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[and Use and Wi/~/ife Resources Committee on Agricultural Land Use and Wildlife Resources Division of Biology and Agriculture National R esearch Cou ncil NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Wash ington, D.C. 1 970

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This study was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture International Standard Book Number 0-309-0185 7-9 Available from: Printing and Publishing Office National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 70-607553 Printed in the United States of America

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Preface In 1965, at the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council undertook an assessment of the impact of current agricultural practices on wild- life resources. The Committee on Agricultural Land Use and Wildlife Resources, formed to carry out this assessment, focused its attention on two general objectives: ~ To evaluate the interrelations of agricultural land use and the pro- tection and production of wildlife and other natural resources. To examine areas of apparent conflict between the objectives of agriculture and wildlife management, with a view to what might be done through cooperative research, education, extension, and regula- tory programs toward their resolution. It soon became clear that land and water management are insepa- rable and that many of the most critical problems of wildlife are in- volved with the extent and quality of aquatic habitats. Thus wetlands and other areas are discussed in this report as they are affected by land-use practices. The treatment does not extend to the details of fisheries management, nor is pollution as such dealt with other than in connection with activities and operations on the watershed. As for pesticides, in view of several detailed studies elsewhere available, the present review is limited to a generalized interpretation of trends. The term wildlife is here used in a broad sense as it applies to verte- brate animals and, in particular, to those of social and economic in- terest. Emphasis is on mammals, birds, and fish as they have value for v

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Vl Land Use and Wildlife Resources sport, commercial, or esthetic reasons. Other forms of life are included as appropriate. The Committee acknowledges the contributions of Dr. Emmett L. Pinnell, University of Missouri, a member whose death in 1967 brought to premature end his efforts on behalf of the study. The Committee also expresses its appreciation for the continuing advice and assistance of a group of specialists who have provided valuable support during the study: Jack H. Berryman, USDI; Lawrence V. Compton, USDA; Frank C. Edminster, USDA; John V. Krutilla, Resources for the Future; Robert C. Otte, USDA; Kenneth W. Parker, USDA; D. I. Rasmussen, USDA; Robert F. Scott, USDI; Robert J. Smith, USDI; Harry A. Steele, USDA; V. Daniel Stiles, USDI; Albert H. Swartz, USDI; and William E. Towell, The American Forestry Association. Initial drafts of the eight major chapters were prepared as follows, after which the Committee developed the final versions through ex- tended discussion and debate: Historical Perspective-Allen Wildlife Values in a Changing World-Allen New Patterns on Land and Water-Giles, Leedy, and Pinnell Influences of Land Management on Wildlife-Hervey, Hill, and Leedy Special Problems of Waters and Watersheds-Allen and Leedy Pesticides and Wildlife-Fertig and Smith Wildlife Damage and Control-Swanson Legislation and Administration-Swanson The Committee is particularly grateful to one of its members, Dr. Durward Allen, who undertook the difficult and time-consuming task of putting the individual chapters into a final manuscript and of re- sponding to editorial suggestions on behalf of the group.

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COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURAL LAND USE AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES Sanford S. Atwood, Chairman Durward L. Allen Stanford N. Fertig William L. Giles Donald F. Hervey Ralph R. Hill Daniel L. Leedy Emmett L. Pinnell Edward H. Smith Gustav A. Swanson v''

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