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FUTURE OF THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES 351 increases in graduate student enrollments between fiscal year 1968 and fiscal year 1972. It is unlikely that the increment will be realized. From the aggregated responses of the department chairmen, an increment of about 20 percent in the total life sciences faculty of all universities appeared to be required to meet the demands of such increased enrollments. Figure 38 summarizes these needs by department title. In absolute terms, the largest faculty increases were specified by chairmen of departments of biology, biochemistry, and zoology; the percentage increment required, per depart- ment, varied from 8 percent in the agricultural sciences to 31 percent in pharmacology. Clinical department chairmen found expansion of the pre- Ph.D. population no problem, although they would take quite a different view toward the requirements for expansion of the medical student bodies. Seventy-six percent of all department chairmen also indicated that, to meet the projected fall 1971 enrollment, their departments would require an increment in available research space. However, two thirds of that increment, nationally, was already either under construction or in an ad- vanced planning phase. The public universities were in a somewhat better position than the private universities in this regard. The total estimated increment in space required by the aggregate of all reporting departments was 3,752,000 square feet, of which 2,537,000 square feet was either under construction or in a very advanced planning phase. There remained, there- fore, approximately 1.2 million square feet of laboratory space, ostensibly required by fiscal year 1972, which, in June of 1967, was not even in the planning phase. Assuming that our total sample embraced 60 percent of all eligible research-performing departments in the life sciences, and neglecting the clinical departments, it would appear that approximately 2 million square feet of space was required to meet the total anticipated increment in graduate student enrollment, which was, in 1967, not even in the planning phase. Assuming further that net usable space is approximately two thirds of each building, the gross square feet required would be 3 million, which, at $50 per square foot, would require $150 million in construction costs. The lag in the growth of graduate enrollments permits this time scale to be extended by about two years, after which either there will be serious overcrowding or qualified applicants to graduate school will have to be denied entrance. NATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS The data summarized above were collected from individual scientists and departments, all expressive of the needs perceived for furtherance of their

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FUTURE OF TlIE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES goals research and education in the life sciences. But it is insufficient to the national purpose to use these data as the exclusive basis for assessment of national needs or even for the development of biological disciplines. Thus, whereas very few scientists and fewer department chairmen cited a tropical station as a first-priority request, the future of tropical agriculture demands that a tropical terrestrial or terrestrial-marine station be available to qualified agricultural scientists and ecologists. No one scientist may feel that he can properly request a deep-submersible vehicle, yet this advancing technology can open a new scientific frontier, providing access to deep marine forms whose existence was unknown. Ecologists will require tracts of hundreds of acres of land near universities, near cities, and near indus- trial areas to be retained as ecological base lines or to be polluted and restored experimentally. As noted in Chapter 7, most biologists are satis- fied with their access to computer services. But when academic computer centers convert to operation on a use-time-charge basis, large numbers of biologists will find themselves short of the necessary funds to defray these costs. And as larger ecosystems are studied permitting mathematical modeling, as human pedigrees are collected, as human biology is more systematically examined using all the potentially linked data banks avail- able, as attempts at computer diagnosis of human ailments become more sophisticated as biologists loin with engineers and sociologists in planning --rid 7 ~ I- - ~ ~ _ _ _ ~ 1 1 1 _ _ 1 _ _ ! _, ~ ~ _ ~ _ _: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1; ~ ~ ~ { t h ~ new communities, as cell olOlOglslS acquire more un(lt;rs~allullly, o' ills multitude of controls that regulate the extraordinarily complex chemical life of a single cell, as communications theory, neuroanatomy, and physiology are applied in creating conceptual models of brain functioning, the require- ments of biologists for access to the largest, fastest computers must neces- sarily increase, perhaps by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these responses from working life scientists fail to indicate the unique and special requirements of specific federal or local mission agencies. These may include vessels and experimental hatcheries for the Bureau of Fisheries as it attempts to develop "fish factories" analogous to modern "chicken factories," control of an estuary or bay for experi- mental aquiculture by the Department of Agriculture, test facilities for the Atomic Energy Commission to assess the reality of "thermal pollution," a large policy-oriented environmental studies institute sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Interior, or any new agency concerned with environmental quality, the totality of biological sophistication and technology required for an effective program in the Na- tional Institute for Environmental Health, satellites for monitoring gross ecological effects by remote sensors, a manned orbiting laboratory to estab- lish the influence of lack of gravity on embryonic development, adult physi- ology, and circadian rhythms by the National Aeronautics and Space Ad 353

