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230 THE LIFE SCIENCES The pattern of these moves is of interest in itself. Although institutions of higher learning were the principal source of those who entered the employ of the federal government, private industry, and other organizations, in a general way each employing entity in the system also tended to recruit from other institutions in the same category. For example, 36 percent of all those in private industry had been employed by a different corporation, and 19 percent of those now working for an independent hospital or clinic had previously worked for some other independent hospital or clinic. Two thirds of those who had moved to an institution of higher learning had come from another such institution. Of the remainder, 13 percent had left the federal government, 5 percent private industry, 5 percent other nonprofit organizations, and 8 percent various other state and community institutions. Perhaps the major surprise in these data is the fact that, ignor- ing graduate and postdoctorate education, institutions of higher learning appeared to be a net importer of scientific employees. Whereas 1,750 individuals whose previous employers had been nonacademic institutions currently were employed by the universities, only 1,260 individuals cur- rently employed by nonacademic institutions had previously been employed by universities or colleges. Respondents to the questionnaire were not queried about their motivation in accepting offers of new positions. It may be assumed that these were responses to offers of higher pay, of opportunity to engage in independent research or research under more desirable conditions, or to locate in geo- graphical areas attractive to the families of the scientists concerned. PREVIOUS EDUCATION OF WORKING LIFE SCIENTISTS In the foregoing summary, the initial training of working life scientists was categorized in disciplinary terms that are familiar as the titles of academic departments and that are employed in most statistical collections. How- ever, the reader who has considered earlier chapters will have recognized that these conventional subdisciplinary titles have, in considerable measure, lost their meaning and convey false distinctions. Whereas biochemists were formerly concerned largely with elucidation of metabolic maps, they may today be concerned with macromolecular structure, the chemistry of cell- cell recognition, or the phenomena responsible for atherosclerosis. Not so long ago, microbiologists were overwhelmingly concerned with the taxonomy of microbiological forms, yet today they may be concerned with genetic mechanisms or the nature of the immune response to invasion by some specific organism. Hematologists, who only yesterday were describing

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THE WORLD OF BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 231 changes in the morphology of blood cells in leukemia as seen with a light microscope, are now intimately involved in understanding the manner in which nucleic acids control the differentiation process among white blood cell types. Physiologists, who formerly engaged in studies of the mechanics of muscular contraction or morphological changes induced by steroid hor- mones, are today inquiring into mechanisms of transmembranal transport or the molecular events by which steroid hormones affect protein biosyn- thesis in receptor cells. Botanists, once engaged in taxonomic studies or in gross plant physiology, are today concerned with the phenomena by which plants interact with other organisms and with their environment, the cardinal aspects of ecology, while zoologists may be concerned with all those aspects of the environment that have favored rapid proliferation of new species in one set of circumstances or remarkably prolonged survival, unchanged, of other species, studies that embrace all aspects of ecology, genetics, biochemistry, and physiology. Even more dramatic have been the changes in the character of research in clinical medicine, pathology, and pharmacology. Investigators in these areas have learned to use the most recent developments in understanding such phenomena as protein structure, enzyme kinetics, transmembranal transport, neural transmission, immuno- chemistry, viral reproduction, lipid metabolism, and behavioral genetics as they explore disease mechanisms in man or animals, design and test new drugs, or prepare a patient for organ transplantation. And their laboratories cannot be distinguished from those of other scientists so engaged. Because of these rapidly evolving and profound trends, it appeared de- sirable to reconsider individual scientists, not under classical disciplinary labels, but in relation to the nature of the research conducted during their initial formal education in graduate school and in relation to the research in which they are currently engaged. That two individuals are studying cellular structure and function is more significant than that one considers himself a zoologist and the other a botanist. The plant pathologist may have more in common with an animal pathologist than with a plant taxonomist, and similar considerations are obvious for plant and animal physiologists, or for plant, animal, and microbial geneticists, for example. Thus, we have found it useful to recategorize life sciences research into the following dozen classifications: Behavioral biology Cell biology Developmental biology Disease mechanisms Ecology Evolution and systematic biology Genetics Molecular biology and biochemistry Morphology Nutrition Pharmacology Physiology

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THE WORLD OF BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH It will be evident that even these categories are somewhat arbitrary and are by no means mutually exclusive. They fail to make clear the fact that biochemistry, a research area itself, is also the common language and the tool for almost every other entry in the classification scheme. However, the questions being asked of nature by scientists within each category are sufficiently distinct to permit self-identification by our respondents, while providing a more revealing description of the life sciences endeavor than that offered by more traditional disciplinary titles. Tables 9 and 10 summarize the current research areas of some of our respondents, comparing their current areas of involvement with the dis- ciplines and research areas in which they had been trained as graduate students. As a consequence of an awkwardness in the design of the layout of the printed questionnaire, almost a quarter of all respondents failed to provide information concerning the research fields, as here categorized, in which they had been trained and in which they are currently engaged. However, as indicated in Appendix A, it appears fair to assume that the patterns revealed by those who did not overlook this question are repre- sentative of the total. As indicated by the diagonal of Table 9, current research in any given area is conducted predominantly by individuals who were trained in that area, varying from 49 percent of those currently engaged in behavioral biology to 85 percent of those working in genetics. Equally impressive, however, is the degree of intellectual migration among research fields. Thus, 48 percent of all those trained in morphology are now engaged in some other area, as are 39 percent of those originally trained in cell biology, 33 percent of those trained in developmental biology, and 30 percent of those trained in physiology. Maximum field retention was found among those trained in pharmacology, ecology, genetics, and molecular biology and biochemistry. Perhaps the most striking fact shown by the table is that every possible crossover was reported. Noteworthy, too, are the fields that, on balance, have either attracted more investigators than they have lost, or vice versa. The "gainers" include molecular biology and biochem- istry, behavioral biology, cellular biology, disease mechanisms, ecology, and pharmacology. The most significant "losers," in absolute numbers rather than percentages, were genetics, morphology, nutrition, and physiology, with developmental biology and systematic biology remaining approxi- mately in balance. Many biologists currently consider that there has been a rapid growth in the opportunities for fruitful studies in behavioral and developmental biology and in ecology. But these data indicate that, although there has been some modest influx into these fields, it is not yet particularly striking,

