Appendix F
Economic Literature Relevant to Grand Canyon Management

An inventory of economic valuation literature about which Grand Canyon managers should be aware is provided in this appendix. Only recently published papers are considered. A longer history of economic research on any particular topic can be obtained by searching online databases, such as the EconLit database (a database of all articles published in economics journals since 1969, although the very early articles do not include abstracts) provided by the American Economic Association.

The topics covered include studies specific to the Grand Canyon, studies of the Columbia and other river systems, and studies of the valuation of relevant environmental goods in other contexts (hydropower, ecosystems, national park recreation, guided rafting, recreational fishing, hiking, waterfowl hunting, biodiversity and endangered species, cultural heritage, water quality, streamflow, and geographic scope). Not all these papers have yet been retrieved and formally evaluated. In some cases, their abstracts are relied upon as a guide to their content. Also included are papers on relevant big-picture issues, including the evolving debate about nonmarket environmental valuation, methodologies for valuation, and the ethical and philosophical issues involved. An accessible overview of the principles of economic benefit-cost analysis in the context of water resources is likely provided by Griffin (1998).



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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem Appendix F Economic Literature Relevant to Grand Canyon Management An inventory of economic valuation literature about which Grand Canyon managers should be aware is provided in this appendix. Only recently published papers are considered. A longer history of economic research on any particular topic can be obtained by searching online databases, such as the EconLit database (a database of all articles published in economics journals since 1969, although the very early articles do not include abstracts) provided by the American Economic Association. The topics covered include studies specific to the Grand Canyon, studies of the Columbia and other river systems, and studies of the valuation of relevant environmental goods in other contexts (hydropower, ecosystems, national park recreation, guided rafting, recreational fishing, hiking, waterfowl hunting, biodiversity and endangered species, cultural heritage, water quality, streamflow, and geographic scope). Not all these papers have yet been retrieved and formally evaluated. In some cases, their abstracts are relied upon as a guide to their content. Also included are papers on relevant big-picture issues, including the evolving debate about nonmarket environmental valuation, methodologies for valuation, and the ethical and philosophical issues involved. An accessible overview of the principles of economic benefit-cost analysis in the context of water resources is likely provided by Griffin (1998).

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem Studies Specific to the Grand Canyon It is soon apparent in any search of the literature that very little of the economics research on environmental values published in the last few years has focussed on Grand Canyon resources directly relevant to the strategic planning process. The closest thing appears to be a study by Champ et al. (1997) which explores real and hypothetical donations scenarios in a survey used to assess the nonuser social value of a program at Grand Canyon National Park to remove compacted dirt roads on the North Rim of the Canyon. Studies of the Columbia and Other River Systems Issues of water resource management on the Columbia River system have generated a fair amount of research in environmental economics. For example, McGinnis (1995) discusses the economic conflicts between wild salmon and power generation, and a Washington State University Ph.D. dissertation by Reilly (1995) considers multiple criteria decision-making in the context of the Columbia River Basin Salmon Recovery Plan. Anderson et al. (1993) present a multidisciplinary study that focuses on the influence of climate change, but explores the effects of habitat changes on the production and economic value of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia in eastern Washington. The total economic value of a fish is the sum of its existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values, and the change in total economic value per fish associated with reducing one fish run is found to be significant. Burtraw and Frederick (1993) consider how compensation principles might be used to promote political support, in ways consistent with equity and efficiency goals, for the Idaho drawdown plan, proposed to protect and restore Snake River salmon. Notably, it does not evaluate the efficacy or cost-effectiveness of the plan. Cameron et al. (1996) provide an empirical model of recreation demand on federal reservoirs and run-of-river projects in the Columbia River basin as a function of water levels or flow rates, estimated using actual and intended participation data under real and counterfactual conditions.

