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PANELS AND CONTRIBUTORS PANELS OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES Origins of Life NORMAN H. HOROWITZ, California Institute of Technology, C1`airn~an FRANK D. DRAKE, Cornell University STANLEY L. MILLER, University of California at San Diego EESElE E. ORGEE, The Salk Institute CARL SAGAN, Cornell University Molecular Biology SOL SPlEGELMAN, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Chairman K. C. ATWOOD, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons PAUL BERG, Stanford University School of Medicine EDWIN S. LENNOX, The Salk Institute CYRUS LEWNTHAE, Columbia University CHARLES A. THOMAS, JR., Harvard Medical School 520

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PANELS AND CONTRIBUTORS 521 The Materials of Life and Their Transformations HANS NEURATH, University of Washington School of Medicine, Chairman KONRAD E. BLOCH, Harvard University ERWIN CHARGAFF, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons EUGENE A. DAVIDSON, The Pennsylvania State University, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center BERNARD E. HORECKER, Albert Einstein College of Medicine DANIEL E. KOSHLAND, JR., University of California at Berkeley HENRY LARDY, University of Wisconsin, Madison Cellular and Subcellular Structure and Function DAVID M. PRESCOTT, University of Colorado, Boulder, Chairman BERNARD D. DAVIS, Harvard Medical School HARRY EAGLE, Albert Einstein College of Medicine MAURICE GREEN, St. Louis University School of Medicine GEORGE E. PARADE, The Rockefeller University HERBERT STERN, University of California at San Diego Developmental Biology JAMES D. EBERT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Chairman ALFRED ]. COULOMBRE, National Eye Institute MAC V. EDDS, JR., Brown University PAUL B. GREEN, University of Pennsylvania CLIFFORD GROBSTEIN, University of California at San Diego, Medical School WILLIAM S. HILEMAN, Brookhaven National Laboratory CLEMENT L. MARKERT, Yale University HEINRICH URSPRUNG, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Function of Tissues and Organs HORACE DAVENPORT, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, CI`airmar~ ROY O. CREEP, Harvard Medical School JOHN B. HANSON, University of Illinois, Urbana TERU HAYASHI. Illinois Institute of Technology ANTON LANG, Michigan State University WlEElAM G. VAN der KI OOT, New York University School of Medicine Anatomical Sciences DON W. FAWCETT, Harvard Medical School, Chairman DAVID BODIAN, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine MILTON HIEDEBRAND, University of California at Davis ARNOLD LAZAROW, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis RONALD SINGER, University of Chicago School of Medicine W. GORDON WHALEY, The University of Texas at Austin

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THE LIFE SCIENCES Structure and Function of the Nervous System STEPHEN KUFFLER, Harvard Medical School, Chairman ERIC R. UNDER, New York University School of Medicine and The Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York IRWIN A. KOPIN, National Institute of Mental Health VERNON B. MOUNTCASTEE, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine WALLE J. H. NAUTA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SANFORD L. PALAY, Harvard Medical School Behavioral Biology DANIEL S. LEHRMAN, Rutgers The State University, Newark, Chairman BENSON E. GINSBURG, University of Connecticut, Storrs DONALD R. GRIFFIN, The Rockefeller University PETER H. KEOPFER, Duke University CARL PFAFFMANN, The Rockefeller University KENNETH D. ROEDER, Tufts University ELIOT STELLAR, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine HANS-LUKAS TEUBER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ecology ARTHUR D. HASEER, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Chairman GEORGE A. BARTHOLOMEW, University of California at Los Angeles JOHN E. CANTEON, Michigan State University LAMONT C. COLE, Cornell University EDWARD S. DEEVEY, JR., Dalhousie University DAVID M. GATES, Missouri Botanical Garden RICHARD S. MIELER, Yale University FREDERICK E. SMITH, Harvard University KENNETH E. F. WATT, University of California at Davis Evolutionary Mechanisms and Population Biology JAMES F. CROW, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Chairman RICHARD C. EEWONTIN, The University of Chicago G. EEDYARD STEBBINS, University of California at Davis The Diversity of Life ERNST MAYR, Harvard University, Chairman RICHARD D. ALEXANDER, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor W. FRANK BLAIR, The University of Texas at Austin PAUL ILEG, University of Washington

