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Appendix G References Abbasov, A. M. (1988) Towards the evaluation of response in information networks. Upravlyayushchige Sistemy i Mashing (2~:37-39. March-April. Aforun, S. (1977) Moscow institute leads development of minicomputers. Izuestiya, Dec. 2,p. 1. Aleksandrova, Z., I. Saryivanov, G. Mannov, and S. Pishchalov (1987) Tools for de- si~ng microprocessor systems. Vychislitel 'nays TeLhnika Sotsialisticheskilh Stran (21~:19-25. Alexander, A. (1988) Soviet weapons acquisition in the period of new economic policies. Paper presented at the Air Force Intelligence Conference on Soviet Affairs, Arlington, Virginia, Oct. 19-22, 1988. Alsop, S. (1988) Open letter: Dear ADAPSO: Why shouldn't IBM bundle? PC Letter (January 6~. Asaulchenko, P. (1986) From the family of small computers. Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta (15~:17. April. Aviation Weel: and Space Technology, Oct. 12, 1987, Supercomputer used at research center, p. 27. Ayzenberg, Ya. Ye., and A. G. Borzenko (1984) Implementation of an Ada compiler for specialized digital computers. Upravlyayushchige Sistemy i Mashing (6~:81-84. November-December. Bal'beryus, P. V., M. Z. Plenkovskiy, and A. A. Norushis (1986) Results of research on the SM 5408 storage device. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (1~:34 35. January. Ban, Ya., Ya. Kollar, and K. Khar~haruflcova (1986) Software of a Specialized RISC Processor. Preprint No. R11-8~484. Joint Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, USSR. Sanford C. Bernstein & Co. (1985) Bernstein Research Strategic Analysis/Financial Forecast: Crag Research. New York, November. Sanford C. Bernstein & Co. (1988) Bernstein Research Strategic Analysis/Financial Forecast: Gray Research. New York, March. 276

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APPENDIX G 277 Bezrukov, N. N. (1981) A text editor with developed system of co~runands for OS/ES. Programmirovanige (3~:39-48. Bogorodslcaya, N. Ye., and A. A. Krasilov (1988) Application and realization of the ADA programing language. Upravlyayushchige Sistemy i Mashing (1~:113. January-February. Borisov, V. S., A. A. Vasenkov, B. M. Malashevich, V. A. Sakhonov, and L. Ya. Ivanova (1982) Integrated Circuit Microprocessor Families: Composition and Structure: Handbook. Radio i Svyaz', Moscow. Botelho, A. J. J. (1987) Brazil's independent computer strategy. Technology Review 9,0(~:3~45. ~ i . ~ ~~ _ ~ T D n ~ A.. am.. ~$ T17~IA British Broadcasting Corporation t15~J Computers. In DID ~Ui'`Ti.~'y us yrv`~- Broadcasts, Part 1: The USSR. (Weeldy Economic Report) W1237, All. British Broadcasting Corporation (1985) Computers. In BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Part I: The USSR. (Weekly Economic Report) W1340 (May 12, 0900), A/9 _ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ .. ~ ~ 1 _ . =~ ~ ~~ -am British Broadcasting Corporation And Hera production of one [1~W =~,W~ ~~- puter. In BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Part I: The USSR. No. 8160C, C2. Broczko, P. (1985) Microcomputer manufacture of socialist countries in 1984: The year of the 16 bit microcomputers, Szamitastechnika (April):8-9. Broczko, P. (1986a) Microcomputer manufacture 1985, socialist countries. Szami- tastechr~ika (May):4-5. Broczko, P. (1986b) The socialist market; 16 and 32 bit microcomputers. Szamitas- technika-Computerworld (Oct.~:2~25. Brown, R. (1988) East meets West for international trade network. Network World (Sept. 12~:11-12. Brusilovskiy, L. I., and D. M. Sagatelyan (1985) About the choice of the architecture and software for systems for automating scientific research. Pp. 220-224 In Tenth All-Union School-Semirzar on Computer Networks: Abstracts of Reports, Part 3, Georgian Academy of Sciences Scientific Council on Cybernetics and Institute of Computer Mathematics, Moscow-Tbilisi. Bulgakov, S., V. Mescheryakov, and V. Nikiforovsky (1984) Series K 1804-A high- performance microprocessor set. EL ORG Information (7~:2~26. Carroll, P. B. (1988) Tiny computer screen displays fiull-size text. The Wall Street Journal, Sept. 28, p. 27. Center for Economic Analysis (1988) The global position of the United States in: Computer equipment, business equipment, telecommunications equipment, and software and services markets. Project overview and preliminary findings. The Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA), March 10, 1988. Central Intelligence Agency (1982) Soviet Acquisition of Western Technology. Reprinted by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, May. Central Intelligence Agency (1985) Soviet Acquisition of Militarily Significant Western Technology: An Update. CIA, Washington, D.C., Sept., 34 pp. Central Intelligence Agency (1987) Enterprise Level Computing in the Soviet Economy. SOV C 87-10043. Directorate of Intelligence, August, Washington, D.C., 71 pp. Central Intelligence Agency/Defense Intelligence Agency (1987) Gorbachev's modern- ization program: A status report. A paper presented by the CIA and the DIA for submission to the Subcommittee on National Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, 100th U.S. Congress, March 19.

