CHAPTER 11
Receipt of Public Assistance by Immigrant Children and Their Families: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation

Peter David Brandon

National debate over immigration policy is not new in the United States. The immigration debate in the United States dates back to the colonies, which argued over who was ultimately responsible for destitute newcomers. In recent times, though, the debate has focused mainly on immigrants' adjustment to American society and their alleged displacement of native-born workers in the job market.

With passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which greatly affects safety net provisions for immigrants, it is clear that the relationship between immigration and social policy is again a critical part of the national debate over immigration policy. The 1996 legislation reflects a public perception1 that immigrants should pay their own way and that it is wrong for immigrants to depend on welfare.2

There is evidence that immigrant households have higher rates of welfare receipt and that the rates have increased over time (Borjas and Hilton, 1996). Yet because the U.S. welfare system contains such a patchwork of programs addressing so many dif-

1  

 See Primus (1996).

2  

 Refugees are treated differently from other immigrants because of the circumstances under which they arrived in this country. In the early 1990s refugees comprised only about 10 percent of all immigrants, however.



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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance CHAPTER 11 Receipt of Public Assistance by Immigrant Children and Their Families: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation Peter David Brandon National debate over immigration policy is not new in the United States. The immigration debate in the United States dates back to the colonies, which argued over who was ultimately responsible for destitute newcomers. In recent times, though, the debate has focused mainly on immigrants' adjustment to American society and their alleged displacement of native-born workers in the job market. With passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which greatly affects safety net provisions for immigrants, it is clear that the relationship between immigration and social policy is again a critical part of the national debate over immigration policy. The 1996 legislation reflects a public perception1 that immigrants should pay their own way and that it is wrong for immigrants to depend on welfare.2 There is evidence that immigrant households have higher rates of welfare receipt and that the rates have increased over time (Borjas and Hilton, 1996). Yet because the U.S. welfare system contains such a patchwork of programs addressing so many dif- 1    See Primus (1996). 2    Refugees are treated differently from other immigrants because of the circumstances under which they arrived in this country. In the early 1990s refugees comprised only about 10 percent of all immigrants, however.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance ferent needs and populations, much more research is needed to explore immigrants' utilization of public assistance programs. And although immigrant children comprise a large part of the immigrant population as well as representing a sizable fraction of the welfare caseload, no previous analyses apart from Hofferth (this volume) and Currie (1997) have focused on needy immigrant children. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this chapter begins to fill this gap in our knowledge by providing a more complete picture of immigrant children and their families' participation in means-tested entitlement programs. In essence, the real picture differs from the one framed in the public's eye. CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND STUDIES Until the new welfare legislation became law in August 1996, legal immigrants could receive benefits from federal public assistance programs. If immigrants were needy or unemployed, they faced the same eligibility rules as citizens. Basically, administrative rules for public assistance drew no real distinctions between legal permanent residents and citizens. Even undocumented immigrants were eligible for some emergency relief, such as medical calve.3 In the context of the old welfare system, several important national-level studies compared public assistance receipt between immigrant and native groups. Blau (1984, 1986), Simon (1981), and Simon and Akbari (1996) used the 1976 Survey of Income and Education (SIE) to conclude that immigrant families received substantially less in annual transfer payments than native families. Tienda and Jensen (1986) updated Blau's 1984 analysis by using 1980 census data rather than the 1976 SIE. They demonstrated that rates of welfare use in 1979 were higher for natives than for immigrants when other factors such as age, education, and marital status were taken into account. 3    Title IV of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 changed who gets welfare and how they get it. The crucial point is that the new provisions affect legal and illegal immigrants. For more background, see U.S. House of Representatives (1996).

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Five years later Borjas and Trejo (1991) reexamined issues that Blau (1984) and Tienda and Jensen (1986) had raised about immigrant participation in the American welfare system. Using both the 1970 and 1980 censuses, their work distinguished itself from previous works by investigating intracohort changes in welfare participation over time. The important findings from their study were that among households headed by males the gap in welfare receipt between natives and immigrants grew larger over the decade, but immigrant households headed by females were converging with native households headed by females. Borjas and Hilton (1996) have suggested that studies should include all noncash benefits when attempting to understand welfare receipt by immigrants. Although these researchers found that immigrant-native differences in the receipt of cash benefits were small, those differences grew significantly after noncash benefits were included. The studies cited above have helped us understand the propensity of immigrants to participate in the U.S. welfare system. To varying degrees, each study has implied that future researchers must recognize the differences in demographic profiles among immigrant groups; some researchers may even argue that there is no typical immigrant profile for welfare utilization. In any case, these studies indicated the need for more research (1) to identify differences in welfare use among immigrants according to the ethnic group to which they belong and (2) to learn about differences in welfare use according to the degree of assimilation immigrants have undergone. As the present study shows, successive generations of immigrants have different propensities to enter the U.S. welfare system. Indeed, Kao and Tienda (1995) have suggested that as new cohorts of immigrant children assimilate they do worse in the U.S. mainstream with respect to school performance, not better. Moreover, past studies—like those cited above—have focused on welfare receipt among immigrant adults or households. Equally imperative, however, is learning about the lives and economic conditions of immigrant children. Despite large numbers of immigrant children comprising the next generation (Edmonston, 1996), only a scant amount of research documents their economic well-being, performance in school, health, and, as

