(WRI). Earlier, he was a senior associate in the Biological Resources Program at WRI and a Gilbert White Fellow with Resources for the Future, in Washington, DC. Dr. Reid earned a PhD in zoology with specialization in population and community ecology from the University of Washington in 1987. He received his BA in zoology from the University of California at Berkeley in 1978.

Mark Sagoff is senior research scholar at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy in the School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland. He is the author of The Economy of the Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1988), was named a Pew Scholar in Conservation and the Environment in 1991, and from 1994 to 1997 served as president of the International Society for Environmental Ethics. He has taught at Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Wisconsin (Madison), and Cornell University.

William D. Schulze is senior fellow in the Center for the Environment, Cornell University. His professional interests and research include environmental, public, experiential, and behavioral economics. A major research area subject of his has been the development and exploration of survey methods in contingent valuation and their application to environmental policy. Related research interests include economic decision-making, especially with respect to the provision of public goods, and the effects of risk communication and assessment on valuation of environmental goods.

Dale E. Toweill is wildlife program coordinator for the Idaho Department of Fish and Game in Boise, where he has been involved in wildlife management and land-use policy decisions over the last 15 years. He received a BS and an MS in wildlife management from Oregon State University and Texas A&M University; respectively; and a PhD featuring emphasis on microeconomics and natural-resources policy from Oregon State University. He has written books and articles on wildlife management and is interested in the allocation of public resources and public lands and the resulting economic impacts on society.

Peter M. Vitousek is Clifford Morrison Professor of Population and Resource Studies in the Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University. He received a PhD in biological sciences from Dartmouth College and taught at Indiana University and the University of North Carolina before going to Stanford. His research has focused on ecosystem structure and function and on land-water and land-atmosphere interactions as they are influenced by natural processes and human activities. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

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