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278 APPENDIX G Central Scientific Research Institute of Technical Economic Information in Instru- ment Building (1981) Instruments, Automation Equipment, and Control Systems. Technical Series No. 2: Development of the SM-1 and SM-2 Control Computer Complexes and Their Application Prospects, No. 5. TSNIITEIpriborostroyeniya, Moscow. September-October. Cherkasov, Yu. M., Yu. A. Lyamin, A. M. Goremykin, and V. N. Dudetskiy (1986) Programming in the distributed homogeneous environment of the KVANT-R System. Programm~rovanige (5~:87-94. Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (1987) A Global Mar- ket Analysis Project. Report on the Competitiveness of the United States in the Global Computer, Business and Telecommunications Equipment Markets, 1982-1987. Washington, D.C. Computer Science and Technology Board (1988a) The National Challenge in Com- puter Science and Technology. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Computer Science and Technology Board (1988b) Toward a National Research Network. A Report by the National Research Network Review Committee. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Crecine, J. P. (1986) The next generation of personal computers. Science (Feb.~:939. Cusumano, M. A. (1987a) The factory approach to large-scale software development: Implications for strategy, technology, and structure. Working paper no. 1885-87 (revised). MIT Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Sept. 25. Cusumano, M. A. (1987b) Toshiba's Fuchu software factory: Strategy, technology, and organization. Working paper no. 1939-87, MIT Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 6. Danil'chenko, I. (1984) Computer technology: To a new level. Ekonomicheskoye Sotrudnichestuo Stran- Chlenov SE V (Nov.~:1~18. Datamation (1988) Expert mission to Moscow. 34~10~:12. May 15. Davis, N. C., and S. E. Goodman (1978) The Soviet Bloc's Unified System of Comput- ers, Association of Computing Machinery Computing Surveys 10~2~:93-122. Davis, W. E., and D. G. Hatano (1985) The American semiconductor industry and the ascendancy of East Asia. California Management Review 27~4~:128-143. Dedov, Yu. A., M. A. Ostrovskii, K. V. Peselev, G. Kh. Polin, N. T. Seifi, A. Ya. Sokolov, and A. V. Filin (1980) Small Computers and Their Application, B. N. Naumov, ed. Statistika, Moscow. Defense Science Board Task Force (1976) An Analysis of Export Control of U.S. Technology A DOD Perspective. Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense, OUSDRE, Washington, D.C., Feb. 4. Denisov, V. (1986) More effectively use computer technology. Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta (18~:5. April. Dodge, J. M. (1988) IBM's PS/2 falters in the federal market. Electronic Business (Aug. 15~:68-70. Dye, L. (1988) Team cracks key to many secret codes. Los Angeles Times, Oct. 12, pp. 1, 19. Dykes, J. E. (1988) The four little dragons of the Orient and an emerging role model for semiconductor companies. Presentation to the Fiftieth Annual Semiconductor Industry Conference, Montgomery Securities, Inc., Burlingame, Georgia, Jan. 28. Ecotass (1985) Sept. 2, No. 33, p. 24. Ekonomicheslcaya Gazeta (1978) May, No. 21, p. 14. Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta (1985) Horizons of computer technology. (15~:2. April. Ekonomicheslcaya Gazeta (1986) July, No. 30, p. 5.

