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CONTENTS MAJOR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PROLOGUE RECOMMENDATIONS Population Problems, 10 The Environment, 1 l Health, 13 Agriculture, 15 The Academic Endeavor in the Life Sciences, 16 Institutional Support Programs, 16; Graduate Education in the Life Sciences, 18; Stipends, 20; Curricula, 21; Medical Students, 23; Technical Assistants, 24; Postdoctoral Education, 24; Research Support, 25; Federal Research-Supporting Agencies, 26: Specialized Facilities, 27; Instruments, 28; Computers, 28; Laboratories, 29 Museums, 30 Marine Biology Stations, 30 Biological Information, 3 1 10 X1

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Xii . CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE FRONTIERS OF BIOLOGY THE LANGUAGE OF LIFE The Genetic Material, 41 Protein Synthesis, 46 Self-Assembly, 51 THE LIFE AND TIMES OF A CELL The Energy for Cell Work, 54 Photosynthesis, 55 Metabolism, 59 Metabolic Pathways, 59; Metabolic Controls, 60; Active Transport, 64; Enzymes, 64; Subcellular Organelles, 67 Cell Division, 69 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORGANISM Development of the Nervous System, 74 Plant Embryogenesis, 75 Animal Viruses, 77 FORM AND FUNCTION Muscular Contraction, 81 The Constancy of the Milieu Interieur, 84 Endocrines, 89 Plant and Insect Hormones, 91 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The Neuron, 95 Signaling in Neurons The Transfer of Information. 95; Initiation of Impulse Activity at Sense Organs, 98 The Central Nervous System, 99 Small Brains, 100; Larger Brains, 102; Intercalated Systems: Homeostatic Regulation, 105 BEHAVIOR Evolution, Inheritance, and the Development of Behavior, 109 Physiological Analysis of Behavior, 110 Orientation and Homing, 111; Learning and Memory, 113 32 36 52 71 80 92 109

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CONTENTS xiii ECOLOGY Some Areas of Ecological Research, 116 Environmental Challenges to Individual Organisms, 116; The Abundance of Living Things, 117; Species Interactions, 119; Energy Flow in Ecosystems, 120; Stability and Diversity, 120 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION Population Genetics An Extension of Mendelism, 126 Cytogenetics, 128 Human Cytogenetics, 129 Polymorphism, 131 Some Recent Accomplishments, 131 THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE What is a Species?, 134 Origins of Species, 135 Origin of Higher Groups, 136 Extinction, 138 Diversity and the Conceptual Framework of Biology, 139 CHAPTER TWO BIOLOGY IN THE SERVICE OF MAN BIOEOGICAL RESEARCH AND MEDICAL PRACTICE The National Health, 144 Diagnosis, Disease, and Drugs, 144 Sulfonamides and Antimetabolites, 144; Antibiotics, 146; Viral Diseases, 150; Cancer Therapy, 151; Gout, 155; Genetic Diseases, 157; The Immune System, 160; Tissue Transplantation, 163; Cardiac Disorders, 164 Diuretics, 168 Population Control, 171 The Early and Latter Years of Life, 174 ON FEEDING MAN Crop Yields, 178 Genetics and Agricultural Practice, 178 Agricultural Practice, 181 Animal Science, 184 115 122 126 133 142 142 177

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XiV CONTENTS MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT Water Supplies, 189 Air, 191 Food and Drugs, 192 RENEWABLE RESOURCES Role of Science in the Management of Renewable Resources, 197 Principles of Management, 198 Environmental Management, 198 Agriculture, 198; Forestry, 199; Fisheries, 201; Wildlife, 203; Recreation, 206; Urban and Rural Development, 208 INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY Pharmaceuticals, 210 Food, 213 Pesticides, 213 Fermentation Industry, 217 Instrumentation, 218 CHAPTER THREE THE WORLD OF BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH WHERE LIFE SCIENTISTS WORK MOBILITY OF LIFE SCIENTISTS PREVIOUS EDUCATION OF WORKING LIFE SCIENTISTS POSTDOCTORAL TRAINING EDUCATIONAL LIMITATIONS WITH WHAT MATERIALS DO LIFE SCIENTISTS WORK? WITH WHAT SPECIES DO LIFE SCIENTISTS WORK? WHAT FACILITIES AND TOOLS DO LIFE SCIENTISTS USE? Specialized Biological Research Facilities, 253 Major Instruments, 256 188 195 210 220 223 229 230 239 245 245 248 252

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CONTENTS THE RESEARCH GROUP WHAT DO LIFE SCIENTISTS DO? FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES Utilization of Research Grants, 272 Research Support as a Function of the Investigator's Age, 273 RESEARCH INSTITUTES NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUMS BlOEOGICAL DISCIPLINES CHAPTER FOUR 257 261 264 275 275 276 THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES 278 ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS The Life Sciences Faculty, 283 Unfilled Faculty Positions, 284 Graduate Education in the Life Sciences, 286 Capacity of the Current Graduate Education System, 289; Student Stipends, 291 Postdoctoral Fellows, 293 Financing Postdoctoral Education, 293; Foreign Postdoctorals, 296; Foreign Interns and Residents, 299 Laboratory Space, 301 The Tools of Biological Research, 303 Specialized Research Facilities, 303; Utilization of Research Instru- ments, 306 MEDICAL SCHOOLS AS RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL ENTERPRISES Medical Students in Research, 313 AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS AS RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL ENTERPRISES 279 306 314 FINANCING ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES 316 Faculty Salaries, 319 xv

