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INDEX Absorption of gravitation, 183 Acceleration, of gravity. See Gravity of moon and sun, 86 ADAMS, F. D., 117, 122 ADAMS, J. C., 42, 47 AIRY, G. B., 4, 17, 25, 36, 37, 105, 106, 107, 114, ITS, 120, 122, 131, 149 AT~BRECHT, 276 A11dade, 197 AMBRONN, R., 188 Amphidromic point, 24, 30, 33, 34 A~nphidromic system, 24 Angle measurements, 234 Anomaly. See Gravity and Vertical, deflection of ARISTOTLE, 123, 149 Astronomical latitude, 112, 193, 222, 246 Astronomical longitude, 112 Astronomical position, definition, 112, 221 Astronomical transit, 193, 225 Atlantic Ocean, tides in, 29, 30 Atmospheric refraction, 247, 209 AVERS, H. G., 67, 212 Axis of figure, 248, 251, 270 Axis of instantaneous rotation, 248 Azimuth, 132, 194 Laplace, 130, 236 Observation of, 194, 236 Azimuth instrument, 194 BABBAGE, 206 BAIRD, A. W., 47 Balance, Eotvos torsion. See Eotvos BALDWIN, R., 38 BANCROFT, T. A., 1 17, 122 :13arometric pressure, effect on determi- nation of gravity, 160 Effect on sea level, 60, 220 BARTON, D. C., 167, 189 Base apparatus, 194 Base measurement, 194, 230 Accuracy, 233 Beach marks, 16 BEAZLEY, C. R., 149 279 Bench marls, 213, 215 BERNOULLI, D., 4, 44 BEELTRAND, G., 39 BESSEL, F. W., 129, 131, 149, 183, 249 BIGOURDAN, G., 149 BORGBN, C., 5, 43, 47, 48 BORSCH, A., 131, 149 Bore, tidal, 12, 81 BOUGUER, 127, 128 Bows, WM., 103, 114, 122, 149, 200, 241 BRADLEY, 250 BRASCH, F. E., 149 BREED, C. B., 200 BROWN, E. NV., 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 245, 265 BUFFON, 266 BURRED, S. G., 114 BUTTERFIELD, A. D., 149 CAJORI, F., 149 CAREY, R. M., 38 Cassius, J., 125 CAN~NDISH, H., 128, 129 CELSIUS, 127 Centrifugal, acceleration, in tidal theory, 89 Force, in gravity formula, 135 Effect of moving ship on, 165 CHANDLER, S. C., 251, 263, 264 Chanderlerian period or motion, 91, 92, 254, 261, 263, 264, 271, 273, 274, 275 Chronograph, 159, 192, 226 CLAIRAUT, A. C., 135, 149 Clairaut's equation, 135, 146 CLARKE, A. R., 129, 131, 149 CLERKS, A. M., 241 Climate and displacement of pole, 265 CLOSE, C., 61, 67 Coast and Geodetic Survey Latitude, 250 Leveling, 220 Longitude work, 226 Pendulum apparatus, 155, 163 Triangulation, 198, 241 COBB, MARGARET C., 188

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280 Coincidence interval, 161 Colatitude, 245 COLUMBUS, 125 de la CONDAMINE, 127 CONRAD, V., 264 Contraction hypothesis, 201 Cotidal area, 25 Cotidal line, 24, 30, 94 Cotidal maps, 31, 95 COWIE, G. D., 200, 241 Crust of earth' See 'Earth DALBY, 1 30 DALY, R. A., 64, 67 DAR\VIN, G. H., 5, 12, 17, IS, 19, 92 37 42, 43, 47, 73, 79' 87 90 91, OO. 99 137, 149, 203, 253, 266, 267 Datum, geodetic, definition. 132 Leveling, 217, See also Sea level North American, 132, 2.30 DAUSSY, 61 D.~v~Es, E. R., 190 DAWSON, W. B., 12 DEFANT, A., 29, 35, 38, 39 Deflections of the vertical. See Vertical Degree, length, 126, 127 DELAMBRE, J. B. J., 128 DECAL NAY, 145 Density, assumption made in comput- ing isostatic compensation, 109 Difference, oceanic and continental areas, 107 Earth. See Earth Depth of compensation, definition, 112 Depth of ocean, maximum, 104 Dixon, 128 DOODSON, A. T., 19, 20, 26, 27, 38, 39, 43, 48, 49, 61, 62, 67 DOWNING, 249 MUTTON, C. E., 119, 122, 201 DYSON, F. W., 264 Earth Crust, 103 Constitution, 10;7 Definition, 113 Density, 77, 107 Density, laws, 148 Movement of, 245 FIGURE OF THE EARTH Earth Continued Fllipticity (flattening), 127, 128 129. 