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APPENDIX G 279 Ekonomicheskaya Gazeta (1988) March, No. 12, p. 8. Ekonomika i Matematicheskiye Metody (1985) Round table of the editors: Prob- lems and prospects for the development of automated management systems (continued). XXI (5~:920-934. September-October. Elmer-DeWitt, P. (1987) Can a system keep a secret? Time 129~14~:68-69. April 6. Fateyev, V. D., N. A. Kudryatseva, and N. A. Astashchenkova (1986) Features of the construction and functioning of distributed databases. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (6) :7. June. Feibus, M. (1988) New chips unveiled for laptops. The Washington Post, Oct. 17. Ferguson, C. (1988) From the people who brought you voodoo economics. Harvard Business Review, p. 57. May-June. Ferguson, C. H. (1987) High-technology product life cycles, export controls, and international markets. In companion volume to Balancing the National In- terest: U.S. National Security, Export Controls, and Global Economic Competition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Gartner Group (1988) Personal computing strategic planning memo No. SPA-650-478.1. Stamford, Connecticut, May 12. Gibler, Kh. (1986) Export program of the Robotron combine for 1985-1990. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (3~:32-33. March. Gold, C. L., S. E. Goodman, and B. G. Walker (1980) Software: Recommendations for awn export control policy. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 23~4~:19~207. April. Goodman, S. E. (1979) Software in the Soviet Union: Advances in Computers 18:231-287. Progress and problems. Goodman, S. E. (1982) U.S. computer export control policies: Value conflicts and policy choices. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 25~9~:61~624. Goodman, S. E. (1984a) The impact of U.S. export controls on the Soviet computer industry. In The Politics of East- West Trade, G. B. Smith, ed. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Goodman, S. E. (1984b) Socialist technological integration: The case of the East European computer industries. The Information Society 3~1~:3~90. Goodman, S. E. (1985) Technology transfer and the development of the Soviet computer industry. Pp. 117-140 in Trade, Technology, and Soviet-American Relations, B. Parrott, ed. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Goodman, S. E. (1987) The information technologies and Soviet society: Problems Ed prospects. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC- 1 7~4~:529-5~2. Goodman, S. E., N. S. GliLk, W. K. McHenry, J. B. McLean, C. E. Walston, and C. Weissman (1981) Software Technology Transfer and Export Control. No. N-878. Report prepared by Institute for Defense Analyses for U.S. Department of Defense, OUSDRE, Washington, D.C., January. Goodman, S. E., W. K. McHenry, and R. A. Stapleton (1984) General-purpose computer systems in the Warsaw Pact countries. Signal (4~:97-101. December. Gorbunov, A. V. (1985) Mechanism of separate compilation in a programming system on the basis of the Ada language. Programmirovanige (2~:16-25. Gorokhovskiy, S. S., Yu. V. Kapitonova, A. A. Leticheskiy, I. N. Mol*~amov, and S. B. Potrebinskiy (1984) The algorithmic language MAYAK. Kibernetika (3~:5~77. Gura, V., M. Plakhi, and I. Shevchik (1986) High throughput 32 bit minicomputer SM 52/12. Vychislitel 'nays TeLhnika SotsialisticheskiLh Stran (20) :182-186. Gusev, O. (1983) Informatics changes its colors. Pravda, Nov. 12, p. 3.

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280 APPENDIX G Hall, R. P. (1987) Seven ways to cut software maintenance costs. Datamatior~ 33~4~:81-84. July 15. Hammer, C., A. G. Dale, M. B. Feldman, S. E. Goodman, W. K. McHenry, J. Schwartz, S. T. Walker, and S. Winograd (1984) Soviet Computer Science Research. FASAC-TAR-2020. Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia. Hanson, P. (1986) What is Gorbachev up to? Puzzles of Soviet reform policies. Presentation at the Center for Strategic International Studies, Washington, D.C., Nov. 13. Hanus, V. (1982) Systems of SMEP Series II. Vyber Informaci z Organicni a Vypocetni TechniLy (2~:159-166. Heinecke, K., and A. Schroeder (1984) System of virtual machines, Version 3. East Berlin ED V A spekte (3) :5-8. May 30. Ilyukovich, A. A., and V. Yu. Bobolovich (1985) Use of cross resources to debug programs for an Elektronika 60 microcomputer. Programmirovanige (2~:57-59. InterBo (1988) June, vol. 7, p. 8. International Data Corporation (1987) Software and Services Industry Review and Forecast 1987. IDC No. 3157. Prepared for Adapso, Fiamingha~n, NIas- sachusetts, June. Isayev, Yu. V., and N. A. Semenov (1987) Software for flexible automated production systems. Upravlyayu~hch~ye Sistemy i Mashing (3~:124-125. May-June. Ivakhnov, A. (1988) Electronics: Catching up to yesterday. Izuestiya, Aug. 15, p. 2. Ivanov, A. N. (1988) Bulgarian machine tool building. Melhanizatsiya i Automati- zats f pa Proizvodstva (3~ :4~44. March. Ivanov, N., and A. Maslyanenko (1983) Current problems of developing third stage of automated system for state statistics. Vestnik Statistics (10~:4~48. October. Izvestiya (1985) Highways of progress. Dec. 17, p. 3. Izvestiya (1986) April 22, p. 3. Izvestiya (1987) April 20, p. 2. Izotimpex (1986a) Electronic Computer IZO T 1 Q14E. Technical Description. Overview. Izotimpex (1986b) SM-5308.01, SM-5309, SM-5302, SM-5303, SM-5306. Brochure published by Izotimpex, Bulgaria, and obtained in March 1986, 3 pp. Jakobson, G. (1985) Soviet Artificial Intelligence Research: The Tallinn Institute of Cybernetics. Delphic Associates, Falls Church, Virginia. Jelen, G. F. (1985) Information security: An elusive goal. Program on information Resources Policy, Harvard University Center for luformation Policy Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June. Jones, K. (1982) Some E. European firms woo Western markets. Micro-Mini Systems (June):115. Journal of Commerce (1988) India to purchase Soviet supercomputers. April 25, p. 5A. JTECH Panel (1984) Report on Computer Science in Japan. Japanese Technology Evaluation Program. Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia. December. JTECH Panel (1987) Report on Advanced Computing in Japan. Japanese Tech- nology Evaluation Program. Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia. December. Judy, R. W. (1986) The Riad computers of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1970-1985: A survey and comparative analysis. Working Paper HI-3872-DP. Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana. Oct. 6.

