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OCR for page 137
Subject Index Adams-Williamson equation, 38, 42, 52 Adiabatic gradient, 38, 39 in core, 54-56, 68 in divariant zone, 115-117 in lower mantle, 41-42 in upper mantle, 66 Argon, and potassium in earth, 24-25 ,13-phase, 35-36 Boussinesq approximation, 80, 117 Brunt-Vaisala frequency, 68 Chandler wobble, 12 Chemical convection, 67 Convection, in core, 67, 70 effect on temperature, 2~30, 122 at high Rayleigh number, 105-106, 108 in mantle, patterns of, 10~110 Core, adiabatic gradient in, 5~56 composition of, 49-52 cooling of, 97-98 equation of state of, 52-54 formation of, 19-21 heat output of, 95-100, 103, 110, 119 influence on mantle convection, 118-120 137 stability of, 68-70 temperature, 65-66 Coriolis force, 73 D '-layer, temperature in, 36~4 Delayer, temperatures in, 36-44 as a thermal boundary layer, 44 thermal conductivity of, ~ l 46 Debye temperature, 42-43, 46, 57 Distributed heat sources, effect on convection, 104-110 Rayleigh number for, 105 Efficiency, from entropy balance, 85-87 of gravitational dynamo, 95 of mantle, 10~104 of thermal dynamo, 75-83, 88 Electrical conductivity, in core, 71 Energy, to drive plates, 8-11 seismic, 7 sinks, 1-13 sources, 15-28 Entropy balance equation, in core, 83-88 in mantle, 101-104

OCR for page 137
138 Subject Index Entropy production, 83-87 and efficiency of dynamo, 85 in mantle, 101-104 Eyring's significant-structure theory, 59 Fe-FeS system, phase diagram, 61 volumetric relations in, 91-95 Fe-O system, 49-51 Fourier's law, 2 Geomagnetic field, energy in, 7(~74 generation of, 74 Geotherms, in lower mantle, 3~49 in mantle transition zones, 35-36 from nodules in kimberlites, 33-34 "oceanic", 29 "shield", 29 Gravitational dynamo, 88-99 Gravitational energy, 18 and formation of core, 1~21 and formation of inner core, 89-91 Grueneisen's ratio, 42, 44, 46, 52, 54, 55, 61 Heat conduction, entropy production by, 83~6, 101 Fourier's law of, 2 Heat of crystallization of iron, 70, 96, 98 Heat flow, from mantle, 2~28 and radioactivity of crust, 26 regional variation of, 3 at the surface, 2-3, 10~103 Heat loss from earth, 13 Heat, metamorphic, 5-7 Heat output, of core, from gravitational dynamo, 95-99 and temperature gradient in layer D", 44 46 for thermal dynamo, 87-88 Heat, volcanic, 4 Hugoniot parameters, for core, 52-53 Immiscibility, 95 in Fe-FeS system, 62 in Fe-O system, 51 Inner core. gravitational energy of, 89 temperature in, 53, 66 temperature gradient in, 74 Iron, melting point of, 56-60 Kilauea, 4 Kimberlites, nodules in, 33-34 Kinetic energy, of rotation, 11-12 Krakatoa, 5 Lherzolites, radioactivity of, 23 Lindemann's theory of melting, 56-57, 61 Lorentz force, 73-75, 79 Low-velocity zone, 31-33 Mantle, composition of, 36 convection patterns in, 104 111 influence on core convection, 12~121 phase transitions in, 35-36 radioactive content of, 23-26 radiogenic heat in, 100 temperature in, 31-49, 65 66 temperature gradient in, 31~9 Melting, in Fe-S system, 60~4 of iron, 5~60 in low-velocity zone, 32 Metamorphic heat, 5-7 Moon, acceleration of, 21 Nusselt number, in lower mantle, 47 Oceanic ridges, heat flow at, 3 rate of lava production at, 4 Ohmic dissipation, 71, 74, 75, 87, 90 Olivine-spinel transformation, 35-36 Original heat, 1, 15-18 Partial molar volume, 91-94 Perfect solution, 91, 96 Phase changes, and convection, 114-118 in upper mantle, 35-36 Plate tectonics, 8-11 Potassium, content of earth, 24

OCR for page 137
Subject Index 139 and cooling of earth, 121 in core, 24-25 "High" K-model, 121-123 "Low'' K-model, 121-123 relation to sulfur, 24 Prandtl number, 107, 108 Radiogenic heat, 23-28, 70, 104 Rayleigh number, 47 for distributed heat sources, 105 effect on convection pattern, 105-106, 111 relation to Nusselt number, 47 Reynolds magnetic number, 72 Rotation, effect on heat flux from core, 111 kinetic energy of, 11-12 Silicon, in core, 49 Strain energy, 7, 103-104 Structure, 2, 13, 123-124 Sulfur, in core, 4~52 effect on melting of iron, 60 64 in meteorites, 51 Taylor number, 111 Temperature, of accretion, 1~17 of condensation in nebula, 16 Temperature, in core, from equation of state, 52-54 at inner-core boundary, 56 66 summary, 65~6 Temperature, in crust, effect of reactions on, 6 Temperature gradient, effect on efficiency of dynamo, 83 Temperature, in mantle, from conduction equation, 29-30 at core-mantle boundary, 48 in low-velocity zone, 31-33 in lower mantle, 3~49 in mantle transition zones, 35-36 from nodules in kimberlites, 33-34 summary, 6`L66 Thermal conductivity, in layer D", 45-47 Thorium, heat generation, 25 in mantle, 24 Tidal friction, 21-23 Transition zones in mantle, 35, 36 Uplift of mountains, 8 Uranium, heat generation by, 25 in mantle, 23, 100 Viscous dissipation, in mantle, 101-102 Volcanic heat, 4 Volumetric relations in Fe-FeS system, 91-95 Von Zeipel instability, 112-114 Yellowstone, 4