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance this study highlights, their exposure to the U.S. welfare system. But as Hofferth (this volume) states, a better understanding of how well immigrant children are faring in U.S. society is vital, particularly as schools become more racially and ethnically diverse, as the number of non-English-speaking children grows, and as the costs of supporting needy minority children rise. DATA DESCRIPTION AND EMPIRICAL APPROACH This study used data from the 1986, 1987, 1988, 1990, and 1991 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The SIPP is a longitudinal survey of a random sample of the U.S. population. The five SIPP panels spanned the period from October 1985 through March 1992. Each wave of the survey was conducted every four months, so each participant was interviewed three times a year about his or her economic experiences over the past four months, including benefits received from many different means-tested entitlement programs. As the households were reinterviewed at four-month intervals for six, seven, or eight waves, depending on the particular panel, the survey provided 24, 28, or 32 consecutive months of data for each household.4 Besides providing monthly details about the use of cash and noncash transfer programs, it also collected monthly data on household composition, employment, and sources of private income.5 The SIPP was well suited to the present study because it also reports the race and ethnicity of each respondent; where each respondent was born; and, if born abroad, the year of arrival in the United States.6 With this information, persons were classified 4    Rotation group 1 of the 1986 panel was followed for only 24 months instead of 28 months. 5    The empirical approach developed in this study parallels Hofferth's (this volume) study of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban immigrants. It distinguishes itself from her study by capitalizing on the larger sample size and scope of the SIPP to study all immigrants, including immigrants from specific places such as Asia, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe. 6    The SIPP does not report if a household entered the United States with a refugee visa, but it does identify some countries that send refugees: Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungry, Poland, the former Soviet Union, and Vietnam.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance according to whether they were natives or immigrants and according to their race and ethnicity. Immigrants in the sample were those who were born abroad and who were not naturalized citizens of the United States or persons who were born abroad to citizens of the United States. Possessing year of arrival as well as having birthdates of children permitted determination of whether children came to the United States with their parents or were born after their parents arrived here. If children were born before their parents immigrated to the United States, they were classified as foreign-born children; if they were born after at least one of their parents arrived here, they were classified as native born. Children born to native-born parents were classified as native born. In one set of analyses where the focus was the impact of immigrant generation on whether a child resided in a family that received public assistance, the latter group was the comparison group. To summarize, children were classified as (1) foreign-born children, (2) native-born children with at least one foreign-born parent, and (3) native-born children with native-born parents. The SIPP collected data on all persons over age 15 in each household as well as data on all other persons, including children, who lived with or moved into any given household. A person in each household was called the "household reference person." This person is the one who either owns or rents the house. Analyses were restricted to the sample of persons who were household reference persons, who were at least 15 years old, and who reported that they were the parents (or guardians) of children under age 18.7 Once it had been established which children under the age of 18 lived in households that were and were not receiving some form of public assistance, a research file was generated in which the child became the unit of analysis while maintaining pertinent household information and data about program participation. Since the sample of children remained in the SIPP for about two 7    The SIPP does not identify children under age 15 who lived independently, although the number undercounted would probably be small and leave results unchanged.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance years on average (see Table 11A-1), this feature of the survey was exploited to create a person-year file. In other words, a file was created wherein one record represented a year for each year that a child was in the SIPP and remained under age 18. The empirical models therefore calculated the probability that a child under age 18 was in a family that received some form of public assistance in a single year. Thus, the results presented in this study were based on the child person-year as the unit of analysis.8 Key demographic information on household heads was appended to each child in the sample as well as indicators of immigrant generation, race, and ethnicity. These factors were affixed because age of household heads, citizenship, marital status, education levels, health, family size, and ages of youngest dependents were expected to influence whether children were in a family that received some sort of public assistance in a single year of childhood. Finally, to control for trends in recipiency over time, several binary variables were created, representing the year in which each child was in the survey. Table 11-1 lists the welfare programs studied and the benefits that each program provides. The programs were Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Supplemental Security Income (SSI); other welfare; Medicaid; food stamps; heating assistance; housing assistance (rent subsidies or public housing); Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); general assistance (GA); and school lunches. Table 11-2 provides definitions of the variables representing the characteristics of families, and Table 11-3 presents the incidence of types of public assistance use for the child person-year sample. Other tables contained in Appendix 11A display summary statistics of the sample (Table 11A-1) and results of regressing participation in each public assistance program on ethnicity, recency of arrival, and poverty status, controlling for the demographic variables and the year in which program participation occurred (Tables 11A-2 through 11A-5). 