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem For river systems other than the Columbia, there may be useful insights in Cordell and Bergstrom (1993), which examines the social value of recreational water uses under alternative reservoir-level-management scenarios. Alternatively, Garrod and Willis (1996) study the social value of environmental enhancement on the River Darent. Other recent research is reported in a University of Tennessee study by Murray et al. (1998), concerning the economic effects of drawdowns on the Cherokee and Douglas lakes in the southeast United States. Studies of Relevant Issues in Other Contexts Hydropower The problem of the humpback chub in the Grand Canyon may have some features in common with the management of salmon populations in the Columbia River system, although a key difference is the commercial value of the two species. Paulsen and Wernstedt (1995) describe simulation and optimization models designed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of salmon recovery measures required by the 1980 Northwest Power Planning Act. The competition between ecological viability and ''economic" uses of aquatic systems is examined by Teclaff and Teclaff (1994), which looks at the problem of ecosystems that have been and are being damaged by waterworks projects constructed for "economically" beneficial purposes. This study considers examples of damage to ecosystems in the past, what restoration techniques are currently being used, and relevant developments in domestic and international water law and policy. Ecosystems Wetlands are far from the most significant issue in the allocation of Grand Canyon water resources, but wetlands debates in other contexts have spawned a considerable amount of research concerning how to quantify the social values of a complex set of ecological functions represented by one type of water-based resource. For example, Bateman and Langford (1997) examine non-users' values for preserving the Norfolk Broads, a wetland area in the United Kingdom of recognized international

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem importance, from the threat of saline flooding. Earlier, Cooper and Loomis (1993) examined whether water deliveries to wetlands have a systematic effect on the level of waterfowl hunting benefits. Additional research on wetlands valuation is currently underway at the University of Iowa. National Park Recreational Values The fact that the Grand Canyon attracts a very significant number of recreational users means that studies of the recreational values associated with national parks, both in the United States and abroad, are also relevant. Beal (1995) describes an application of the travel cost method to assess the recreational value for both camping and day visits to Carnarvon Gorge National Park. Kosz (1996) finds that only 20 percent of the willingness to pay measured by contingent valuation is needed to make the net present value of the "best" national park policy variant in an Austrian study equal to that of the "best" hydroelectric power policy variant. Chase et al. (1998) estimate demand for ecotourism in national parks in Costa Rica. Guided Rafting Values Because white-water rafting is such a significant component of total recreational use, it is also important to follow studies that characterize demand for this type of activity in contexts other than the Grand Canyon. Travel cost methods are used by Bowker et al. (1996) to estimate the nonmarket economic "user" value of guided white-water rafting on two southern rivers. For Ontario's wilderness parks, Rollins (1997) uses contingent valuation methods to assess user benefits from wilderness canoeing, an experience that has some features in common with some of the recreational uses of the Grand Canyon. Shaw and Jakus (1996) make an important contribution to the recreational nonmarket valuation literature by explicitly considering the interaction between participant skill levels and resource attributes in the measurement of recreational values of nonmarket resources. Their application concerns technical rock-climbing, but the grading for technical

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem difficulty for this recreational use is very similar to that for white-water rafting. Recreational Fishing Again, salmon are different from humpback chub, or even from trout, but a paper by Layman et al. (1996) can provide insights on how fisheries management strategies affect a recreational fishery. In this study, travel cost methods are used to examine how fisheries management tools affect the economic value of the recreational chinook salmon fishery in the Gulkana River of Alaska. There are bag limits and similar restrictions that might apply to the management of the Grand Canyon trout fishery and its consequent value to recreational fishers. Grand Canyon management decisions also depend indirectly on how conditions in the Grand Canyon affect the value of the recreational fishery. While temperature may vastly dominate toxic contamination as a water-quality issue in the river below the Glen Canyon Dam, the way researchers have incorporated toxic contamination will be analogous to how temperature could be incorporated into a valuation model. In Montgomery and Needelman (1997), a repeated discrete choice model of fishing behavior was used to evaluate the welfare costs, to users, of toxic contamination in freshwater fish. Hiking Hiking may be a relatively smaller component of total recreational use of the Grand Canyon, but the work of Casey et al. (1995) will be relevant to the extent that hiking values figure in the social value of the Grand Canyon. The authors combine a standard travel cost survey design with a contingent valuation type question about willingness to accept compensation to forego access to a resource. Their work highlights the importance of correctly measuring the opportunity cost of time. In other work on the social value associated with hiking, the willingness to pay of Washington State residents for hiking opportunities in the Cascade Mountain Range was estimated by Englin and Shonkwiler (1995).

