agricultural or urbanized lands, and this in turn is linked to increases in another cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon. The latter genus had been present sporadically; in August 1988, it accounted for about 80% of the lake's phytoplankton volume (Edmondson 1997).


Visible changes in urban lakes have a proven ability to alter public perception of water quality, to underlie health issues (swimmer's itch and typhoid in severe situations), and to be expensive to remedy. In the Lake Washington case, scientific understanding focused on medical issues and water chemistry played the major role in a publicly funded restoration project that had uncertain, although surely positive, biodiversity consequences. Public and scientific appreciation of regional ecological linkages has generated concern about watershed use, land-use practices, (including clear-cutting and increasing urbanization), and subsurface hydrology. Stakeholders and users include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the forest industry, commercial and recreational fishes, a wide range of water-sports enthusiasts, and float plane operators. Lakeside property owners enjoy special benefits and pay higher taxes. Management decisions involving primarily state agencies and a regional metropolitan council appear committed to maintenance of "system" quality above some threshold. Biodiversity issues play a minor role in this multiuser lake governance, but regular monitoring of lake chemistry and biology, concern about the ecological consequences of species introductions, and maintenance of water quality probably ensure that this large urban lake will retain most of its original biota in the presence of intense and varied human use.

Analytic Deliberation Processes: A Useful Tool

Analytic deliberation is a class of discursive processes for dealing with conflicts that draws on the best features of both analysis and deliberation. These processes incorporate input from traditional public participation, from normal political processes, and from science in several ways. It also relies on sound analysis grounded in the best available science. It is a structured process tailored to match local circumstance and to fit the needs of managers to make decisions. Analytic deliberation processes are based on continuity and repetition involving a stable group of participants who are committed to the success of the endeavor. In a sense, this mirrors the operation of ordinary markets, in which prices are set in a continuing series of negotiations among buyers and sellers. Each market decision provides additional information for agreeing on the price in the next situation.

Analysis and deliberation are complementary processes. Sound analysis grounded in the best available science is essential for making good decisions

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