8    Results that are based on the child, or the child person-year, may differ from those in which the family is the unit of analysis. For instance, immigrants have larger families, making children in these families underrepresented in family-based analyses.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11-1 Description and Costs of Means-Tested Programs, 1991 Program Description Annual Costs (billions of $) Cash Programs   Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): Provides means-tested cash benefits to low-income single-parent households. 21.0 Supplemental Security Income (SSI): Provides means-tested cash benefits to needy aged, blind, and disabled persons. 18.5 General assistancea: Provides means-tested cash benefits to needy persons who do not quality for one of the federally assisted programs. 3.2 Other welfare: Unspecified in the SIPP. N.A. Noncash programs   Medicaid: Provides medical assistance to low-income persons who are aged, blind, disabled, members of families with dependent children, certain other pregnant women and children, and other qualified medically needy persons. 94.5 Food stamps: Vouchers are distributed to increase the food-purchasing power of eligible low-income households. 21.0 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): Provides food, food vouchers, and nutritional supplements to low-income pregnant and postpartum women and their infants and children up to age 5. 2.3 Low-income energy assistance: Helps low-income households meet energy-related expenses. 1.6 Housing assistance: Participating households can live in low-rent housing built by the federal government (i.e., public housing) or in private housing and receive government subsidies for their rent. 16.9 School lunch program: Distributes free or reduced-priced lunches to low-income children enrolled in school. 4.8b NOTE: N.A. = not available from sources cited. a Combined with other welfare here. b AIso includes school breakfast program. SOURCES: U.S. House of Representatives (1993) and ureau of the Census (1991, 1993). Costs of each of the programs include expenditures incurred at all levels of government (federal, state, and local). The costs of general assistance are for the 1990 fiscal year.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11-2 Definitions of Variables Variable Definition Citizen 1 if head of household is native-born or naturalized citizen; 0 otherwise. Gen1 1 if child is foreign born with foreign-born parents; 0 otherwise. Gen2 1 if child is native born with foreign-born parents; 0 otherwise. Mexican 1 if from Mexico; 0 otherwise. Puerto Rican 1 if from Puerto Rico; 0 otherwise. Cuban 1 if from Cuba; 0 otherwise. Other Latino 1 if from other Latino origin; 0 otherwise. Black 1 if black; 0 otherwise. Asian 1 if from Asian countrya; 0 otherwise. Eastern European 1 if from Eastern European countryb; 0 otherwise. Western European 1 if from Western European countryc; 0 otherwise. Other 1 if from other country; 0 otherwise. Year1 1 if first year of panel; 0 otherwise. Year2 1 if second year of panel; 0 otherwise. Year3 1 if third year of panel; 0 otherwise. Year4 1 if fourth year of panel; 0 otherwise. Agehd Age of household head. Health 1 if head of household is unable to work due to health problems; 0 otherwise. Married 1 if head of household is married; 0 otherwise. Lths 1 if head of household has less than high school education; 0 otherwise. Smec 1 if head of household has some college education; 0 otherwise. Colp 1 if head of household has beyond college education; 0 otherwise. Yngage Age of youngest child in household. Nkids Number of children in household. South 1 if living in the South; 0 otherwise. Western 1 if living in the West; 0 otherwise. North 1 if living in the Northeast; 0 otherwise. Belowpov 1 if annual family income is below the poverty line; 0 otherwise. Cash If ever received either AFDC, GA, SSI, or other welfare; 0 otherwise. Noncash If ever received either Medicaid, food stamps, WIC, heating or housing assistance; 0 otherwise. Total If ever received any form of cash or noncash assistance; 0 otherwise. a Included but not exclusive of China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, and Vietnam. b Included but not exclusive of the former Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. c Included but not exclusive of the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, Germany, and Austria.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11-3 Annual Probability of Children Receiving Public Assistance in Children's Years in the Survey of Income and Program Participation Generation Within Ethnicity AFDC SSI Other Welfare Food Stamps Medicaid Mexican1 0.17 0.04 0.02 0.36 0.24 Mexican2 0.12 0.08 0.01 0.36 0.22 Mexican3 0.24 0.06 0.02 0.40 0.29 Puerto Rican 0.42 0.12 0.02 0.52 0.52 Cuban 0.03 0.08 0.00 0.22 0.13 Asian1 0.27 0.20 0.0 0.31 0.31 Asian2 0.14 0.10 0.0 0.17 0.14 Asian3 0.18 0.06 0.03 0.23 0.07 WestEuro1 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.10 WestEuro2 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.13 0.10 WestEuro3 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.13 0.09 EastEuro1 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.05 EastEuro2 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.14 EastEuro3 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.09 0.07 Other Latino 0.26 0.09 0.01 0.38 0.32 White 0.07 0.04 0.01 0.14 0.09 Black 0.35 0.14 0.02 0.51 0.40 Other 0.22 0.07 0.04 0.45 0.37 Total 0.13 0.06 0.01 0.21 0.15 NOTE: 1 = Foreign-born children with foreign-born parents; 2 = Native-born children with at least one foreign-born parent; 3 = Native-born children with native-born parent; Missing = missing data. SOURCE: SIPP (1986-1991 panels). Similar to Hofferth's (this volume) methodology, AFDC, SSI, GA, and other welfare were combined to produce an indicator of cash assistance, and Medicaid, food stamps, heating assistance, housing assistance, and WIC were combined to produce an indicator of noncash assistance. Then a final indicator for receipt of any assistance, cash or noncash, was created. FINDINGS The data contain observations on 1,372 foreign-born children with foreign-born parents; 4,910 native-born children with at least one foreign-born parent; and 36,643 native-born children with native-born parents. There are 3,292 children of Mexican origin;