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem Waterfowl Hunting Waterfowl hunting can be an important source of social value for water-based environmental resources in many contexts. Gan and Luzar (1993) describe the use of conjoint analysis, a generalization of contingent valuation, to analyze waterfowl hunting in Lousiana. Biodiversity/Endangered Species Concerns about endangered species (and/or the preservation of biodiversity) are clearly one of the key issues in Grand Canyon management. Several recent empirical studies will have some bearing on how policy-makers think about inferring social values for species such as the humpback chub. The late 1990s have seen a profusion of economic studies on these two related issues, presented alphabetically by author below: In Garrod and Willis (1997), in the context of forestry, not a riverine system, the potential nonuse value of programs to enhance biodiversity is assessed. Gowdy (1997) discusses the value of biodiversity at different levels, including market value, nonmarket values to humans, and the value of biodiversity to ecosystems, emphasizing the need for hierarchical and pluralistic methodology to determine appropriate policies for the preservation of biodiversity. Hanley et al. (1995) enumerate a variety of problems that researchers can generally expect to encounter in valuing the protection of biodiversity. Jakobsson and Dragun (1996) report on a comprehensive study for Victoria, Australia, of the social values associated with conservation of endangered native flora and fauna in general (and on the preservation of Leadbeater's possum in particular). Loomis and White (1996) describe a systematic review (meta-analysis) of a variety of estimates of the economic benefits of rare and endangered species. Loomis and Ekstrand (1997) describe a contingent valuation study to estimate the economic benefits of preserving critical habitat for the Mexican Spotted Owl. Ekstrand and Loomis (1998) explore the role

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem of respondent uncertainty in the estimation of economic benefits of protecting critical habitat for nine threatened and endangered fish species living in the Colorado, Green, and Rio Grande River basins. Macmillan et al. (1996) describe the use of contingent valuation to assess willingness to pay to prevent uncertain biodiversity losses in upland areas of Scotland important for nature conservation. Metrick and Weitzman (1996) present a statistical analysis of the main determinants of government decisions about the preservation of endangered species, finding that the role of "visceral" characteristics (size, being a "higher form of life") dominate "scientific" characteristics (degree of endangerment, taxonomic uniqueness). Perrings et al. (1995) assemble ten papers that consider what is at issue in the problem of biodiversity loss, with most authors being economists. Polasky and Solow (1995) describe models they developed for the valuation of a collection of potentially beneficial species; the models acknowledge that beneficial species are not perfect substitutes and that the probability that each species is beneficial may depend on the outcome for other species. Shogren and Crocker (1995) review the challenges of valuing ecosystems and biodiversity in a volume devoted to Great Plains ecosystems. Simon and Doerksen (1995) consider the implications of differential spending on endangered species recovery and the priority ranking assigned by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to particular species. A species recovery priority rank is not related to funding decisions, although some of its components (recovery potential and conflict with development) are correlated with funding. Funding is also greater for mammals, birds, and fish. Willis et al. (1996) report upon a case study of the Pevensey Levels in the United Kingdom in evaluating the benefits and costs of a wildlife enhancement scheme. Cultural heritage; Native rights The economics literature does not generally stray into the area of cultural values of resources. However, one exception is a study by Lockwood et al. (1996), which describes the use of contingent valuation

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem methods to assess the trade-offs between use of the Australian Alps for cattle grazing or for cultural heritage conservation. More recently, Adamowicz et al. (1998) explored the advisability of aggregating across indigenous and nonindigenous values in assessing the social values of environmental goods. Lin et al. (1996) explore the welfare effects on recreational anglers of alternative salmon allocation policies to meet Native American treaty rights, using the Willamette River as an example. Water Quality Freeman (1995) reviews the empirical literature on the economic value of marine recreation fishing, beach visits, and boating. Considerable heterogeneity in effects of water quality is identified, and the links between pollution and key factors such as catch rates have not been sufficiently firmly established. Streamflow Loomis (1996) describes measurement of the economic benefits of removing dams and restoring the Elwha River, and Naeser and Smith (1995) consider the various issues involved in conflicts over in-stream flows on the Upper Arkansas River of Colorado, when environmental quality and recreational activity depend upon both the level and duration of river flows. Maintenance of in-stream flows is complicated by the nature of the water appropriations system. Harpman et al. (1993) also discuss the valuation of flow changes on a fishery. More recently, for New Mexico, Berrens et al. (1998) describe the use of survey data to demonstrate strong evidence of public support for in-stream flow protection and its associated nonmarket benefits. This paper builds on other work described in Berrens et al. (1996). Loomis (1998) uses survey methods to measure the perceived benefits of in-stream flows for recreation and endangered fish. The value of stream-flow is also considered in Loomis (1997). Further, Douglas and Taylor (1998) examine in-stream flow benefits associated with the Trinity River using both indirect market and nonmarket valuation methods. Willis and Whittlesey (1998) present an integrated economic and hydrological model