132, 137, 144, 145, 148 Lunar. methods for determining' 143 Figure of, 105, 202 Arab determination of, 125 Definition of, 113 Determination by gravity observ;~- tions, 134, 153 Creels ideas about, 123 Medieval ideas about, 125 Flattening. See Ellipticity Movements, 118 Rigidity, 6, 72 75, 77, 10i, 270 272 Shape and size, 123 Size, history, 123 " Solid," tidal rise and fall 68 Sphericity, doctrine of. 125 Tides, 12, 68 Geological conditions, effect of, ~ 6 Measurements, 16 Period. 69 Primal y. 12 68 Secondary or indirect. 12 68, t`5 lfffect of local conditions on 7.5 Viscosity effect, 273 Earthquakes, effect on variation of latitude, 264 Etches, J., 48 ECKHARDT, E. A., 200, 228, 241 EHLERT, R., 79 Elastic, definition of, 113 Elevations, determination of, 212 Extreme, 104, 212 Ellipsoid, 131, 136 See also Spheroid Ellipsoid of reference, international, 132 Energy of earth, 82, 84, 85 Dissipation of, 82, 83, 92 95 Eotvos, balance, 167, 170, 177 E:otvos (C. G. S. unit), definition of, 181 Eotv~is, differential, 168 Eotv~is gradient, formula for, 177 EOTVGS, R. von, 167, 183, 188 Equilibrium. See also Isostasy Interior of earth, 148, 246 Equilibrium tide, 22 F,quinoxes, precession of, 147

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^) ~- form of, 1~ Baa ~o Levy surfaces E~TOSTUE~ES, 124 ESC[~GO~, F~ 39 arm, L., 24T, 24S, 251 [uleri~D period ~ motion, 7T, 234, 203, 270, 271 [alas, 47 EVE, COLONEL, 101 Everest want, 1 Fan structure, 207 ~6 ~ ~ ~ ~ Feder~1 Board of Surveys add ~ups, OF ~ ~10 FAKES, a., 188 Few, We 5, 17, 19, 20, 30, 30, 40> 47, 01, 02 [ICHOT, a., 37 FIBCUER, a. C? 134, 198 FISHER, O ~ 202 FISKE, JOHN, 150 Flash apparatus, 157 Flattening. 3~ E~rtb, ellipticity Fl~ure, 15?, 1~ Flog, ~hcrustu1 or underground, 105, 116, 2~, 208 FORD8AY, W. H., 188 F-~9OIS, Cab 166 FRE~CU, O . B ., 200 Friction, tidal, S1, 273 CALBIS ~ RODRIGGEZ, J., 106 amp, H. C., 16, 74, 76, 7S, SO, 270 Ceodesy, definition, 113 ~ 1~ Ceod~ic datum, 132 CeodeOc instruments, 191 geodetic position, dehnition, 113 geographic poshioD Astronomical determination, 221 Det~miDabon ok 221 geodetic methods, determination by, Ban Ceoid, definition, 113 Relation to spheroid, 112, 138~ 228 geologic structure, enact OD Travis, 111, 187 TIC t geology, problems 201 CEORCE,, P. W., 189 CODING, 127 COLDSBOROGGH, O. R., 27, 28, 37, 38 Amp., J. B., 241 gradient, gravity 172, 177, 180, 184, 186 O^VR~tion, dedniGon, 113 Absorption, 183 Cr~vit~tion~1 ConstuDt, constancy of , oo 100 Cr~vit~tion~, geld, 108, ~0 Travis Absolute value, 153 Anomalies, 110 Cb~r~cteH~ics, 143 Perdition, 113 Ceologic structure add, 187 ~ ~ hi, 1 Relation to iso~sy, 203 Size, 111 Apparatus, 1S4 Base stupor, 1~ Bats, determination of hours of earth try, 134 Acts, iso~tic reduction, 1 eEDihon, 113 Determination, 151, 137 Absolute, 152 Errors, 139 Flexure observations, 137, 160> 102 Precision of, 139 Restive, 133 Sea, 163, 1G4 Topography, erect of, 181 E3tvOs torsion balance, 107 Formula, 111, 134, 136 Topographic edects, 109 Pnit of measurement, 184 ~ at, 1~ Greek ideas Abut the azure of the wry, 123 CREEL, C., 36 CLEAN=, 17 CLIL#G ~E, 232 COLDER, 233 HAASE~A~ a, L ., 1 60 MAID, ~ ., 7g HulDtide levet 01 Ham, J., 117, 122