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APPENDIX G 281 Judy, R. W., and J. M. Lommel (1988) Soviet educational computing: An interim report. Unpublished manuscript. Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana. K. A. (1986) What is the ES 1036 capable of? Szemitastechnika (6~:2,4. June. Kabalyevskiy, A. N. (1986) Minicomputers: Functional Design, V. A. Signayevskiy ed. Naulca, Moscow. Kalyanov, G. N. (1984) Static analysis of programs in the vector programming system. Programmirovan~ye (5~:26-32. Karpov, B. V., G. B. Kezling, D. I. Leonttyev, N. N. Lozinskiy, R. S. Lavrusenko, V. Ya. Palachev, R. A. Tyurin, A. M. Filippov, and T. M. Beleyevskaya (1986) Hardware of Automated Management Systems, Handbook in Two Volumes. Hardware of the System of Small Electronic Computers, G. B. Keeling, ed. Mashinostroyeniye, Leningrad. Karrasko, L. Kh. (1980) Minicomputer development in Cuba. Vychislitel 'Maya TeLhnika Sotsialisticheskilh Stran (8~:19-23. Kasyanov, V. N., and V. A. Nepomnyashchiy (1985) Conference on methods of translation and design of programs. Programmirovanige (6~:85-87. Kis, A. (1982) THE SZM-4; What there is and what is missing. Szam~tastechnika, . p. 3. Klimenko, V. P., V. D. Losev, b. id. ~ogreb~ns~uy, and flu. r~snmaz1 <~5~) rune features of problem-oriented complexes based on SM-1410. Upravlyayushchige Sistemy i Mashing (5~:9-11. Kokoreva, L. V., and I. I. Malashinin (1987) Personal computers and local area networks (IVERSI-86~. Upravlyayushch~ye Sistemy i Mashing (2~:12~122. March-April. Kolomiyets, G. S., and L. Ya. Naroditsicaya (1986) Experience of the creation of automated work stations and systems of control and design of computers. Kommunist (1986) April 27, No. 103, p. 1. Kompaniyets, V. (1985) Many nannies at the ASU. Pravda, Jan. 1, p. 5. Konopel'ko, V. K., and V. V. Losev (1986) Reliable Information Storage ire Semiconductor Memory Devices. Radio i svyas', Moscow. Korvas, Z. (1985) The Czechoslovak JSEP ES 1027 computer. Mechanizace Autom- atizace Administrativy (3~:82-84. Kotov, S. A., and I. V. Tsukanova (1984) Programmers tool kit for the SM computers. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (9~:3-5. September. Kovacs, A. (1986) Chief characteristics of domestically developed local networks. Szemita~technika (3) :1~11. March. Kovalenko, V. (1987a) Computers and progress. Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya, May 7, pp. 1-2. Kovalenko, V. (1987b) Computers: Steps to the world level. Sotsialisticheskaya Ir~dustriya, Aug. 4, p. 2. Kreidl, J. (1986) Red lightwaves: The crisis in Soviet fiberoptics. Lasers ~ Applica- tions (10~:28-32. October. Krivtsov, A. (1988) The Agat in education: 198~1987. Informatika i Obrazovanige (2~:2~34. March-April. Kubik, B. (1985) Deliveries of ES 1026 computers. VyberInformaci z Organicni a Vypocetni Technily (3~:291-296. Kuchment, M. (1983) The life and death of Alfred Sarant/Fillip Staros and the beginnings of Soviet micro-electronics. Prepared for the Soviet Science and Technology Eyewitness Accounts Seminar on Computing in the USSR, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November.