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Generation Within Ethnicity Housing Heat WIC Unemployment General Assistance School Lunches Mexican1 0.10 0.09 0.04 0.21 0.05 0.77 Mexican2 0.10 0.13 0.10 0.17 0.05 0.70 Mexican3 0.11 0.19 0.05 0.09 0.02 0.56 Puerto Rican 0.23 0.34 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.62 Cuban 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.48 Asian1 0.16 0.07 0.07 0.17 0.00 0.91 Asian2 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.17 0.02 0.72 Asian3 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.15 0.04 0.82 WestEuro1 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.29 WestEuro2 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.01 0.35 WestEuro3 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.02 0.38 EastEuro1 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.18 0.42 EastEuro2 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.12 0.07 0.33 EastEuro3 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.00 0.30 Other Latino 0.18 0.12 0.07 0.11 0.08 0.77 White 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.09 0.02 0.39 Black 0.23 0.22 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.64 Other 0.12 0.05 0.20 0.29 0.08 0.77 Total 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.51 579 of Puerto Rican background; 85 of Cuban background; 1 of other Hispanic background; 835 children of Asian background; and 475 of Eastern and 6,791 of Western European backgrounds. There are 24,279 white children and 5,219 black children. When ethnicity and generation were combined, the following numbers of foreign-born children with foreign-born parents were obtained: 399 Mexican children, 68 Puerto Rican children, 7 Cuban children,9 193 children of other Latino background, 64 Western European children, 26 Eastern European children, and 221 9    Because sample sizes for foreign-born Cuban children and native-born Cuban children with foreign-born parents were too small, these groups were recombined in the regression models.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Asian children. Similarly, by combining ethnicity and generation, the following numbers of native-born children with at least one foreign-born parent were obtained: 1,509 Mexican children; 39 Puerto Rican children; 75 Cuban children; 402 children of other Latino background; 428 Western European children; 73 Eastern European children; and 431 Asian children. The numbers of native-born children with native-born parents were 1,384 Mexican children; 472 Puerto Rican children; 3 Cuban children; 589 children of other Latino background; 6,299 Western European children; 376 Eastern European children; and 183 Asian children. Once separate person-year records were created and years in which each child was 18 or older were deleted, 125,822 person-years were observed)10 Breaking down the sample by ethnicity and generation in child person-years yielded 1,145 foreign-born Mexican children and 4,455 native-born Mexican children with at least one parent born in Mexico; 200 foreign-born Puerto Rican children and 116 native-born Puerto Rican children with at least one foreign-born parent; and 1,388 native-born Puerto Rican children with native-born Puerto Rican parents. For Cuban children there were 213 native-born children with at least one parent born in Cuba (see note 9). Asian children in person-years included 595 who were foreign born; 1,261 who were native born with at least one parent born in an Asian country; and 533 native-born children. For Eastern and Western European children combined, there were 265 foreign born; 1,472 native born with a least one parent foreign born; and 19,557 native born. Finally, there were 539 other Latino children person-years; 71,284 white person-years; and 15,255 black person-years. The sample distributions on child and family characteristics for individual child-years by ethnicity and generation are shown in Table 11A-1. On average, children in the sample were about 9 years old, and the head of the family was age 36, married, working, at least a high school graduate, and caring for 2.4 children, with the youngest about age 6.5. 10   Owing to initial data construction of the 1986, 1987, and 1988 SIPP panels, data for SSI and GA were unavailable. Other SIPP panels still possessed large samples, however, numbering 66,465 child person-years. Models were estimated for these programs.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Puerto Rican children and other Latino children were more likely than white children to receive all forms of public assistance. This conclusion was not reached for Cuban children, however. Use of public assistance among Cuban children was essentially program specific. Thus, an accurate portrayal of program use according to these data is that most minority children who are beneficiaries of the U.S. welfare system live in families that are native born and therefore eligible for public assistance. Recency of arrival in the United States is not the engine driving high receipt of public assistance among ethnic and racial minorities. Rather, poverty, truncated educational opportunities, meager job opportunities, and assimilation difficulties are the problems that need to be confronted and remedied. REFERENCES Blau, F. 1984 The use of transfer payments by immigrants. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37(2):222-239. 1986 Immigration and the U.S. taxpayer. Pp. 89-110 in Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration, S. Pozo, ed. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Borjas, G.J., and L. Hilton 1996 Immigration and the welfare state: Immigrant participation and meanstested entitlement programs. Quarterly Journal of Economics CVXI: 575-604. Borjas, G.J., and S.J. Trejo 1991 Immigrant participation in the welfare system. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 44(2):195-211. Bureau of the Census 1991 SIPP Users Guide. Various issues. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1993 Statistical Abstracts of the United States. Various issues. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Currie, J. 1997 Medicaid use by children of immigrants. Focus 18(2):54-57. Edmonston, B. (ed.) 1996 Statistics on U.S. Immigration: An Assessment of Data Needs for Future Research . Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Kao, G., and M. Tienda 1995 Optimism and achievement: The educational performance of immigrant youth. Social Science Quarterly 76(1):1-19. Primus, W. 1996 Immigration provisions in the new welfare law. Focus 18(2). Simon, J. 1981 What immigrants take from and give to the public coffers. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest: Appendix D to Staff Report of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Simon, J., and A. Akbari 1996 Determinants of welfare payment use by immigrants and natives in the United States and Canada. In Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Individual Skills, Family Ties, and Group Identities, H. Duleep and P. Wunnava, eds. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press. Tienda, M., and L. Jensen 1986 Immigration and public assistance participation: Dispelling the myth of dependency. Social Science Research 15(4):372-400. U.S. House of Representatives 1993 Background Material and Data on Programs Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (Green Book). Various issues. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. House of Representatives, Ways and Means Committee 1996 Overview of the Entitlement Programs: 1996 Green Book. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Table 11A-1 Follows On Next Page.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11A-1 Characteristics of Children's Years in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1986-1992 Generation Within Ethnicity Age Year Age of Household Head Citizen Health Married Mexican1 11 1.98 36.55 0.40 0.09 0.80 Mexican2 8 1.99 35.00 0.47 0.06 0.90 Mexican3 9 1.99 35.18 1.00 0.08 0.75 Puerto Rican 10 1.99 36.94 1.00 0.12 0.56 Cuban 9 1.97 38.00 0.55 0.03 0.91 Asian1 12 1.93 42.39 0.78 0.05 0.84 Asian2 7 1.98 38.99 1.00 0.03 0.90 Asian3 8 1.98 40.56 1.00 0.08 0.79 WestEuro1 11 1.98 38.28 0.32 0.02 0.90 WestEuro2 10 1.99 37.87 0.41 0.06 0.92 WestEuro3 9 1.99 36.86 1.00 0.06 0.87 EastEuro1 11 2.00 36.34 0.44 0.00 1.00 EastEuro2 8 1.99 35.74 0.42 0.02 0.96 EastEuro3 10 1.99 37.37 1.00 0.03 0.92 Other Latino 9 1.96 39.03 0.51 0.09 0.65 White 9 1.99 36.53 1.00 0.08 0.90 Black 9 1.99 35.65 1.00 0.07 0.53 Other 8 1.99 35.29 0.96 0.09 0.77 Total 8.8 1.99 36.60 0.89 0.06 0.82 NOTE: 1 = Foreign-born children with foreign-born parents; 2 = native-born children with at least one foreign-born parent; 3 = native-born children with native-born parent. SOURCE: SIPP (1986-1991 panels).

