that are hidden in these large databases. For example, microbial genomes contain potential protein targets that can be utilized to kill pathogens or that can be developed into commercially useful enzymes to produce or degrade various substances. By far the most effective method for sifting out useful proteins from these genomic databases relies on the computer-based prediction of protein function (Rastan and Beeley, 1997). However, most current methods, being mainly sequence-based, are limited by the extent of sequence similarity between sequences of unknown and known function (Pearson and Lipman, 1988; Henikoff and Henikoff, 1991; Attwood and Beck, 1994; Bairoch, Bucher et al., 1995; Altschul, Madden et al., 1997; Attwood, Beck et al., 1997). They increasingly fail as the sequence identity between two proteins crosses into and beyond the twilight zone of sequence identity, which is about 30 percent (Fetrow and Skolnick, 1998). In practice, current sequence-based software can identify the molecular or biochemical function of roughly 30 to 60 percent of all proteins in a given genome (Bult, White et al., 1996; Casari, Ouzounis et al., 1996). The full annotation of entire genomes is likely to be a major computational and experimental challenge over the next 5 to 10 years, but one which, when successfully addressed, will provide a revolution in disease diagnosis and treatment as well as in our conceptual understanding of biology. To be fully successful, this will require a multidisciplinary approach involving biology, chemistry, physics, and computer science.

Here, we describe one promising means of extending the ability to annotate the remaining orphan sequences based on the sequence-to-structure-to-function paradigm (Fetrow, Godzik et al., 1998; Fetrow and Skolnick, 1998). Logically, this process can be divided into two parts. First, one employs techniques to determine protein structure from sequence (Godzik, Skolnick et al., 1992; Ortiz, Kolinski et al., 1998 a,b,c). Secondly, one employs tools for function prediction based on the identification of active sites in the predicted or experimental structure. The ability to determine function from structure will be very important given the emerging structural genomics initiatives where the goal is to determine all possible protein folds. This reverses the more traditional approach where one first identifies the function of the protein of interest and then subsequently determines its structure.

Prediction of Protein Structure from Sequence

Currently, there exist two basic theoretical approaches for the prediction of protein structure from sequence when homology modeling (which requires significant sequence identity between the probe sequence and its template structure) (Sali and Blundell, 1993) cannot be applied: threading (Bryant and Lawrence, 1993; Miller, Jones et al., 1996), and ab initio folding (Skolnick, Kolinski et al., 1997; Ortiz, Kolinski et al., 1998 a,b,c). In threading, the idea is to match the sequence of interest to a template structure in a library of known structures (Godzik, Kolinski et al., 1993); thus, this approach is conceptually similar to standard homology modeling, except that now the goal is to match probe sequences to template structures when there is no apparent sequence relationship between the two. In ab initio folding, one attempts to fold a protein starting from a random conformation (Kolinski and Skolnick, 1996). The advantage of threading is its speed and the fact that it can be applied to large proteins. In contrast, ab initio folding is computationally more demanding and is, in practice, currently limited to proteins smaller than 100 residues (Ortiz, Kolinski et al., 1998 a,b,c). However, ab initio folding does not demand that an example of a native structure be already solved. Thus, it can be used to identify proteins having a novel native structure. Recent results indicate that for small proteins (those less than 100 residues), ab initio folding approaches can predict structures at a level of quality (4- to 6-Å coordinate root mean square deviation for the backbone atoms) comparable to that provided by threading (Ortiz, Kolinski et al., 1998a,b).



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