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282 APPENDIX G Kuprdyanov, V. P., A. K. Modhalov, N. A. Maslobayshchikova, N. N. Romanova, Z. S. ShcheLkunova, and V. V. Yushko (1983) Production system TKP-3. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (4~:21-23. April. Kupriyanova, G. I., and Z. A. Malyutin (1988) Little electronic notebook for the manager. Upravlyayushchige Si~temy i Ma~hiny (2~:129. March-April. Kwang, K. (1987) Advanced parallel processing with supercomputer architectures. Proceedings of the IEEE 75~10~. Leningradskaya Pravda (1987) March 17, p. 1. Lepikhov, A. (1986) Interbranch interaction. Academician G. Marchuk responds to the questions of Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya and NTR: Problemy i Resheniya. NTR: Problemy i Resheniya (17~:4-5. Sept. 2-15. Lipayev, V. V. (1985) Industrial technology for developing software for on-board microcomputers (The PROMETEY Technology). Vychislitel 'nays TelAnika Sotsialisticheskilh Stran (18~:54-65. Lomov, Yu. S. (1987) The E~1066 and ES-1065 high capacity computers. Pp. 177-188. In Electronic Computing Technology, Vol. 1, V. V. PrzLiyalkovskogo, ed. Radio i Svyaz', Moscow. Lopato, G. P., G. D. Smirnov, I. M. Vasil'yev, and V. G. Bardakov (1987) Or- ganization of the computing process in a network with teleprocessing of data. Upravlyayushchige Sistemy i Mashiny (1~:9-13. January-February. Madrid Domestic Service (1987) GMT 12:30 GMT. Dec. 18. Malcarov, I. M. (1986) Robotics and Flexible Automated Production, Book 1: Sys- tem Principles of the Creation of Fle*ible Automated Production. Vysshaya sEkola, Moscow. Maksimenko, V. I. (1984) The effectiveness of the use of computer technology in the national economy. Vychislitel'naya Telknika SotsialisticheskiLh Stran (16~:86-94. Malinovskiy, B. N., A. M. Luchuk, V. M. Yegipko, N. I. Alishov, S. N. Zharovskiy, ~nd V. B. Reutov (1987) Experimental local area network for automation of scientific experiments. Upravlyay1lshchige Sistemy i Mashiny (l):~9. Ja~uary-Februa~y. Marboff, J. (1988) "Virus" in military computers disrupts systems nationwide. The New York Times, Nov. 4, pp. A1, A21. Maslov, A. N. (1983) Scientific-Technological Commission on Computer Programming Languages and Systems. Programmirovansye (1~:94. Januamy-February. Maslyukov, Y. (1984) Catalysts of technological progress. Ekonomicheskoye Sotrud- nichestvo Stran-Chlenov SEV (1~:15-18. Janu~y. McHen~y, W. K. (1985) The absorption of computerized management information systems in Soviet enterprises. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson. McHenry, W. K. (1987a) The application of computer aided design at Soviet ente~prises: An overview. Pp. 57-76 in Soviet Automation: Perspectives and Prospects, J. Baranson, ed. Lomond, Mt. Airy, Maryl~d. McHenry, W. K. (1987b) Computer networks in the Soviet scientific community. Pp. 151-176 in The Status of Soviet Civil Science, C. Sinclair, ed. Martinus NijEoff, Dordrec~ht. McHenry, W. K. (1987c) The integration of management information systems in Soviet ente~prises. Pp. 185-199 in Gorbachev's Economic Plans, Vol. 2, J. P. Hardt and R. F. KauEnan, eds. Joint Economic Committee, 100th U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. November. McHenry, W. K., and S. E. Goodman (1986) MIS in USSR industrial ente~prises: The limits of reform from above. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 29~11~. November.

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APPENDIX G 283 McIntyre, C. (1988) East Bloc firms thumbing nose at western computer bar. Reuters Information Services, inc. McIntyre, J. F. (1988) The USSR's hard currency trade and payments position. Gorbachev's Economic Plans, Joint Economic Committee, 100th U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. Mel'nichenko, V. G., V. M. Anopriyenko, V. S. Krasnov, N. A. Sirota, and V. A. Antsut (1983) SM 1420 control computer complex. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (1~:12-14. January. Melvern, L., D. Heditch, and N. Anning (1984) Techno-bandits: How the USSR steals U.S. high technology. Computerworld, Sept. 24. Mikhalevich, V. S., et al. (1985) Program package DISPRO-3: Purpose, classes of tasks which are solved, system and algorithm design. Kibernetika (1) :5~71. January-February. Mikheyev, O. (1986) The industry of informatics. Pravda, Aug. 17, p. 2. Mikroszamitogep Magazin (1984) Microprocessors produced in the Socialist countries. (4) :47. Mohr, L. (1985) The AULA-3 designing system. Szamitastechnika (11~:5. November. Molodchik, A. V., and V. N. Kobelev (1987) The manager and the personal com- puter: How to arrange a dialog? Ekonomika i Organizatsiya Promy~hlennogo Proizvodstva (7~:81-94. July. Mossberg, W. S., and J. Wilcott (1988) U.S. redefines policy on security to place less stress on Soviets. The Wall Street Journal, Aug. 11, pp. 1, 16. Musaelyan, V. (1985) ES-1046 computer with longdistance servicing system. Kom- munist (156~:1. July. Myuller, D. (1987) Leipzig Spring Fair 1987: New and improved products from Robotron. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (7~:38. July. Naumov, B. N. (1977) International small computer system. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (10~:~5. Naumov, B. N. (1979) MSZR The uniform minicomputer system. Szamitastechnika, July-August, pp. 1-4. Naumov, B. N. (1986) Personal computers at the starting line. Izuestiya, July 11. Naumov, B. N., V. I. Salikovskiy, V. P. Tikhomirov, and V. N. Tsoy (1986) Eval- uation of the state and prospects for development of work on general purpose applications program packages (DBMS and IRS). Vychislitel'naya TelAnika Sotsialieticheskilh Stran (19~ :21-29. Nemeyshis, A. N. (1982) SM-1600 computer complex. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (12~:19-21. December. New personal computers produced in the GDR. (1987) VTSS, Vychislitel 'naya Telhnika Sotsialisticheskilh Stran (21~:14~144. New York Times (1988) Life beyond the Kremlin. May 30, p. 5. Newman, B. (1988) Astute Poles purchase capitalist computers, sell them to the state The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 7, pp. 1,12. Nikitin, A. I., and O. L. Perevozchikova (1986) Dialog-85. Upravlyayushchige Sistemy ~ Mashiny (2):124-125. March-April. Novikov, G. (1985) A demand on the future: I see, I say, I draw. Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya, April. 4. Office of Science and Technology Policy (1987) A research and development strategy for high perfor~nance computing. Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C., November. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) U.S. Congress (1987) International Compe- tition in Services. U.S. Govern~nent Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

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284 APPENDIX G Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (1987) Internationalisation of software and computer services. Unpublished draft. Committee for Information, Computer, and Communications Policy, Paris, August 27. Ostrovskiy, M. A. (1988) Multiprogramming structure of the arithmetic logical pro- cessor of the SM 1700. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (3~:11-12. March. Oxford Proceedings (1987) Eleventh International Online Information Meeting. Pro- ceedings in English. December. Panel on the Impact of National Security Controls on International Technology Transfer (1987) Balancing the National Interest: U.S. National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Papukchiyev, A., Zh. Zhelezov, and S. Markov (1981) Node software implemented with SM-4 in experimental computer network. Vychislitel'naya TelAnika Sot- sialist~cheskiLh Stran (10~:75-84. Paton, B. Ye. (1985) Forty-first session of the Council of Coordination. Speeches of the session participants. Vestnik Akademii Nauk SSSR (3~:79-89. Pea;r, R. (1987) Washington feeling insecure about non-secret information. New York Times, Aug. 30, p. E5. Piper, Jaffray, and Hopwood Company analysis (1987) Cray Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October. Pitta, J. (1987) From Russia with love. The New~weekly for the Computer Com- munity 21~47~:1, 85. Polyakov, O. A. (1978) Utilitarian approach to optimization of enterprise production planning. Pribory ~ Sistemy Upravleniya (7~:53-55. July. Popkova, V. (1984) Basic features of the SM-1600 minicomputer. Vestnik Statistiki (10~:33-35. October. Pravda (1985a) ~ the Politburo of the CPSU Central Comn~ttee. Jan. 4, p. 1. Pravda (1985b) Dec. 13, p. 1. Pravda (1987a) Mar. 24, p. 1. Pravda (1987b) Making computer technology a part of everyday life. Oct. 24, p. 2. Pravda (1988a) On the path of radical reform. Jan. 24, pp. 1-3. Pravda (1988b) June 15, p. 6. Pravda Ukrainy (1986) Jan. 15, pp. 1, 3. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (1986) (7) :4~46. Prokhorov, N. L. (1987) Increasing the throughput of SM computer complexes for solving tasks of the automation of design of digital technology. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (6~:3-5. Prokhorov, N. L., V. V. Rodionov, and V. I. Frolov (1987) Architecture of the 32-bit SM computer complexes. Vychislitel 'naya TeLhnika SotsialisticheskiLh Stran (22) :16-22. Prokhorov, N. L., A. M. Nemeykshis, V. I. Frolov, and V. V. Rodionov (1988) Functional capabilities and composition of the SM-1700 computer complex. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (3~:2-3. Ma~h. Quaterman, J. S., and J. C. Hoskins (1986) Notable computer networks. Communi- cations of the Association for Computing Machinery (10~:93~971. October. Rabotnichesko Delo (1988) Jan. 20, pp. 1, 3. Radio Fernsehen Elektronik (1982) The SM 4/20 microcomputer. 31~6~:361. June. Radio Liberty (1988) Weekly Reports. Center for Strategic International Studies, Washington, D.C. Mar~h 4. R^imondi, D. (1987) Nets on the rise, ISDN on hold. Computerworld (June 11~:51, 55.