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XVI CONTENTS CHAPTER FIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FUTURE OF TEIE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES INDIVIDUAL SCIENTISTS Academic Scientists, 333 Nonacademic Scientists, 335 Personal Constraints on Research, 336 Specialized Facilities, 339 Instrumentation, 339 DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN Specialized Facilities, 340 Instrumentation, 341 Improvement and Expansion of the Academic Research Endeavor, 345 Expansion of the Graduate Education Endeavor, 349 NATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Museums, 354 In Conclusion, 356 CHAPTER SIX EDUCATION IN BIOLOGY ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION UNIVERSITY EDUCATION The Setting, 364 Undergraduate Curricula, 365 The Teaching of Biology, 368 Teaching as an Activity, 368; Rewards for Teaching, 369; New Methods of Teaching, 370; The Training and Retraining of Teachers, 371; Biology and Liberal Education, 372 Research Training: Graduate Education in the Life Sciences, 373 The Institutional System: Functions and Diversity, 373; The Stu dent Population: Size, Attrition, Location, 374; Financial Support of the Graduate Student and His Education, 375 Stipend Levels, 376; Diversity of Sources of Support, 376; Federal Support, 377; Cost of Education, 378 The Graduate Program, 379 Tl2e M.A., 379; Doctoral Training, 379 The Future of Graduate Programs, 380 Increasing PAD. Production, 380; Duration of the Doctoral Program, 381; Tile Relation betel een Student and Faclllt~ Sponsor, 3 82; Formal Training and "Cz~rricz~l~m" Exami nation, 382 332 333 340 351 357 360 364

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CONTENTS xvii CHAPTER SEVEN DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN THE LIFE SCIENCES GENERAL FACTS ABOUT COMPUTER USAGE THE STATE OF COMPUTER APPLICATION IN THE LIFE SCIENCES Extent of Use, 3 88 Types of Use, 391 Computer Use in Research Areas of the Life Sciences, 395 The Growth of Computer Usage, 395 Institutional Arrangements for Computer Use, 400 Funding of Computer Use, 401 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CHAPTER EIGHT COMMUNICATION IN THE LIFE SCIENCES SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN HANDLING BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION USERS OF BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION INFORMAL INFORMATION TRANSFER Meetings, 409 Informal Publications and Correspondence, 411 PRIMARY PUBLICATION The Journal, 412 New Forms of Primary Publication, 415 Future Forms of Primary Publication, 415 The International Literature, 416 REVIEW ARTICLES AND DATA COMPILATION SECONDARY IN FORMATION SERVICES Functions and Desirable Characteristics of a Secondary Service, 423 SPECIALIZED INFORMATION CENTERS LIB RARIES LOOKING FORWARD 385 385 388 402 405 407 408 408 411 419 423 424 425 426

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XViii CONTENTS CHAPTER NINE BIOLOGY AND THE FUTURE OF MAN THE NATURE OF MAN THE GREAT HAZARDS War, 428 Man and His Environment, 430 The Size of Human Populations, 436 Food Production: The Short-Term Problem, 439; Population Control: The Long-Term Problem, 441 Guarding the Genetic Quality of Man, 450 THE OPPORTUNITIES Biology and Medicine, 452 Molecular Diseases, 452; Infectious Diseases, 453; Transplantation and Artificial Organs, 455; The Ethics of Terminal Medical Care, 456; Genetic Diseases, 458; Regeneration, 459; The Delivery of Medical Care, 460 Early Environmental Ir~huences, 460 Controlled Sex Determination, 462 Differential Fertility, 463 Selection and the Variability of Man, 464 APPENDIX A METHODOLOGY: SURVEY OF INDIVIDUAL LIFE SCIENTISTS POPULATION SELECTION DATA ANALYSIS Definitions, 478 Constraints, 478 427 427 428 452 471 471 : DEFINITIONS AND TABULATION CONSTRAINTS 478 SUBCATEGORY LISTINGS REQUIRED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS 18 AND 19 VALIDITY OF THE RESPONDENT POPULATION 479 479

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CONTENTS xix APPENDIX B METHODOLOGY SURVEY OF ACADEMIC LIFE SCIENCE DEPARTMENTS SOURCE OF DEPARTMENTAL MAILING LIST POPULATION SELECTION Definition of a Department, 501 Exclusion Criteria, 501 DATA ANALYSIS Definitions and Coding Restrictions, 505 Special Definitions, 505 PANELS AND CONTRIBUTORS see see 501 501 520

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