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Generation Within Ethnicity Age of Youngest Child Number of Children Completed Less than High School High School Graduate Some College College Degree or Higher Mexican1 5.75 3.55 0.76 0.15 0.05 0.04 Mexican2 4.55 3.13 0.70 0.18 0.09 0.03 Mexican3 5.89 2.95 0.49 0.31 0.14 0.06 Puerto Rican 7.45 2.56 0.50 0.29 0.13 0.07 Cuban 6.74 2.02 0.10 0.29 0.33 0.28 Asian1 8.15 2.82 0.31 0.16 0.12 0.42 Asian2 4.82 2.64 0.12 0.22 0.23 0.43 Asian3 5.55 3.05 0.19 0.27 0.21 0.32 WestEuro1 7.73 2.61 0.27 0.36 0.16 0.21 WestEuro2 6.26 2.44 0.17 0.30 0.25 0.28 WestEuro3 7.19 2.38 0.12 0.40 0.27 0.22 EastEuro1 8.75 2.10 0.31 0.13 0.19 0.37 EastEuro2 5.68 2.41 0.27 0.19 0.32 0.22 EastEuro3 7.62 2.33 0.08 0.35 0.25 0.33 Other Latino 6.43 2.59 0.35 0.36 0.19 0.10 White 6.75 2.37 0.13 0.39 0.26 0.22 Black 6.54 2.79 0.31 0.37 0.23 0.09 Other 5.43 2.68 0.27 0.45 0.13 0.15 Total 6.56 2.46 0.20 0.36 0.24 0.19

