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Appendix B Sources of Information The Committee used a wide variety of sources to evaluate vocational education R&D and to describe the structure and management of the R&D program. In addition to the literature review reported in Appendix A, the Committee and its staff reviewed evaluations of vocational education, visited ten state research coordinating units (RCUS), held hearings, inter- viewed USOE personnel, and conducted a mail survey and a series of telephone interviews. It should be noted that comments made by person- nel about their own organizations were verified by others outside those organizations whenever possible. Two major projects evaluating the national R&D effort were reviewed, as well as listings and descriptions of single projects reported to be suc- cessful. Examples of successful projects were cited by USOE, the South- wide Research Coordinating Council, and Committee members. Papers covering a wide range of topics were commissioned by the Committee and prepared by 15 prominent vocational educators and re- searchers. In addition, one Committee member prepared a paper on vo- cational education and women. A list of these papers is presented in Table B1. Visits to state RCUS, which are responsible for the management of the vocational education R&D effort in each state, provided another source of information for assessing R&D and describing its administration. In order to gather relatively complete data on the RCUS their functions and the impact of R&D in their states- ten states were chosen for comprehensive ll12

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Appendix B TABLE B 1 Commissioned Papers 113 Author Edwin L. Herr, Pennsylvania State University Jacob J. Kaufman, Pennsylvania State University Merle E. Strong, University of Wisconsin Title Carl J. Schaefer, Rutgers University Grant Venn, Georgia State University Mary B. Kievit, Rutgers University Roman Pucinski, Chicago, Illinois Teh-Wei Hu, Pennsylvania State Univer- sity and Ernst W. Stromsdorfer, U.S. Department of Labor Phyllis D. Hamilton, Stanford Research Institute Garry R. Bice, RCU-Knoxville, Tennessee Joseph F. Blake, Millersville State College David S. Bushnell, Human Resources Research Organization Carl E. Thoresen, Stanford University and Craig K. Ewart, Stanford University Henry M. Brickell, Policy Studies in Education Elizabeth J. Simpson, University of Wisconsin-Madison NOTE: Paper added to series by Committee member Pamela A. Roby, "Vocational Education and Women." Guidance and Counseling, Vocational Edu- cation, Research and Development Human Resource Development and Voca- tional Education The Status of Research Capability in Voca- tional Education Research and Develop- ment Helter-Skelter: Vocational Education R&D An Analysis of Vocational Education Re- search and Development Policies from Three Perspectives Vocational Education Research and Devel- opment as a Factor Influencing Teachers to Change Practices Vocational Research and Development: Key to Survival in America's Third Century An Analysis of the Impact of Applied Re- search and Demonstration Projects in Vocational Education Vocational Education Research and Devel- opment for Ethnic Minority Students An Analysis of Dissemination and Utiliza- tion of Vocational Education Research and Development Efforts Dissemination of Research and Development Products and Results in Vocational Education Policy Alternatives in the Evaluation of Vocational Education Careers, Counseling, and Control A Framework for Developing Alternative Scenarios for Vocational Education R&D Curriculum Development in Vocational- Technical Education: The Part I Program . . study. States were selected to be representative in four ways: by region, by amount of federal RCU allotment, by institutional location, and by administrative responsibility relative to Part D. RCUS in two states were visited in each of five regions: Northeast, Southeast, North Central, South Central, and West. Four states receive relatively large allotments

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114 Appendix B from the federal government; five, medium-s~zed allotments; and one, a small allotment. Two of the ten RCUS are based primarily at a university, the other eight are based in a division of the state department of educa- tion. In seven states, the RCU directors administer state Part D funds RCUS in the other three do not. The Committee also chose RCUS that had both continuity in staging and relatively high quality programs, judged on the basis of Committee and staff conversations with many RCU di- rectors and USOE personnel. In addition to the directors of the ten RCUS selected, Committee stab interviewed a few former RCU directors, those in charge of Part D administration ~nr1 rlico^~;~+;^- ^-~ -a-' RCU staff. ~,A ~- on, ano acalt1onal The Committee conducted a series of hearings in May 1975 to gather first-hand information from many people knowledgeable about voca- tional education R&D. Twenty selected organizations were invited to par- ticipate in the hearings. Two organizations one representing the chief state school officers and the other representing proprietary schools chose not to participate. Two others, representing organized student groups and vocational researchers, were unable to attend, although the researchers did send written information. In addition to the organiza- tions, a small number of individuals representing college and university leadership in vocational education were invited to participate. A total of 24 people participated: STATE LEADERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS State Advisory Council on Vocational Education John A. Beaumont, Chairman, State Advisory Council on Vocational Education (Florida) William Bruce Howell, Executive Director, State Advisory Council on Vocational Education (Florida) Council of Chief State School Officers (Chose not to participate) National Association of State Directors of Vocational Education Carl Lamar, Assistant Superintendent for Vocational Education (Kentucky) National Association of Research Coordinating Unit Directors Ronald D. McCage, R CU Director (Illinois) Carry Bice, RC U Director (Tennessee)