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PANELS AND CONTRIBUTORS 523 BOBB SCHAEFFER, The American Museum of Natural History WILLIAM C. STEERE, The New York Botanical Garden Biological Science and the Production of Food and Fiber STERLING B. HENDRICKS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Chairman R. W. ALLARD, University of California at Davis F. N. ANDREWS, Purdue University, Lafayette NYLE C. BRADY, Cornell University THEODORE C. BYEREY, U.S. Department of Agriculture KARL MA^MOROSCH, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research JOHN L. MCHUGH, National Science Foundation WILLIAM T. S. THORP, University of Minnesota, St. Paul Biological Science and the Advancement of Medicine ~ JOHN B. HICKAM, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Chairman KARL H. BEYER, Merck Sharpe and Dohme Research Laboratories RICHARD O. BURNS, Duke University School of Medicine ALBERT H. COONS, Harvard Medical School BEN ElSEMAN, University of Colorado Medical School, Denver MARTIN GOLDBERG, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine DAVID A. HAMBURG, Stanford University School of Medicine NORMAN KRETCHMER, Stanford University School of Medicine IRVING M. LONDON, Albert Einstein College of Medicine KENNETH S. MCCARTY, Duke University School of Medicine MACLYN MCCARTY, The Rockefeller University CHARLES R. PARK, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine OSCAR D. RATNOFF, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine MADISON S. SPACH, Duke University School of Medicine DEEFORD STICKEE, Duke University School of Medicine LEWIS THOMAS, Yale University School of Medicine MAXWELL M. WINTROBE, University of Utah College of Medicine JAMES B. WYNGAARDEN, Duke University School of Medicine Human Development and Changes With Tinze ALBERT I. LANSING, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Chairman ROBERT A. ALDRICH, University of Washington School of Medicine ALBERT DAMON, Harvard University LEONARD HAYFElCK, Stanford University School of Medicine HEINZ HERRMANN, University of Connecticut, Storrs HOWARD C. TAYl OR, JR., Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons ~ Deceased.

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THE LIFE SCIENCES Biology and Industrial Technology ERNEST H. VOLWILER, Abbott Laboratories, Chairman ARNOLD O. BECKMAN, Beckman Instruments, Inc. OTTO K. BEHRENS, Eli Lilly and Company ROBERT D. COGHIEL, Stanford Research Institute KARL FOLKERS, The University of Texas at Austin CARL H. KRIEGER, Campbell Institute for Food Research EMIL M. MRAK, University of California at Davis J. R. PORTER, University of Iowa College of Medicine W. A. SKINNER, Stanford Research Institute JOHN A. ZAPP, JR., E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. Biology and Education DONALD KENNEDY, Stanford University, Chairman DONALD H. BUCKLIN, University of Wisconsin, Madison THOMAS ElSNER, Cornell University GARRETT HARDIN, University of California at Santa Barbara COEIN S. PITTENDRIGH, Stanford University HOWARD SCHNElDERMAN, University of California at Irvine Biology and Renewable Resources DAVID PIMENTEL, Cornell University, Chairman JOHN L. BUCKLEY, Office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President W. T. EDMONDSON, University of Washington JUSTIN W. LEONARD, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor GEORGE SPRUGEE, JR., Illinois Natural History Survey Biology and the Future of Man CURT STERN, University of California at Berkeley, Chairman THEODOSlUS DOBZHANSKY, The Rockefeller University RENE J. DUBOS, The Rockefeller University DAVID R. GODDARD, University of Pennsylvania JOSHUA EEDERBERG, Stanford University School of Medicine JAMES V. NEEL, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor FRANK W. NOTESTEIN, The Population Council ROGER REVELLE? Harvard Center for Population Studies The Role of Computers in the Life Sciences ALLEN NEWELL, Carnegie-Mellon University, Chairman G. OCTO BARNETT, Harvard Medical School JEROME R. COX? JR., Washington University School of Medicine MAX V. MATHEWS, Bell Telephone Laboratories BRUCE D. WAXMAN, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