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APPENDIX G 285 Rajman, J. (1986) Leipzig '86; New products from CEMA countries. Szemitastechnika (7~:13. July. R^zgulin, V. B. (1986) On the practical use of attribute grammars in the realization of the Ada-El'brus translator. Pp. 4~36 in Proceedings of the III All-Union Conference on Automation of the Production of Programming Systems, K. Pryugi, ed. Institute of Cybernetics of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn. Rechentechnik DatenYerarbeitung (1984) Microelectronics applications at 1984 Leipzig spring fair. 21~5) :2~30. May. Rezanov, V. V., and V. M. Kosteltyanskiy (1983) Computer technology facilities for controlling technological processes and processing geophysical data Status and development prospects (SM-1210 and PS-3000~. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (1~:7-12. January. Rice, J. (1985) Using supercomputers today and tomorrow. In Proceedings of the Third U.S. Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing, May. Richards, T. J. (1980) An examination of the issues affecting ADP technology transfer to the Soviet Union. Ph.D. thesis, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., November. Robotron (1988) Electronic data processing system ES1057. Undated Robotron, GDR, brochure. Received July 1988. Romashkin, F. Z., and A. V. Giglaviy (1987) About the development of software for microcomputers. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (5~:2-4. May. Ros, A. A., Yu. G. Bogdanov, A. N. Kosinov, M. V. Snopkov, and T. P. Voloshina (1985) Interactive automated information-logic system. Upravlyayushchige Sis- temy i Mashiny (4~:97-103. July-August. Rusakov, A. (1986) Information transmission industry. Radio (2~:2-4. February. Ryzhkov, N. I. (1986) On the basic guidelines for the economic and social development of the USSR in 198~1990 and in the period up to the year 2000. Prauda, Mar. 4, pp. 2-5. Safonov, V. O., and V. N. Tsoy (1987) Some problems in development of programming systems ~nd languages. Vychislitel'naya TelAnika Sotsialisticheskilh Stran (21~:88-94. Salgo, I., and A. Dibuz, eds. (1986) Microcomputers, Integrated Circu~ts, LSI Alkaimazastechnikai T~acsado Szolgalat, Budapest. Sanger, D. E. (1988) PC powerhouse (made in Taiwan). The New York Times, Sept. 28, pp. 1, D1, D9. Savinkov, V. M., M. S. Kazarov, and Yu. K. Rysevich (1979) The use of data base management systems in ASU (A short overview). Algoritmy s Organizatsfya Resheniya Ekonomicheskilh Zadach (13~:29-38. S~ay, P. (1987) IBM's workstation strategy and trends in the PC market. In Strategic Analysis Report, Gartner Group Personal Computing, Stamford, Connecticut. Nov. 6, p. 14. Semenenko, Y. E., and A. A. Novokhatnyy (1980) Computers of the Impulse Associ~ tion. Rabochaya Gazeta, (Sept. 27~:2. Semenov, V. A., and V. F. Shumilin (1984) Operational reliability of third-generation universal computers. ln Energetika i Elektrifikats f ya. Seriya: Sredstva i Sistemy Upravleniya v Energetike, No. 9 (Sept.~:1~17. Informenevgo, Moscow. Semerdzhyan, M. A. (1985) Computer "ethnology: Stages of development. Promy~h- lennost' Armenii (4~:27-30. April. Semyenov, V. (1987) The game of disks The ministerial way. Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya (Oct. 15~:2.

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286 APPENDIX G Shekovtsev, K. (1988) KUVT UKNTs: Prototype model accepted. Informatika i Obrazovan~ye (1) :3-7. January-February. Shkabardnya, M. S. (1987) Instrument building-For the national economy. Pribory i Sistemy Upravleniya (11) :1-3. November. Shtahl, H., and N. Wulst (1985) Results of computer network operation. Vychisli- tel 'nays Telhnika Sotsialist~cheskilh Stran (17) :11~122. Shul'gin, S., and G. Dales (1986) Means for data compression in STOSI. Vestnik Statistiki (5~:55-57. May. Shvartsman, V. O. (1986) Eletronic Mail, Radio i svyaz', Moscow. Sidorenko, J. (1982) SMEP is born here. Praca, Sept. 18, p. 9. Sinitsyn, N. V., V. N. Petropavlovskiy, and A. M. Nikitin (1987) Automated systems of scientific research. Radioelektronika i Svgaz' (1~:1-64. Slutsker, G.,ed. (1988) Charles Wang and his thundering nerds. Forbes (J`ily 11~:11 124. Snyder, J. M. (1988) East European Attempts to Clone the VAX. CMI-WPS-88-10. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. SOANSSSR (1987) The program of the creation of an integrated network of informa' tion-computing systems (centers) at the Siberian Department of the ANSSSR. Brochure. Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya (1986) On the state socio-economic plan for the devel- opment of the USSR dunng 1987, and on the fulfiUrnent of ~he 1986 plan. Nov. 18,pp. 1,2. Sovetskaya Estoniya (1985) Jan. 8, p. 3. Sovetskaya Kultura (1986) Jan. 14, p. 8. Sovetskaya Litva (1985) Feb. 22, p. 4. Sovetskaya Rossiya (1987) Dec. 8, p. 2. Soviet Weekly (1984) Bilingual Computer. (2231~:11. Soyuzzagranpribor (1982) SM EVM small computer system: Developed and tested hardware and software. Catalog No. 1. Soyuzzagranpribor, Moscow. Stapleton, R. A. (1988) Personal computing in the CEMA community: A study of international technology development and management. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona Management Information Systems Department, Tucson, Fall. Stapleton, R. A., and S. E. Goodman (1985) Microcomputing in the Soviet Urnon and Eastern Europe. Abacus 3~1):~22. Starr, R. F., ed. (1988) The Future Information Revolution in the USSR. Crane Russalc & Company, New York. StepaIlov, V. A. (1983) Distingliishing features of added memory unit. Pp. 68-72 in The Development of Computer Technology. Collection of Scientific Works, M. I. Salcharova and L. V. Tverdova, eds. Institut Kibernetiki, USSR Academy of Sciences, Kiev. Stoyanovskiy, V. (1987) . . . In favor of computers. Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya (Nov. 18), p. 2. Surin, Yu. V. (1987) Prospects for developing and introducing domestic digital tr~ mission systems. Elektro~vgaz' (10~:1-2. October. Sypchuk, P. P., A. D. Iv~r~ikov, and I. D. Kurilovskiy (1983) Software debug- ging devices for microprocessors. Izuestiya Vysshilh Uchebngkh Zavedeniy: Priborostroyenige (9~:53-61. September. Szabo, Z. (1985) Modernizing the models of ES Series II. Szamitastechnika, Feb. p. 4.

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APPENDIX G 287 Szemitastechnika (1979) Task-oriented systems with minicomputer machines. Sept. pp. 1,15. Szemitastechnika (1981) ELORG symposi~lrn in Budapest. November. Szemitasterknika-Computerworld (1987) May 18, p. 64. Tarasov, A. (1986) Highway traffic jams Scientists discuss problems of establishment and development of Interbranch Scientific Technical Complexes. Pravda, Nov. 4. Tasky, K. (1979) Soviet technology gap and dependence on the West: The case of computers. Pp. 51~523 in The Soviet Economy in a Time of Change, Vol. 1, J. P. Hardt, ed. Joint Economic Committee, 96th U.S. Congress, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Technology Transfer Assessment Center (1988) National Security and Expert Con- trols: A Decision Aid. Central Intelligence Agency, Washington D.C. Tiruna, N. V. (1984) New computer devices in Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. Pp. 1-13 in Pribory, Sredstva Avtomatizatsii i Systems Upravleniya: TS-2. Sredstva Vychislitel'noy TelAniki i OrytelAniki. Ek~pre`~-Informatsiya, No. 8. TSNIITEIpribnostroyeniy, Moscow. Tkachenko, Zh. (1987) To not be buried in approvals. Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya (Sept. 25~:1. Trofimov, I. P. (1987) To make a worthy contribution. Beatnik Svgazi (8~:2-3. August. Trud (1985) Sept. 12, p. 1. Trud (1987) April 2, p. 2. Tsentrprogrammsistem (1987) System for managing distributed databases for SM , ~ ~ computers, version 2. Prospectus from Tsentrprogrammsistem, Kalinin, USSR. Ulrich, W. (1987) Electronic mail: What's happening? Presentation at the Information Resources Management Conference, Richmond, Virginia, Sept. 9-11. General Services Administration. U.S. Department of Commerce (1984) A Competitive Assessment of The United States Software Industry. Science and Electronics, Office of Computers and Business Equipment, Assistant Secretary for Trade Development. U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce (1986) A Competitive Assessment of the U.S. Microcomputer Industry: Business/Professional Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. August. U.S. Department of Commerce (1988) 1988 U.S. Industrial Outlook. U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. U.S. General Accounting Office (1983) Details of Certain Controversial Export Licensing Decisions Involving Soviet Bloc Countries. GAO/ID-83-46. Wash- ington, D.C., May 5. VDNKh Information Reference Service (1986) March 9. Information from VDNKh, Exhibition of the Achievements of the National Economy, Moscow, a permanent exhibition facility. Vel'bitskiy, I. V. (1985) Paperless R-tec~hnology of prograIrarung for wide use. chislitel'naya Telknika Sotsialisticheskilh Stran (18):21-39. Vel'bitskiy, I. V., and V. Yu. Kayurov (1987) Software engineering. Upravlyayushchspe Sistemy ~ Mashing (3~:122. May-June. Vel'bitskiy, I. V., L. F. DrobusheviLh, and G. D. Lazarev (1986) System for automation of touchdown design of data processing software on the basis of it-technology. Upravlyayushch~ve Sistemy ~ Mashing (5) :31-35. September-October. Velikhov, Y. (1985) On the way to new computers. Rabolaichesko Delo (Jan. 11) p. 4.

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