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11A-2 Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Program Participation on Generation Program AFDC SSIa Other Welfarea Food Stamps Gen1 0.83*** 1.54*** 0.69** 0.73*** Gen2 0.60*** 1.27*** 0.85* 0.69*** Mexican 1.02 0.77*** 0.80** 1.31*** Puerto Rican 3.16*** 1.58*** 0.47*** 2.25*** Cuban 0.65 1.33 Missing 3.84*** Other Latino 1.89*** 1.30** 0.71** 1.69*** Black 2.15*** 2.11*** 1.19** 2.41*** Other 1.14 1.27 2.04*** 3.00*** West Europ 0.98 0.81*** 0.86* 0.88*** East Europ 0.77* 0.24*** 1.21 0.74*** Asian 2.90*** 2.59*** 0.39*** 1.68*** Year1 0.72*** Missing Missing 0.82*** Year2 0.85*** Missing Missing 0.98 Year3 0.84*** Missing Missing 0.85*** Year4 1.00 0.83*** 1.26*** 0.92** Agehd 0.97*** 1.02*** 0.99*** 0.96*** Health 2.55*** 4.07*** 2.02*** 2.69*** Married 0.16*** 0.48*** 0.61*** 0.21*** Lths 2.26*** 1.98*** 1.22*** 2.66*** Smec 0.82*** 0.71*** 0.76*** 0.73*** Colp 0.21*** 0.37*** 0.39*** 0.20*** Yngage 0.97*** 1.01* 0.97*** 0.98*** Nkids 1.09*** 1.07*** 1.01 1.26*** South 1.13*** 1.35*** 2.06*** 1.71*** West 2.15*** 1.21*** 5.17*** 1.48*** North 1.06 1.03 7.94*** 1.09** Belowpov 5.69*** 1.35*** 3.34*** 6.76*** NOTES: Native-born children with native-born parents and whites omitted categories in models; N.A. = not applicable; Missing = variable dropped due to insufficient data. SOURCE: SIPP (1986-1991 panels) except wherea.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Program Medicaid Housing Assistance Heating Assistance WIC School Lunch Gen1 0.80*** 0.81*** 0.61*** 0.62*** 1.06*** Gen2 0.74*** 0.77*** 0.74*** 1.02 0.76*** Mexican 1.21*** 1.46*** 1.21*** 1.04 1.90*** Puerto Rican 4.41*** 2.39*** 2.73*** 0.79* 1.86*** Cuban 3.07*** 0.52 1.13 Missing 0.98 Other Latino 1.95*** 2.49*** 0.75*** 1.24** 1.92*** Black 2.10*** 2.52*** 1.15*** 1.39*** 1.80*** Other 2.57*** 1.28 0.60** 4.90*** 1.26 West Europ 0.90*** 1.17*** 0.81*** 0.93 1.11*** East Europ 1.39*** 1.27* 1.37** 0.56*** 0.84** Asian 2.19*** 2.34*** 0.62*** 0.91 1.60*** Year1 0.80*** 0.93* 1.42*** 0.85*** 0.31*** Year2 0.96 0.64*** 1.32*** 0.81** 0.34*** Year3 0.91* 1.05 1.20*** 0.78*** 0.40*** Year4 0.90** 1.12*** 0.58*** 0.96 2.60*** Agehd 0.96*** 0.95*** 0.98*** 0.94*** 1.03*** Health 3.22*** 1.49*** 1.62*** 1.82*** 1.41*** Married 0.17*** 0.31*** 0.26*** 0.82*** 0.43*** Lths 2.19*** 1.41*** 1.74*** 1.54*** 1.82*** Smec 0.72*** 0.88*** 0.85*** 0.73*** 0.91*** Colp 0.23*** 0.47*** 0.31*** 0.22*** 0.73*** Yngage 0.95*** 1.01** 1.00 0.71*** 1.02*** Nkids 1.09*** 1.04*** 1.24*** 0.84*** 1.59*** South 1.06 1.13*** 0.52*** 1.59*** 14.20*** West 1.85*** 1.31*** 0.31*** 0.95 7.79*** North 1.52*** 1.86*** 0.37*** 1.26*** 7.97*** Belowpov 5.58*** 2.17*** 3.95*** 2.21*** 2.00*** a Only 1990 and 1991 panels of SIPP ***p< 0.01;**p< 0.05;*p< 0.10.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11A-3 Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Program Participation on Ethnic Groups within Generation Program AFDC SSIa Other Welfarea Food Stamps Mex1 0.76*** 0.44*** 1.08 0.78** Mex2 0.50*** 1.18 0.84 0.96 Mex3 1.28*** 0.72*** 0.51*** 1.37*** Ric1 5.79*** 4.80*** 0.41** 2.24*** Ric2 1.46 Missing Missing 0.97 Ric3 3.08*** 1.19 0.50*** 2.36*** Cuban 0.40*** 1.66 Missing 2.72*** Other Latino 1.62*** 1.44*** 0.64*** 1.45*** Black 2.15*** 2.11*** 1.18** 2.39*** Other 1.15 1.24 2.10*** 3.03*** West Eur1 0.31*** Missing Missing 1.61 West Eur2 0.85 1.10 0.17*** 0.78** West Eur3 1.00 0.81*** 0.92 0.88*** East Eur1 0.77 Missing 10.46*** 1.91 East Eur2 0.23*** Missing 1.81 0.14*** East Eur3 0.89 0.36*** Missing 0.85 Asian1 4.09*** 5.41*** 0.13*** 2.64*** Asian2 1.68*** 3.22*** 0.24*** 0.92 Asian3 1.64** 1.16 0.87 1.12 Year1 0.72*** N.A. N.A. 0.82*** Year2 0.84*** N.A. N.A. 0.98 Year3 0.84*** N.A. N.A. 0.85*** Year4 1.00 0.83*** 1.26*** 0.93** Agehd 0.97*** 1.02*** 0.99*** 0.96*** Health 2.53*** 4.05*** 2.07*** 2.70*** Married 0.16*** 0.48*** 0.59*** 0.21*** Lths 2.26*** 1.96*** 1.19*** 2.64*** Smec 0.81*** 0.71*** 0.77*** 0.73*** Colp 0.20*** 0.36*** 0.39*** 0.20*** Yngage 0.97*** 1.01 0.97*** 0.98*** Nkids 1.10*** 1.08*** 1.00 1.27*** South 1.14*** 1.36*** 2.06*** 1.73*** West 2.21*** 1.25*** 4.95*** 1.49*** North 1.01 1.07 7.74*** 1.06 Belowpov 5.68*** 1.34*** 3.36*** 6.74*** NOTES: Whites omitted category in models; N.A. = not applicable; Missing = variable dropped due to insufficient data. a Only 1990 and 1991 panels of SIPP.