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282 Harmonic analysis, 41, 74 Harmonic prediction Of tides, 44 HARRIS, R. A., 5, 17, 18, 31, 33, 37, 41, 48, 52, 67 STANFORD, J. F., 114, 131, 150 HECKER, o., 74, 79 lIElLAND, C. A., 189 HETSKANEN, w., 86,94,99, 114, 132, 150 Heliotrope, 196 HELMERT, F. R., 131, 134, 136, 150, 220, 249, 253 HERGLOTZ, G., ~ 1, 79 HF~RSCHED, 206 HESSEN, Hi.' 43, 48, 61 HILLs, 264 HODGSON, c. V., 221, 242 HONDA, 1 8 HOSKINS, L. M., 71, 79 HOSMER, G. L., 200, 242 HOUGH, s. s., 5, 26, 27, 3 HUNTER, J. G., 150 HUYGENS (HUYGHENS), c.' 126, 151 HYRAYAMA, s., 48 Iced-bar apparatus, 231 Instruments, geodetic, 191 Interferometer, for pendulum apparatus, 157 :I?or earth tides, ~ 5 International Astronomical Union, 225, 255, 277 International Geodetic and Geophysical Union, 225, 241, 255, 277 International Geodetic Association, 241, 250 International Latitude Service, 79, 249, 257, 261, 268, 269, 274 Invar, 160, 191, 194, 232 de l'Is~E, R., 48 Isostatic adjustment, definition, 113 Isostatic anomaly, 110 Isostatic compensation, 109, 128 Definition, 113 Depth, 103, 107 Minimum area, 103, 110, 116 Isostatic equilibrium, 103, 137, 203 Definition, 113 Isostatic level, 207 Isostatic reduction, 108, 111 FIGURE 0E TI-IE EARTH Isostasy, 103, 137, 203, 240 Airy's conception of, 106, 118, 120 Definition, 103, 116 Disturbance of, 206 Geological thought, influence on, 116 History, 105 Pratt's conception of, 105, 106, 110, 118 JADELRIN, 231 .JI3FERF~YS, H., 38, 39. 61 67, 71, 78, 79. 83, 86, 91, 96, 99, 114, 117, 122, 260, 272, 273 Jot Y. 66 JONES, H. S., 14~; JONES, J. H., 146, 190 JOR.DAN, NAT., 220 MARCHER, J. C., 228 T(ATER, H., 152 I\ELVIN, LORD. See THOMSON, SIR ANT. KIMURA, E., 263, 269, 277 Kimura term, 269 KING, E. S., 265 KRUGER, L., 131, 149 HUSTLER, 249, 250 LACAILLE. 1 28 LALLEMAND, C., 220 LAMB, H5, 21, 25, 26, 37, 38, 253 L,LMBER.T, W. D., 5, 12, 16, 68? 80, 81. 99, 123, 150, 245, 254, 264, 268, 275 Lamp, signal, 196 LAscAsTER-Jo~xE`s, E., 188, 189 LAPLACE, P. S., 4, 90 26, 27, 36, 73, 130, 148 Laplace stations' 130 Laplace's principle, 20 Laplace's problem, 26 Lapland, geodetic work in, 127 LARMOR, J., ~ 6, 80, 203. 264 Latitude, 221 Astronomical, 245 Definition, 112, 245 Determination of, 222 Geocentric, 136 Geodetic, 113 Geographic, 136 Reduced, 136 Seismic creep, effect of, 245 Tide-producing forces, effect of, 246