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem for measuring both the economic cost and hydrologic consequences of maintaining a minimum stream-flow level. For Puerto Rico, Gonzalez Caban and Loomis (1997) describe a study of willingness to pay for preserving in-stream flows in the Rio Mameyes and avoiding a dam on the Rio Fajardo. The authors also addressed some methodological issues in valuation in Loomis and Gonzalez Caban (1997). Geographic Scope In Pate and Loomis (1997), willingness to pay (for programs designed to reduce various environmental problems in the San Joaquin valley in California) is explicitly modeled as a function of geographic distance from the affected resources. The results have implications for underestimation of benefits if the geographic extent of the public good in question is limited to one political jurisdiction. Distributional Issues: Regional Economic Impacts Traditional regional economic impact analysis with respect to river management, which is still being conducted, remains relevant to considerations of distributional effects of management decisions. A study by Leones et al. (1997) looks at the local effects of upstream diversions on the Rio Grande and the consequences for popular white-water runs, focusing on visitation and total expenditures but ignoring nonmarket benefits. Water Allocation and Water Marketing Gaffney (1997) addresses the issue of efficient allocation of water resources among competing end uses and explains why a market for raw water is necessary, yet why existing markets work badly. Optimal water-allocation issues with an application to the Nestos River in the Balkans are considered by Giannias (1997). A case study of Colorado River water allocations is employed by Mendelsohn and Bennett (1997) in their study of global warming and its potential consequences for water allocations.

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem The Evolving Debate about Nonmarket Environmental Valuation The task of assessing credible nonmarket values for environmental goods remains controversial. A number of discussions and examples can provide a good sense of the debate and current progress towards its resolution. The debate "ramped up" dramatically as a result of the litigation surrounding the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Carson et al. (1994) describe contingent valuation as it was used in this high-profile litigation. This study, sponsored by the state of Alaska, as part of its natural resource damage assessment following the spill, was designed to elicit society's willingness to pay to prevent another such oil spill. For a contrary view, the volume by Hausman (1993) represents a compilation of research funded by Exxon in opposition to the use of contingent valuation methods in the litigation over the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In Kopp and Pease (1996), the authors, who are generally identified with plaintiffs in environmental litigation, review the debate about the use of contingent valuation methods to measure total nonmarket values of environmental goods, touching on the academic, legal, and political issues. This paper is a useful counterpoint to the opinions expressed in the edited volume by Hausman (1993). A research team that is generally perceived as favorable to defendants in natural resources damages litigation, Dunford et al. (1997), examine the economic and legal constraints that determine whose losses are included (and whose should not be included) in natural resources damage assessment. The distinction between "user" values and "nonuser" values of environmental goods is also relevant to Grand Canyon management. The Hagler Bailly (1997) study attempted to measure nonuse values, in an effort that produced estimates that were heavily criticized by some stakeholders. Cummings and Harrison (1995) provide a critical review of some of the key issues concerning nonuse values. Another useful reference for current thinking of the subject of nonmarket valuation is a monograph by Smith (1996). Methodology of Valuation The Bishop et al. (1993) studies and the Hagler Bailly nonuse value study no longer represent the state of the art in valuation of nonmarket environmental goods. There has been considerable innovation