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Program Medicaid Housing Assistance Heating Assistance WIC School Lunch Mex1 0.87 1.29** 0.48*** 0.68* 2.67*** Mex2 0.86** 1.38*** 0.95 1.42*** 2.22*** Mex3 1.34*** 1.23*** 1.27*** 0.66*** 1.21*** Ric1 3.75*** 1.73** 4.67*** 0.30** 4.09*** Ric2 2.12** 2.47*** 0.63 0.25*** 2.72*** Ric3 4.69*** 2.39*** 2.78*** 0.90 1.71*** Cuban 2.32*** 0.41 0.85 Missing 0.75* Other Latino 1.74*** 2.28*** 0.66*** 1.19*** 1.78*** Black 2.10*** 2.50*** 1.15*** 1.37*** 1.79*** Other 2.59*** 1.30 0.60** 4.96*** 1.28 West Eur1 0.34*** Missing 0.38*** Missing 0.41*** West Eur2 0.88 0.55*** 0.50*** 0.22*** 0.71*** West Eur3 0.91*** 1.22*** 0.84*** 0.99 1.16*** East Eur1 3.52*** 4.61*** 2.68** Missing 0.91 East Eur2 1.51** 0.27*** 0.51 0.52 0.68*** East Eur3 1.17 1.30 1.43*** 0.59** 0.85** Asian1 4.31*** 3.70*** 1.02 0.56* 3.03*** Asian2 1.23* 1.44*** 0.32*** 1.16 0.97 Asian3 1.22 1.59*** 0.22*** 0.31*** 2.35*** Year1 0.80*** 0.93 1.43*** 0.85*** 0.31*** Year2 0.95 0.64*** 1.31*** 0.82** 0.34*** Year3 0.91** 1.04 1.20*** 0.77*** 0.40*** Year4 0.90** 1.12*** 0.58*** 0.95 2.61*** Agehd 0.96*** 0.95*** 0.98*** 0.94*** 1.03*** Health 3.23*** 1.49*** 1.61*** 1.82*** 1.42*** Married 0.16*** 0.30*** 0.26*** 0.79*** 0.42*** Lths 2.18*** 1.39*** 1.73*** 1.51*** 1.78*** Smec 0.71*** 0.88*** 0.85*** 0.73*** 0.90*** Colp 0.23*** 0.47*** 0.31*** 0.22*** 0.73*** Yngage 0.95*** 1.01*** 1.00 0.71*** 1.02*** Nkids 1.10*** 1.04*** 1.24*** 0.84*** 1.59*** South 1.07* 1.14*** 0.53*** 1.60*** 14.31*** West 1.86*** 1.29*** 0.32*** 0.92 7.67*** North 1.49*** 1.83*** 0.35*** 1.25*** 7.91*** Belowpov 5.57*** 2.17*** 3.96*** 2.23*** 2.01*** ***p< 0.01; **p< 0.05; *p< 0.10. SOURCE: SIPP (1986-1991 panels) except fora.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11A-4 Odds Ratios from Regression of Public Assistance on Ethnicity and Generation   Cash Noncash Total Gen1 0.87** 0.77*** 0.74*** Gen2 0.68*** 0.75*** 0.76*** Mexican 0.99 1.40*** 1.43*** Puerto Rican 2.98*** 3.31*** 3.31*** Cuban 0.82 3.99*** 3.58*** Latino 1.82*** 2.12*** 2.18*** Black 2.16*** 2.49*** 2.56*** Other 1.33* 2.95*** 3.20*** West Eur 1.00 0.94*** 0.96* East Eur 0.70*** 1.16* 1.13 Asian 3.35*** 1.45*** 1.71*** Year1 0.67*** 1.02 1.00 Year2 0.78*** 0.95 0.92** Year3 0.77*** 0.88*** 0.85*** Year4 1.04 0.89*** 0.90*** Agehd 0.98*** 0.96*** 0.97*** Health 2.63*** 2.59*** 2.59*** Married 0.18*** 0.22*** 0.22*** Lths 2.30*** 2.23*** 2.24*** Smec 0.84*** 0.70*** 0.70*** Colp 0 29*** 0.29*** 0.29*** Yngage 0.97*** 0.98*** 0.99*** Nkids 1.08*** 1.19*** 1.17*** South 1.61*** 1.49*** 1.63*** West 2.67*** 1.43*** 1.63*** North 1.42*** 1.23*** 1.26*** Belowpov 4.93*** 5.02*** 4.84*** NOTES: Omitted categories include whites and native-born children with native-born parents. Scenario one: ''Cash" is participation in either AFDC, SSI, or other welfare; "Noncash" is participation in either food stamps, Medicaid, or housing or energy assistance; "Total" is participation in any of these programs. Scenario two: "Cash" is participation in either AFDC, SSI, other welfare, unemployment assistance, or general assistance; "Noncash" is participation in either food stamps, Medicaid, housing or energy assistance, or WIC; "Total" is participation in any of these programs. *** p<.01; **p <.05; * p <. 10. SOURCE: SIPP (1986-1991 panels).