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PANELS AND CONTRIBUTORS 525 Environmental Health NORTON NELSON, New York University School of Medicine, Chairman ROY E. ALBERT, New York University School of Medicine C. O. CHICHESTER, University of California at Davis THEODORE F. HATCH, University of Pittsburgh HAROLD C. HODGE, University of Rochester School of Medicine J. CARRELL MORRIS, Harvard University JAMES L. WHITTENBERGER, Harvard University JOHN A. ZAPP, JR., E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. Biology and National Defense H. ORIN HALVORSON, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Chairman STEPHEN ALDRICH, Central Intelligence Agency TRA E. BALDWIN, University of Wisconsin, Madison JOHN H. DINGLE, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine DAVID E. GOLDMAN, The Medical College of Pennsylvania RIEEY D. HOUSEWRIGHT, United States Army INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS TO LIFE SCIENCES STUDY J. RALPH AUDY, University of California at San Francisco JOHN E. BARDACH, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHARLES F. COOPER, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JARED J. DAVIS, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission MERRIEE ElSENBUD, New York University School of Medicine EDWARD V. EVARTS, National Institute of Mental Health STEPHEN GLICKMAN, University of California at Berkeley LESTER GOODMAN, National Institutes of Health JAMES DANIEL HARDY, Yale University Medical School WALTER S. HOPKINS, U.S. Department of Agriculture ROBERT F. INGER, Field Museum of Natural History EDWARD F. KMPEING, U.S. Department of Agriculture SEYMOUR J. KRESHOVER, National Institute of Dental Research ROBERT C. LASIEWSKI, University of California at Los Angeles M. J. LAVOlPlERRE, University of California at Davis RICHARD E. MAREAND, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare JAMES MCCARROEE, University of Washington RICHARD L. RILEY, The Johns Hopkins University JOHN E. ROSS, University of Wisconsin, Madison CURTIS W. SABROSKY, U.S. Department of Agriculture MICHAEL B. SHIMKIN, University of California at San Diego WlELIAM ALDEN SPENCER, New York University School of Medicine JAMES H. STERNER, The University of Texas at Houston EARL L. STONE, Cornell University DANIEE Q. THOMPSON, Cornell University JOHN WALDHAUSEN, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine JAMES G. WILSON, Children's Hospital Research Foundation

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THE LIFE SCIENCES COUNCIL ON BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES INFORMATION WILLIAM C. STEERE, The New York Botanical Garden, Chairman JOHN M. BROOKHART, University of Oregon Medical School, Portland VERNON BRYSON, Rutgers The State University, New Brunswick ~ FRED R. CAGEE, Tulane University LAMONT C. COLE, Cornell University MARTIN M. CUMMINGS, National Library of Medicine JOHN T. EDSALL, Harvard University SIDNEY R. GAINER, The Smithsonian Institution RALPH W. GERARD, University of California at Irvine H. BENTLEY GLASS, State University of New York at Stony Brook ROBERT E. GORDON, Notre Dame University KARL F. HEUMANN, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology THEODORE L. JAHN, University of California at Los Angeles FOSTER MOHRHARDT, National Agricultural Library PHYLLIS V. PARKINS, Biological Abstracts, Philadelphia ]. R. PORTER, University of Iowa, College of Medicine ROBERT E. STOWEEL, University of California School of Medicine, Davis F. PETER WOODFORD, The Rockefeller University RAYMOND L. ZWEMER, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Deceased.