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem in this research area over the last several years, and much more is known about how to undertake valuation studies than is reflected in these earlier projects. One of the key developments in the last few years has been a shift toward the use of "conjoint analysis" or "choice experiments" or "stated-preference" techniques. These methods generalize the earlier generation of referendum contingent valuation techniques and can readily accommodate observed choices as well as stated behavior in the same format. For example, Boxall et al. (1996) compare contingent valuation methods for nonmarket valuation with "choice experiment" value elicitation methods imported from the marketing research and transportation literatures. Although their application is to recreational moose hunting values, their work highlights the importance of substitutes in environmental valuation and draws attention to this generalization of contingent valuation methods as a more appropriate technique in some cases. Likewise, Hanley et al. (1998) report on a study of the economic value of the conservation benefits of environmentally sensitive areas in Scotland, using both contingent valuation and choice experiment methods. The theme of combining stated choices with observed choices has also strengthened in non-conjoint-analysis studies. Huang et al. (1997), for example, evaluate the strategy of identifying the social values for environmental quality improvements by combining individuals' observed choices with their claims about how they would behave in hypothetical choice situations. The objective is the development of theoretically consistent welfare measurements of use and nonuse values. A couple of recent papers address respondent information and experience as determinants of nonmarket values for environmental goods. Hutchinson et al. (1995) examine the problems of information provision and respondent knowledge, comprehension, and cognition in the use of contingent valuation methods to measure nonuse values. Cameron and Englin (1997b) illustrate the effects of acknowledging each respondent's level of experience with a nonmarket resource upon the expected value and dispersion in estimated willingness-to-pay values for an environmental good (in this case, trout fishers and the prevention of acid rain damage to high-altitude lakes in the Northeast United States). Using other data from the same survey, these authors also develop a theoretically based empirical model of user/nonuser status and the dependence of individual values on this status (Cameron and Englin, 1997a). Similar issues are addressed in Niklitschek and Leon (1996), which estimates the

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem total (use and nonuse) value of a resource under a capacity constraint, introducing information on intended use as an integral part of the contingent valuation method that is employed. The authors assert that this combined approach allows use and nonuse values to be distinguished for a sample of users and non-users. On the issue of nonuse values, there have been at least two relevant papers in the recent literature: Lazo et al. (1997) explore the issue of potential double-counting across generations as a criticism of nonuse value being included in benefits estimates, showing that the criticism is not warranted, and McConnell (1997) explores the validity of motives for existence or passive-use value, in particular, altruism. The author constructs models of three types of altruism and examines the implications when benefit—cost analysis must be conducted for a population of heterogeneous altruists. Stevens et al. (1994) assess the temporal stability of contingent valuation bids for wildlife existence (finding that these values are relatively stable) but also consider the different possible interpretations of the values that are elicited. Philosophy of Valuation Nonmarket valuation of environmental goods sometimes brings neo-classical microeconomics into direct confrontation with psychology and philosophy, and this area of research must continue to be informed by other disciplines in order for progress to be made on its fundamental issues. For example, Brown (1994) argues that the process of estimating nonuse values requires that researchers have expertise in a number of disciplines, and Nelson (1997) questions whether environmental economics is beginning to encroach on religion by contemplating existence values. In a similar vein, the concept of nonuse value from the perspective of environmental philosophy is considered by Mazzotta and Kline (1995), and Crowards (1997) explores some of the ethical and economic motivations surrounding nonuse values. As opposed to economic considerations, ethics is sometimes argued to underlie the values that survey respondents claim to hold for environmental goods. In Blamey et al. (1995), some doubt is cast upon the interpretation of contingent valuation results as characterizations of consumer preferences; instead it is argued that they reflect ethical

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem concerns and that respondents are acting as ''citizens" rather than "consumers." There has also been considerable soul-searching about the whole challenge of inferring values for environmental goods that can be compared to the costs that must be borne by society in order to preserve them. O'Neill (1997), for example, note that ethical reasoning of all types is anthropocentric and considers different types of reasoning and their implications for protection of the natural world. Booth (1994) provides a monograph that addresses the complex of values underlying the decline and preservation of old-growth forest in the Pacific Northwest, including aboriginal use and treatment and the value system brought by European settlers. O'Riordan (1997) argues that valuation is more than just static willingness to pay and asserts that valuation through economic measures can be built upon by creating trusting and legitimizing procedures of stakeholder negotiation and mediation. Recent work in Australia by Cameron (1997), applied to water quality (integrated catchment management), employs a blend of nonmarket valuation and other environmental valuation philosophies. REFERENCES Adamowicz, W., T. Beckley, D. H. MacDonald, L. Just, M. Luckert, E. Murray, and W. Phillips. 1998. In search of forest resource values of indigenous peoples: Are nonmarket valuation techniques applicable? Society and Natural Resources 11(1):51–66. Anderson, D. M., S. A. Shankle, M. J. Scott, D. A. Neitzel, and J. C. Chatters. 1993. Valuing effects of climate change and fishery enhancement on chinook salmon. Contemporary Policy Issues 11(4):82–94. Arrow, K., R. Solow, P. R. Portney, E. E. Leamer, R. Radner, and H. Schuman. 1993. Report of the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation. Federal Register 58(10):4601–4614. Bateman, I. J., and I. H. Langford. 1997. Non-users' willingness to pay for a national park: An application and critique of the contingent valuation method. Regional Studies 31(6):571–582.

