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CHAPTER FOUR THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE S CIEN CES The present studies, which revealed a wealth of detail descriptive of the life sciences endeavor in academic institutions, are insufficient to charac- terize research in the life sciences in private industry, nonprofit research institutes, or government laboratories. This is a consequence of a number of circumstances: the greater ease of identification of academic institutions, their departments, and individual academic investigators; the diversity of organizational forms in both industry and government, which make it diffi- cult to identify the equivalent of an academic "principal investigator"; the difficulty of locating industrial laboratories that employ significant numbers of research-performing biological scientists; and the fact that most previous statistical compilations have focused on academia. Our studies have also provided a more complete picture of life in schools of arts and sciences and agriculture and a clearer picture of the preclinical component of medical schools than of clinical departments. Thus, our pair of questionnaires located approximately equal numbers of preclinical and clinical academic faculty, yet the latter are known to comprise 69 percent of total medical faculty. The very nature of our questionnaires, with their emphasis on elements of graduate education, undoubtedly discouraged responses from numbers of clinical investigators and chairmen of clinical departments. And the task of completing the chairmen's questionnaire might well have appalled the chairmen of some very large clinical depart 278