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THE WORLD OF BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH although graduate enrollments have been affected in the predicted direc- tions. Moreover, the changes are generally immediately lateral in the sense that most of those who have changed research areas have moved into areas in which they can apply the skills and insights of their primary training. This is most certainly the case for the 184 of 287 individuals who left molecular biology and biochemistry to enter upon studies in cellular biology, disease mechanisms, pharmacology, or physiology, as it must also be true for the. 317 individual who left nhvsiolo~v to enter other biological cate ^~^ ~ _ ~ I ^~^ ~ ^~^ - '' ^~ r J DO gorles. Only 741 scientists were sufficiently certain of their plans to change re- search areas in the future to so indicate. And again, the planned changes were, in the main, relatively conservative (Table 11) and into closely related areas, e.g., molecular biology to genetics, genetics to molecular biology, physiology to pharmacology, botany to ecology. Molecular biology will be the chief gainer (19 percent of all who plan to change), largely from cellular biology and physiology. However, it will lose a slightly larger number (20 percent), mainly to cell biology, developmental biology, and disease mechanisms. Disease mechanisms attracts the second largest group (15 percent), largely from among those now engaged in cellular biology, biochemistry, and physiology, while developmental biology also seems attractive to tliose in the same group of research areas (12 percent). The survey revealed a particularly interesting trend. Some ecologists indicated plans to enter behavioral biology, while a significant number of physiolo- gists and students of disease were seriously considering switching to ecology. Moreover, the perhaps not unexpected conservative migratory pattern Is again evident from the responses of life scientists who intended to change the biological material with which they were working. In a general way, those now seriously contemplating such a change are, in the main, thinking of switching either to the next higher or the next lower level of biological organization, e.g., from broken cell preparations to cells or tissue culture or to molecular systems; or from intact organs to either intact organisms or cellular preparations. Table 12 relates research areas to the principal employers of the 8,139 individuals for whom such information is available. Of this subset, insti- tutions of higher learning employed 68 percent, the federal government 14 percent, industry 9 percent, and all other nonprofit organizations, hos- pitals, etc., 9 percent. Noteworthy are the high levels of employment by the federal government of those studying ecology and disease mechanisms; the government shows much less interest in developmental biology, mor- phology, and pharmacology. Private business employs an unusually high fraction of all nutritionists and pharmacologists, but appears to have little interest in ecology, systematic biology, or morphology.

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238 THE LIFE SCIENCES - o - Ct o a: - ;^ En Ct Cal sit Cal Cal o ._ U. o - Ct = Cal C) - o o - 'L4 U. .~ Fin v - Z O Z _ 4) o ~L) Ct U) ._ P ~ m ~O ~ ~ t 1o . 4~ Coo, _ == ~ ~ e_ U,.o Z p, o Ct 0 a _ 1 _ C, ~ 0 ~ U _ C dV _ ~ ~ :~ 0 ~ X ~ ~ E" ~ O E~ z ~ ~ oK ~ ~; ~ 1 ~ 1 mm - ~1 1 1 ~~ ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~oo ~ ~ oo ~oo ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ oo ~- ~ ~1 ~ 1 ~ 1 - 1 ~1 1 . Io ~ ~ ~ \0 1 oo ~_, 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 1 1 1~ I ~' ~ t- ~ ~ ', ~ ~ x ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 _1 1 o U) C~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o U) ~ ~ ~ oo o ~ _ - , c`] ~. ~_ ~ 0N ~ ~ t- 00 ~ ~ t- ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~1 _ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ u, 0\ ~ O ~oo r~a ~ ~ ~ O oo ~ u, _ U) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~oo _ _4 c ~o, ~ ~ ox ~ ~ ~oo ~ ~ o o ~o ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~_ _ - ) ') _0 ~ ~_ _~ __. r ~_ ~ _ - ~0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ _ ~ ~ 00 ~ 0 ~4 ~ ~ ~ ~ __ U)V) ~so _~ _ u~ r~ __ oo~ 0 ~ r~ 0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 ~ oo ~ ~ _ o~ kD ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo 0 U) oo ~ _ ~ ~U) ~ _ ~ ~ ~n _ _ _ _ _ _. ~ ~ ~ ~ ' `~, r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z ~ ~ ~ =~ 5 ~ O E ~ U3 C~ o C~ U, ._ ~U' C ~C,) ._ U, _ _ , >. - =: C~ - c`5 O U) _ o ~L) oc ~ c ~ - ~ ~ o . - OCD CO ~L) ~ ~ c~ c~ .c .4,) c c) ~ ~ - o o , :~ ~ ~ c ct ~ ~3 O ~ 'e - O ~ c . - o c ct c) z ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~n o C)-~ Q- - c - cn.O .~ 'e~ - . - c~ ~ c) - c~) o cI, - o .3 13 ~- c >~> ~ o cL, ~ o > ~D ct ~ u~ u~ cn cD c) ~ ~ c) - - ~ c) 5:: ~ ~ v~