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INDEX Latitude-Continued Variation of, 79, 97, 224, 245, 254 Astronomical significance, 274 Earthquakes, effect of, on, 264 Euler's discussion, 247 Geophysical significance, 270 Observations, 250, 254, 257 LEGENDRE, 148 LE MONNIFR, 127 LENTZ, H., 17 Level, 198, 212 Leveling Accuracy of, 217 Classification of, 214 Trigonometric, 220 Leveling instruments, 198 Leveling methods, 212 Leveling rod, 199, 213 Level net, adjustment of, 216 Fundamental, 216 Level surface, 135, 215 Distortion, 168 Liver, 5 Lout, J., 253 Longitude, 221 Definition, 112 Determination of, 225 Differences of, determination of, 130 Geodetic, 113 Radio time signals, determination by, 228 Telegraph determination by, 226 LOVE, A. E. H., 71, 74, 80 LUBBOCK, J., 5, 43, 61 McL~xTocx, N\. F. P., 189, 190' MARCUSEl, 250 MARMER, H. A., 17, Id, 50, 67 MASON, 128 M.\TSUXAMA, M., 269 MAUPERTIUS, 127 MAXWELI,, J. C., 90, 249 Mean sea-level, 217, 272 Definition, 50 Determination, 64 Geodetic, 50 Geographic 50 Slope of, 219 Surface, 66 Variation of, 218 283 MEINESZ, F. A. V., 111, 139, 163, 164, 165, 166 Meinesz apparatus, 164 MEISSNER, O., 79 Mendenhall apparatus, 154 MENDENHALT-, T. C., 154, 166, 206 MICHELSON, A. A., 16, 74, 76, 78, 80, 157, 233, 270 Micrometer, impersonal, 226 Micrometer microscope, 197, 234 MILLER, A. H., 114 Mo~ToR, D., 220 Moon, Figure of, 146 Origin, 96 Parallax, 143 Recession from earth, 85, 98 Tides, effect on, 6 MORSE, :E?., 200 Motion, equation A, 21, 253 Mountain peals, elevation of, 220 Mountain ranges, cause of elevation, 117 Mountains, roots, 118 MUELER, Q., 150 NANSEN, :F., 114, 121, 122 Neap-tides, 7 NEwcoMs, S., 249, 251, 252, 263, 27Q ~ EWTON, I., 3, 36, 126, 143 NOMITSU, T., 63, 67 North Sea, tides in, 32 NUMEROV, B., 190 Mutation, Eulerian, 249 See also Eulerian period NYREN, 249 Oceans, ~ Enclosed, tidal motion in, 25 Mobility, effect on motion of pole, 251, 271, 272 Tidal friction in, 83 Zonal, tidal motion in, 28 OKAMOTO, M., 63, 67 OETAY, K., 186, 190 ORDNANCE SURVEY, 220 ORI~OFF, A., 74, 80 Orthometric correction, 215 ORTT, F. L., 61, 67 Oscillation, center of, 152

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2S4 PAL~ER, H. R., 13 FARKUCRST, ~. [., 191, 200 ~ C~ 1 PeDdulum, Compound, 131 I]ummy, 136 Horizont~t 73 ID#~G 160 Inv~riu~le, 133 l{Dife edge for, 136 Retsold, 1~2 Iteversible, 152 PODOP19iP, 121 Ferturb~tions, lun~r. Ser [~rth, cUip . . tlclty Peru, (coJetic ~ork i~, 127 PETE~ C. A. F~ 249 PE]~:RS, B., 39 PHAFF, 49 F8E~ISTER, J~ 189, 190 Pbysic~l geogrupLy, problems of, 201 PICARD, 126 PIZET]], F., 139, 130 Plu~ic, dehnition of, 113 Plasticity, 90 P[c~tion, system~tic, 20S, 210 PLI~Y IOF [L~, 4 numb line. ~a~ Ve~icu1 FOI~CAR(, I1~ 3, 2S, 37 Annuu1 componeDt, 237, 262 14-montb (Cb~ndeH~D) component, 236, 203 Observed, 237 Tbeoretic~1 curve, 235 P~r Oceun, tidsJ motioD iD, 27 Folc, ~ )4otion, oLserved, 257 )4otion, periods in, 268 )Totion, seculur, 20S Sh~ting, hypotb~4s of, 97, 266 Pole of Egure (Pole of inertiu),232,25S, 2~9, 263 Pole of rotiLon, 252, 255 POLLAK, L. W., 268 Fosidon, ~stronomic~l, 112 [~or~ 228 Ceodetic, 113, 229 CeogrupLic, 221 FotenG~l, lTe~toDi~n, 13S, 176, 184, 213 P=TT, J. B. (A=8DEACO~), 10?, 100 107, 114, 113) 118, 122, 128, 203 Precession of tbe equinoxe~. Sca E~rtb, e-~# Predi~ion of hdes, 43 FRESTO~, 206,230 Primo v~~t dehnidon, 113 DO~CCUOD, 130 PROUD~A~, J., 2S, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 48 PRZBYLLO~, E~ 78, 80, 269, 272, 273, 274 PTOLE~Y, C ~ 124, 123 PLT~, C. R~ 113 PYIHAGO~ 123 PYTHEAS OF )~ASSILIA, 4 (RichtEruft) v~lDe, 170, lS0, 18) R^DAP, R., 148, 130 R^PSCUELB.\CH, I1., 48, 49 ~, ~ VOD REBECR OCR for page 279
