultaneously solve a single problem. PC, personal computer.

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272 PDP, Programmed Data Processor APPENDIX F Acronym representing a series of very successful minicomputers from DEC (precursor to VAX). PDR, processing data rate A calculation of computer performance used to establish regulatory guidelines for export controls. Pip elining A technique for speeding the operation of a computer in a fashion similar to that of an assembly line; basic operations are divided into many small sequential steps; as one operation completes its first step, the next operation is begun; thus many basic operations are processed simultaneously, one at each stage of the "pipeline"; a form of parallel processing. PKC, public key cryptography. Politburo Leading decision-making body of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR. PRIZ, Program for Solving Engineering Problems A software pack- age from the Estonian Institute of Cybernetics for user-construc- tion of programs for solving engineering calculations. PROPS, Professional Office System A set of programs from IBM that provides services, such as word processing and electronic mail, that are commonly used in the office. PROM, programmable read-only memory. PVD, physical vapor deposition. RAM, random access memory Locations in memory that can be read or written in any order. Response time The time delay between the start of a process or request and completion; the amount of time a process waits while a computer is servicing its request (e.~.` retrieving: information O from a disk). Reticle A mask containing only one circuit pattern but up to 10 times the circu~t's actual size. RISC, Reduced Instruction Set Computer A computer system de- signed around a microprocessor that consists of a small number of basic instructions (traditional systems offered a comprehensive set of instructions including many that executed infrequently) using extremely fast materials; the goal is to increase speed by decreasing complexity. RE Radio Liberty, Munich. RM, removable media. Robotron VEB Kombinat Robotron, Dresden (with other locations in East Germany). ROM, read only memory Memory that can be accessed in any order, but that can only be read.

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APPENDIX F 273 RSCS, remote spooling communications subsystem SAM Calculating Machines Plant, Moscow. SEM, scanning electron microscope. Serial processing The traditional technique or architecture that em- ploys a single processor to solve a problem, where each program step is completed before the next begins. Sigma Sigma Production Association, Vil'nyus. SIMD, single-instruction stream/multiple-data stream A high-speed computer architecture in which multiple processors a]1 receive the same instruction but different data, so that, for example, an entire matrix of data can be processed at the same time. SM, Small System A series of Soviet and East European m~nicom- puters. SNA, systems network architecture Developed by IBM to facilitate information transmission using a layered structure of logical for- mats, protocols, and procedures. SOT, silicon-on-insulator A promising solid-state technology where silicon chips are mounted atop an insulating material to form a more complex device; hybrid. Source code The textual form in which a person enters a program into a computer (e.g., FORTRAN); a human readable form of a computer program from which binary code is created via a compiler. Soyuzsistemprom All Union Association for Branch and Depart- mental Management Systems, USSR. S PA RC, Sca la ble Processo r A rch itectu ret SRAM, static random access memory An integrated circuit that exchanges somewhat added complexity for the ability to retain data without the need for periodic refreshing (see DRAM). SSP, Supercomputer Safeguard Plan Places restrictions on access to end use of supercomputers installed outside the United States, Canada, and Japan. Svetiana "Svetiana" Electronic Instrument Building Association, Leningrad. Switch arrays A matrix of circuit elements interconnected in such a way as to perform/compute specific functions; a device that allows any input to be connected to any output. SZTAK! Computer Technology and Automation Research ]:nsti- tute, Budapest. TAB, tape automated bonding.

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274 APPENDIX F TCP/IP, Transport Control Protocol/Internet Pro toco! A standard transport-level protocol developed by the Department of Defense for communication between processes on different machines. TCSEC, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Also known as the "Orange Book criteria." Telenet A commercial network operated by Sprint Communica- tions. Throughput The number of instructions/processes that a given component/system can complete in a given time period. TKP, Programmer's Too! Kit developed in the USSR. TP4/C[NP, Transport Protocols 4/Connection Less Network Pro- tocol. TPA, Stored Program Data Processing of Hungarian minicomputers. Wench Capacitor Technology . . . . . . ~ v ~ A set of software engineering tools The name given to a series The construction of capacitors on integrated circuits in a vertical (as opposed to the traditional horizontal) fashion that facilitates very high circuit densities; frequently used in DRAMs. TRON, The Real- Time Operating System Nucleus ment hi~h-effort software research program in .TaDa~n A high-invest- ~ ~ O ~ Tsentrprogrammsistem Tsentrprogrammsistem Scientific Research Association, KaTinin. TT[, transistor-transistor-logic A widely used standard for digital logic integrated circuits F,(~T. is ~.not:h~r Tymnet O , ~ , A commercial computer network operated by McDonnell Douglas Network Systems Company, USA. VAX, Virtual Address eXtension An extremely popular scientific minicomputer line manufactured by the Digital Equipment Cor- poration. Vector processing A form of parallel processing usually applied to numeric matrix problems; many supercomputers are vector processors. Vectorized mainframe A traditional mainframe with an add-on unit to its processor that allows certain problems to be bro- ken down and calculated in a vectorized (matrix) manner, thus vastly decreasing execution time: in some cases the increase in ~ ~ _w _ v ~ ~ ~^^ _~ _w~ _ ~^~ performance allows the mainframe to match that of a low-end supercomputer (many supercomputers are vector processors).

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APPENDIX F 275 Vertical recording A technique that allows magnetic disk systems to record data with their magnetic poles oriented perpendicularly to the plane of the disk, thus allowing very high densities. Videoton Videoton Electronics Enterprise, Szekesfehervar, Hun- gary. VEST, very large scale integration Refers to extremely high compo- nent densities. VneshtekEnilca Vneshtekhnika All-Union Association, USSR. VNlIPAS AD Union Scientific-Research Institute for Applied Com- puterized Systems, Moscow. VPK USSR Military-Industrial Commission, Moscow. VUM Kiev Plant of Computers and Electronic Control Machines, Kiev. Wafer Slices of precise thickness, typically 4 to 6 inches in diame- ter, cut from crystalline ingots of semiconductor materials (e.g., silicon or gallium arsenide), that will be processed and later cut into hundreds of integrated circuits. WAN, wide area network A computer network generally distributed over a large geographic area (e.g., a state or region). Winchester A nonremovable disk technology originally developed by IBM for its 3340 disk drive in Winchester UK in 1973, at which time it was a significant advance in the state of the art; since then the technology has been adopted and expanded on by many manufacturers for use in their own permanent disk systems. MA, Extended Architecture Refers to additions made by IBM to the 370-series mainframe architecture.