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 11A-5 Odds Ratios from Regression of Public Assistance on Ethnicity and Generational Groups   Cash Noncash Total Mex1 0.75*** 1.03 1.01 Mex2 0.57*** 1.09* 1.12** Mex3 1.22*** 1.42*** 1.45*** Ric1 5.94*** 2.11*** 2.39*** Ric2 1.38 2.96*** 2.90*** Ric3 2.90*** 3.42*** 3.36*** Cuban 0.57* 3.06*** 2.79*** Other Latino 1.62*** 1.87*** 1.92*** Black 2.16*** 2.48*** 2.55*** Other 1.33* 2.98*** 3.22*** West Eur1 0.26*** 1.15 1.16 West Eur2 0.90 0.81** 0.81** West Eur3 1.02 0.94** 0.97 East Eur1 0.60 2.89*** 2.65*** East Eur2 0.19*** 0.76 0.72* East Eur3 0.84 1.11 1.09 Asian1 4.57*** 2.32*** 2.32*** Asian2 2.19*** 0.88 1.18 Asian3 2.13*** 0.96 1.07 Year1 0.67*** 1.02 1.00 Year2 0.78*** 0.95 0.92** Year3 0.77*** 0.87*** 0.85*** Year4 1.04 0.89*** 0.90*** Agehd 0.98*** 0.96*** 0.97*** Health 2.61*** 2.60*** 2.60*** Married 0.18*** 0.22*** 0.22*** Lths 2.31*** 2.21*** 2.23*** Smec 0.83*** 0.70*** 0.70*** Colp 0.28*** 0.28*** 0.29*** Yngage 0.97*** 0.98*** 0.99*** Nkids 1.08*** 1.19*** 1.17*** South 1.63*** 1.50*** 1.64*** West 2.74*** 1.43*** 1.63*** North 1.37*** 1.20*** 1.23*** Belowpov 4.93*** 5.00*** 4.81*** NOTE: 1 = Foreign-born children with foreign-born parents; 2 = Native-born children with at least one foreign-born parent; 3 = Native-born children with native-born parents. Scenario one: "Cash" is participation in either AFDC, SSI, or other welfare; "Noncash" is participation in either food stamps, Medicaid, housing or energy assistance; ''Total" is participation in any of these programs. Scenario two: "Cash" is participation in either AFDC, SSI, other welfare, unemployment assistance, or general assistance; "Noncash" is participation in either food stamps, Medicaid, housing' or energy assistance, or WIC; "Total" is participation in any of these programs. Omitted category is white. ***p < .01; **p < .05;*p < .10. SOURCE: SIPP (1986-1991 panels).