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Appendix B LOCAL LEADERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS National Council of Local Administrators Fred Miner, Assistant Superintendent (Lakewood Center, Washington) American Association of School Administrators Abram Friedman, Assistant Superintendent, Division of Career/Continuing Education (Los Angeles, California) I!lational Association of Large City Directors of Vocational Education B. J. Stamps, Assistant Superintendent for Career Education (Dallas, Texas) 1 ~ C National Coordinating Council for Locational Student Organizations Mildred Reel, National Advisor-Future Homemakers of America (Washington, D.C.) Proprietary Schools (Chose not to participate) COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY LEADERSHIP Junior Colleges Dwight Davis, Dean, Joliet Junior College (Illinois) Universities Keith Goldhammer, College of Education, Michigan State University Alfred H. Krebs, Acting Vice President for Academic Affairs, Virginia Polytechnic Institute OTHER American Personneland Guidance Association Edwin L. Herr, Pennsylvania State University AIM/ARM Joel E. Magisos, AIM/ARM, Center for Vocational Education, The Ohio State University Project Baseline Arthur M. Lee, Director

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116 American Vocational Education Research Association Jerome Moss, Jr., University of Minnesota American Vocational Association, Inc. Mary Ellis, Technical Education Research Center U.S. Chamber of Commerce Thomas P. Walsh, Associate Director, Education and Welfare AFL/CID John A. Sessions, Assistant Director for Education American Association of Community and Junior Colleges Sandy Drake, Director, Research & Data Gathering Department Network Council Joseph Kelly, Director, Northeast Curriculum Coordinating Center Council for Educational Development and Research, Inc. John K. Coster, Center for Occupational Education (North Carolina) ERIC Clearinghouse in Career Education David Tiedeman, Northern Illinois University Richard Erickson, Northern Illinois University Appendix B All witnesses were requested to supply the Committee with written testimony prior to the hearings. The Committee and its staff developed a set of preliminary questions to help participants organize their written comments. The questions solicited information on the management problems of vocational education R&D, issues requiring additional re- search, the role or functions of R&D, and evidence of the impact of R&D. Nearly all witnesses supplied the Committee with written responses. Another major Committee effort was a survey conducted in September 1975. Committee members identified 16 people whose research was relat- ed to vocational education and who could cite significant contributions made by vocational education R&D over the last decade: Carry R. Bice, Tennessee Research Coordinating Unit Robert S. Campbell, Center for Vocational Education, Ohio State University

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Appendix B John Coster, Center for Occupational Education, North Carolina State University Mary Ellis, President, American Vocational Association Edwin L. Herr, Pennsylvania State University Robert Hoppock, New York University Ray E. Hosford, University of California, Santa Barbara G. Brian Jones, American Institutes for Research Jacob J. Kaufman, Pennsylvania State University Mary B. Kievit, Rutgers University Edward Morrison, Ohio State University Jerome Moss, University of Minnesota Herbert Parnes, Ohio State University Merle E. Strong, University of Wisconsin Grant Venn, Georgia State University Louise Vetter, Center for Vocational Education, Ohio State University 117 A letter posing questions was mailed to these people, followed by a telephone interview conducted by the Committee's staff. The Committee informally interviewed many other people who are directly or indirectly involved in vocational education R&D . Program officers from the Office of Education were consulted frequently. The staff attended meetings of the National Network for Curriculum Coordina- tion in Vocational and Technical Education and a national meeting of the RCU directors. In addition, the Committee invited Garry Bice of the Tennessee RCU and Eugene Lehrmann, Wisconsin's Director of Voca- tional Education, to participate at some of its meetings as resource indi- viduals. Finally, the Committee conducted two small surveys of the State Advisory Councils on Vocational Education in order to determine the extent of their involvement in R&D and to describe their relationships with the state RCUS. In all, more than 50 people were interviewed and many more were contacted by mail.