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem Beal, D. J. 1995. A travel cost analysis of the value of Carnarvon Gorge National Park for recreational use. Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics 63(2):292–303. Berrens, R. P., P. Ganderton, and C. L. Silva. 1996. Valuing the protection of minimum instream flows in New Mexico. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 21(2):294–308. Berrens, R. P., A. Bohara, H. Jenkins-Smith, C. L. Silva, P. Ganderton, and D. Brookshire. 1998. A joint investigation of public support and public values: Case of instream flows in New Mexico. Ecological Economics 27(2):189–203. Bishop, R. C., K. J. Boyle, and M. P. Welsh. 1993. The role of question order and respondent experience in contingent-valuation studies. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 25(1):S80–S99. Blamey, R., M. Common, and J. Quiggin. 1995. Respondents to contingent valuation surveys: Consumers or citizens? Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics 39(3):263–288. Booth, D. E. 1994. Valuing nature: The decline and preservation of old-growth forests . London: Rowman and Littlefield. Bowker, J. M., D. B. K. English, and J. A. Donovan. 1996. Toward a value for guided rafting on southern rivers. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 28(2):423–432. Boxall, P. C., W. L. Adamowicz, J. Swait, M. Williams, and J. Louviere. 1996. A comparison of stated preference methods for environmental valuation. Ecological Economics 18(3):243–253. Brown, G. 1994. Estimating nonuse values requires interdisciplinary research. Pg. 11–26 in Economy, Environment, and Technology: A Socio-Economic Approach. Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe. Burtraw, D., and K. D. Frederick. 1993. Compensation Principles for the Idaho Drawdown Plan. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future. Cameron, J. I. 1997. Applying socioecological economics: A case study of contingent valuation and integrated catchment management. Ecological Economics 23(2):155–165. Cameron, T. A., and J. Englin. 1997a. Respondent experience and contingent valuation of environmental goods. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 33(3):296–313.

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Downstream: Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam and the Colorado River Ecosystem Cameron, T. A., and J. Englin. 1997b. Welfare effects of changes in environmental quality under individual uncertainty about use. RAND Journal of Economics 28(0):45–70. Cameron, T. A., W. D. Shaw, S. E. Ragland, J. M. Callaway, and S. Keefe. 1996. Using actual and contingent behavior data with differing levels of time aggregation to model recreation demand. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 21(1):130–149. Carson, R. T., R. C. Mitchell, W. M. Haneman, R. J. Kopp, S. Presser, and P. A. Ruud. 1994. Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damages from the Exxon Valdez. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future. Casey, J. F., T. Vukina, and L. E. Danielson. 1995. The economic value of hiking: Further considerations of opportunity cost of time in recreational demand models. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 27(2):658–668. Champ, P. A., R. C. Bishop, T. C. Brown, and D. W. McCollum. 1997. Using Donation Mechanisms to Value Nonuse Benefits from Public Goods. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 33(2):151–162. Chase, L. C., D. R. Lee, W. D. Schulze, and D. J. Anderson. 1998. Ecotourism demand and differential pricing of national park access in Costa Rica. Land Economics 74(4):466–482. Cooper, J., and J. Loomis. 1993. Testing whether waterfowl hunting benefits increase with greater water deliveries to wetlands. Environmental and Resource Economics 3(6):545–561. Cordell, H. K., and J. C. Bergstrom. 1993. Comparison of recreation use values among alternative reservoir water level management scenarios. Water Resources Research 29(2):247–258. Crowards, T. 1997. Nonuse values and the environment: Economic and ethical motivations. Environmental Values 6(2):143–167. Cummings, R. G., and G. W. Harrison. 1995. The measurement and decomposition of nonuse values: A critical review. Environmental and Resource Economics 5(3):225–247. Douglas, A. J., and J. G. Taylor. 1998. Riverine based ecotourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 5(2):136–148. Dunford, R. W., F. R. Johnson, and E. S. West. 1997. Whose losses count in natural resource damages? Contemporary Economic Policy 15(4):77–87.

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