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THE LIFE SCIENCES ministration, adequate facilities for a sophisticated upgrading of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, facilities for study and control of the process of eutrophication by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, or a test facility wherein the Atomic Energy Commission could monitor the biological consequences of its capability to use nuclear explosives to gener- ate harbors. And surely some agency must explore means of coping with the mounds of chicken manure accumulating near every major "chicken fac- tory," as well as developing techniques for dealing with the ever-growing liquid- and solid-waste-disposal problems of our society. The Public Health Service will require more elaborate facilities for operating screens for prospective antitumor drugs and for quick identification of the endless procession of new viruses that spread through our population, while en- couraging the development of bioengineering both in-house and in the universities. And the Food and Drug Administration must acquire the com- petence and facilities for the chronic, low-dose examination of thousands of new organic compounds introduced into American society annually. The list is long, the needs are many, and the ultimate payoff in human welfare is beyond assessment. We have not completely discussed here all the problems of support for academic biology. We have spoken of the requirements for a vigorous research endeavor through the project-grant system. Equally important are the needs for support of the institutions in which this endeavor occurs, for support of the educational efforts of the life science departments, and for construction of new facilities. Our recommendations in these regards are offered in the Summary that begins this report. Museums One group of institutions, museums, was inadequately represented both in our sampling procedure and in the design of the questionnaires. Their sys- tematic collections of plants and animals are the only permanent record of the earth's biota, and the specialized libraries attached to these collections are the written record of the earth's natural history. The major systematics facilities are few in number; some are free-standing institutions, others are located at private or state universities. Systematic biology forms the basic framework and reference system for the study of all organisms. Many major systematics collections were begun and supported by wealthy private individuals. As patronage passed to governments and foundations, these collections were left bereft; they remained housed in nineteenth century buildings and became increasingly crowded as the collections grew. The National Science Foundation has become the only significant source of funds for this enterprise, but the level of funding is scarcely commensurate with the need.

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FUTURE OF THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES These collections are the laboratories of the systematist, and the earth's surface is his field station. The huge number of plants and animals render the task confronting the taxonomists and systematists overwhelming. This task would have been urgent even if man had not begun to change the earth's surface in such a way as to make the job of recording the biota and understanding the evolutionary web of life absolutely desperate. In too many areas of the globe, collections must be made within a generation, or it will be too late. In other areas, the materials already in the collections are the only testimony concerning the natural history of the region. If collections are not made now or in the near future, if the great systematics collections already in existence are to continue to deteriorate, then future generations of biologists will be denied the opportunity of understanding the biological evolution of planet Earth. Although the natural history of the Earth will never return to its state before the existence of man, an understanding of evolution, of the natural distributions of plants and ani- mals, and of their interrelationships are essential to man's well-being. As society becomes more complicated, the demand for knowledge con- ce~ning systematic biology becomes more acute. Yet systematic collections, although growing in size, have been deteriorating in quality for many decades. Constant use in the museums and herbaria plus a continuous exchange of materials for study by investigators throughout the world have eroded collections. Great collectors arid philanthropists have presented to this nation some of the greatest records of natural history, which have in recent times been treated with singular indifference. If we cannot retain undisturbed the various natural ecosystems of the world, at least we should preserve the records of their plant and animal communities. The financial needs of the systematics collections are relatively small compared to the sums currently spent for facilities in other branches of science. Yet the systematics collections consist of fragile, perishable ma- terials that cannot be replaced if damaged and that deteriorate when not cared for. A small questionnaire was sent to the directors of several major collec- tions who were asked three questions: What are the needs of your insti- tution for new buildings in order to house the collections for the next 10 years? What annual increase in support for curatorial work is required by your institution? What annual increase in support do you anticipate for research involving fieldwork to collect and for work with the collections? The replies from 25 institutions were as follows: TOTAL NEED FOR INCREASED SUPPORT ON ANNUAL BASIS NEW BUILDINGS - Curatorial Research Other $60 million $3 million $4 million $3 million

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356 ~ :-HE LIFE SCIENCES If one were to attempt to satisfy the needs of all major institutions not included in this survey, the total need might double. Universities, colleges, and other independent museums that possess smaller systematics collec- tions are nevertheless important for education of both students and the public. Hence, new buildings for all systematics facilities in the nation could cost $120 million over perhaps the next 10 years. But many of these collections are in buildings that have not been overhauled in decades and may be almost a century old. The major systematic biological collections are national assets and should be treated as such; many of them desperately need help now. In Conclusion The total cost of all these programs becomes a significant fraction of the gross national product. Some years ago, ~ distinguished committee that reviewed the programs and the billion-dollar operation of the National Institutes of Health ~ concluded that for no equivalent sum did the American people receive greater value. In the short interval since, biological science has made the equivalent of a quantum jump in understanding and experi- mental sophistication. Today, the life sciences are poised to explore the most arcane mysteries of life and, with the aid of only a moderate rate of increase in public support, they can attempt to provide a foundation for the measures required to counteract some of the oldest enemies of man- the diseases to which he is subject-to protect the quality of the environ- ment and the habitability of planet Earth, to assist in limiting the burden of an excessive human population, and to assure an adequate food supply for all. No guarantees can be offered in good conscience. But should the effort fail, it should not be for lack of trying. Today, as yesterday, it is difficult to imagine more noble goals or more appropriate use of public funds. For much of the endeavor the pace of progress will be determined by the gen- erosity of public support. But as, increasingly, the life sciences become "big science," then, as in the physical sciences, the magnitude of public funding will determine not merely the pace of progress but whether, indeed, there is to be progress. Biomedical Science and Its Administration' A study of the National Institutes of Health. A report of the NIH Study Committee to the President, February 1965. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.