INDEX Sea-level, Mean, 50 Variation in, 51, 219 Causes of, 60 Versus half-tide level, 51 Seas, shallow, tidal friction in 83, 92 96 Seismic creep, study by tr iangulation 241, 245 SHAW, H., 188, 189 SHIDA, T., 269 Signal lamp, 196 de Sentry, M:., 144, 145, 148 149, 266 So, 125 Spheroid definition of. 114 Difference between spheroid and cl- liE'soid, 130 Effect of changes on triangulation 132 SI>IT.~LER, R., 260 Spring tides, 6 von STERNECK, GE~TEIR.~L R. D154, 166 von Sternecl~ pendulum al~-'aratus, 169 STERNECK, R., 29, 31, 33, 37, 38, 39, 48, 94, 95 STETSON, H. T., 79, 80, 269 STOKES, G. G., 5, 135, 138, 139, 150 Stoles' theorem, 138, 140 STRABO, 124 STREET, R. O., 73, 80 Strength, differentiated fr om r igidity, 117 SVERDRUP, H. U. 39 S\VAIN, L., 2G, 38 S\VICK, C. H151, 166 Svzv~v 81 ~ v - A, TAT, P. G. 23, 72 T.~LCOTT, 222, 250, 254 Talcott's method, 222, 254 Tape gauge, 13 Tapes, 194, 231 THOR, G. 1., 33, 38, 83, 94, 99 Telescope transit, Carolyn, 222 Telescope, transit instrument, 102, 193 198 Telescope, zenith, 222 Theodolite, 197, 227, 234 Tno~Psox, MA. NV., 63, 67 THOMSON, SIR W., (LORD KELVIN), 5, 6. 19, 23, 26, 36, 37, 42, 46, 47, 72, 253 266 280 THOR.\DE, H., 39 Tidal day, 51 Tidal friction, 81, 273 Tidal motion, equation of:, 21 Tidal records, Harmonic analysis, 41 Non-harmonic reduction 40 Tidal theory, 19 History, 3 Tide gauges, 13 Tide staff, 13 Tidc-producing forces, effect on lati- tude, 246 Effect on rotation, 88 Tides, Com~.~tation, 40 ~ , Dynamical theories, 19 Equilibrium theory 23 I;,quilibrium type, 68 Friction, effect of, 81, 273 General characteristics, 6 Harmonic analysis, 41 Harmonic prediction, 44 History, 3 Instruments for observatiol:l 13 Moon, effect of, 6 Non-harmonic prediction, 43 Prediction, 40 Shallow water, 46 Types of, 7 Time determination, 192 Observation, 925 TISSERAND, F., 253 Toise, definition, 126 " Of Peru," 127 Topography, definition of, 114 Torsion balance, Eotvos, Fundamental formula, 180 Theory, 167 Towers, signal, for triangulation. 234. 235 Transit, instrument, 191, 193, 225 Transit micrometer, 192 Triangulation, 229 Accuracy, 240 Adjustmen+, 237 Classification, 236 Computation 132 Definition, 114

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it. 286 Triangulation Continued Instruments, 194 Scientific uses, 239 Seismic creep, study of, by, 241, 246 Station tablet, 237 Turbulence, water, 81 TURNER, H. H., 22, 73, 79 FIGURE OF THE EARTH VAN BERESTEYN, M. H., 48 VAN DER STOW, J. P., 37, 48 VERON NET, 148 Vertical, changes in direction of, 245 Definition, 112 Deflection of, 105, 110, 127, 129, 144, 2067 229, 240 Residual, 113 Viscosity, elastico, definition, 90 Of earth. See Earth Of subcr~st, 207 Of water, 81 Volcanic action, causes, 201 TANACH, B., 255, 257, 259, 261, 263, 268, 276 Water, coefficient of viscosity, 81 NN! ELBSTER, A. G., 249 ~ EGEMANN, G. 37 SECEDER, A., 61, 245 NAi egener's hypothesis, 245, 274 TVHEWE=, Hi., 5, 30, 36 NA! MITE, D., 115 TVIECHERT, E., 137, 150 Mind, effect on sea-level, 61 ~ ITTING, 61 Y.\MAMOTO, M., 269, 270 YULE, G. U., 2B4 Zenith telescope, 193, 222 . .~